TreatiseTreatise

Essential Trial Evidence: Brought to Life by Famous Trials, Films, and Fiction (2nd Edition)

 by Martin A Schwartz
 
 Copyright: 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402428463
  • Page Count: 1167
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

Essential Trial Evidence: Brought to Life by Famous Trials, Films, and Fiction (2nd Edition) is a unique and insightful guide to the law of evidence. Author Martin A. Schwartz enlivens an intricate, technical subject by using engaging, evidentiary examples from popular culture to provide a strong understanding of the Federal Rules of Evidence and its interpretive case law, which represents the prevailing evidence law in the United States.

This unique instructive approach also provides an understanding of how popular culture sources inform jurors’ preconceptions about the trial process. Illustrations from famous cases, movies, novels, cartoons, and other media highlight the presumptions jurors bring to the courtroom. 

Essential Trial Evidence: Brought to Life by Famous Trials, Films, and Fiction (2nd Edition) covers a wide range of issues, including relevance and unfair prejudice, the rule against hearsay and its numerous exceptions, recent developments in expert testimony, and the various impeachment methods.

You’ll receive clear guidance on the following: 

  • Differences between expert witness and lay witness testimony, including how courts handle the dual fact-expert witness
  • Procedures for juror questioning of witnesses
  • Admissibility of videotape evidence
  • Recent developments under the Confrontation Clause
  • Requirements for introducing electronic evidence,
  • And more!
  Table of Contents
  Preface to the Second Edition
Chapter 1: Evaluating Admissibility of Evidence—Fundamental Concepts and Perspectives
  • § 1:1 : Introduction2
  • § 1:2 : Evidence Must Navigate a Journey from Proponent to Trier of Fact2
    • § 1:2.1 : Overview2
    • § 1:2.2 : Relevance, Fed. R. Evid. 403, and Exclusionary Rules Hoops3
  • § 1:3 : Importance of Limited Admissibility5
    • § 1:3.1 : Overview5
    • § 1:3.2 : Limiting Instructions5
  • § 1:4 : Do Not Fall into the “Does Not Necessarily Prove” Trap5
    • § 1:4.1 : Overview5
    • § 1:4.2 : Direct and Circumstantial Evidence6
    • § 1:4.3 : Admissibility Versus Weight7
  • § 1:5 : Critical Factor: Purpose for Introducing Evidence7
    • § 1:5.1 : Overview7
    • § 1:5.2 : Under the Evidence Rules8
    • § 1:5.3 : Evidentiary Advocacy8
  • § 1:6 : Rationales Behind the Evidence Rule: Evidence Law Is “Behaviorial” and “Psychological”9
    • § 1:6.1 : Overview9
    • § 1:6.2 : Rationales Behind Exclusionary Rules10
  • § 1:7 : High Percentage of Evidentiary Disputes Finally Resolved in Trial Court11
    • § 1:7.1 : Overview11
    • § 1:7.2 : Appellate Deference to Trial Court Decisions12
  • § 1:8 : Importance of Making Proper Evidentiary Objections at Trial13
  • § 1:9 : Evidence Rules That Facilitate Proof of Facts14
    • § 1:9.1 : Overview14
    • § 1:9.2 : Rules That Facilitate the Admissibility of Evidence15
      • [A] : Judicial Notice15
      • [B] : Witnesses Having Difficulty Remembering15
      • [C] : Proving the Non-Existence of a Fact16
      • [D] : Business Records16
      • [E] : Authentication and Identification: Self-Authenticating Documents17
      • [F] : “Best Evidence Rule”17
      • [G] : Summaries19
  • § 1:10 : Nature of Evidence Law; Focus on Federal Rules of Evidence20
    • § 1:10.1 : Overview20
    • § 1:10.2 : Constitutional Concerns20
    • § 1:10.3 : Focus on Federal Rules of Evidence26
Chapter 2: Objections, Rulings, Appellate Review (and Other Procedural Issues)
  • § 2:1 : Introduction29
  • § 2:2 : Overview: Broad Application of Federal Rules of Evidence in Federal Court Civil and Criminal Proceedings30
    • § 2:2.1 : Explicit Applications31
    • § 2:2.2 : Exceptions from Application32
    • § 2:2.3 : Application in Civil and Criminal Cases32
    • § 2:2.4 : Federal Question and Diversity Cases34
  • § 2:3 : Jury Trials, Bench Trials, and Motions (Summary Judgment; Preliminary Injunctions)35
    • § 2:3.1 : Overview35
    • § 2:3.2 : Jury Trials and Bench Trials35
    • § 2:3.3 : Motions37
      • [A] : Summary Judgment37
      • [B] : Preliminary Injunctions38
  • § 2:4 : Functions of Judge and Jury39
    • § 2:4.1 : Overview39
    • § 2:4.2 : Admissibility Dependent on Judicial Fact-Finding39
  • § 2:5 : Criminal Prosecutions40
    • § 2:5.1 : Overview40
    • § 2:5.2 : Pre-Trial Proceedings40
    • § 2:5.3 : Motion to Suppress42
    • § 2:5.4 : Sentencing42
  • § 2:6 : Administrative Proceedings, Arbitrations, and Congressional Hearings53
    • § 2:6.1 : Overview53
    • § 2:6.2 : Administrative Proceedings53
    • § 2:6.3 : Arbitrations54
    • § 2:6.4 : Congressional Hearings55
  • § 2:7 : Objections to Admission of Evidence57
    • § 2:7.1 : Overview57
    • § 2:7.2 : Timeliness of Objection57
    • § 2:7.3 : Specificity of Objection59
    • § 2:7.4 : “Continuing Objections”63
    • § 2:7.5 : “Invited Error”65
  • § 2:8 : Objection to Exclusion of Evidence: “Offer of Proof”66
    • § 2:8.1 : Overview66
    • § 2:8.2 : Proper Offer of Proof67
  • § 2:9 : Motions in Limine69
    • § 2:9.1 : Introduction69
    • § 2:9.2 : Law Governing Motions in Limine70
  • § 2:10 : Limiting and Curative Instructions73
    • § 2:10.1 : Overview73
    • § 2:10.2 : Model Instructions73
    • § 2:10.3 : Law Presumes Jurors Follow Court’s Instructions74
    • § 2:10.4 : Limiting Instructions79
  • § 2:11 : Rulings on Admissibility of Evidence82
    • § 2:11.1 : Overview82
    • § 2:11.2 : Inadmissible Evidence Should Be Shielded from Jury82
    • § 2:11.3 : Determination of Preliminary Facts83
  • § 2:12 : Judicial Control Over the Trial84
    • § 2:12.1 : Overview84
    • § 2:12.2 : Presentation of Evidence84
    • § 2:12.3 : Reopening of Trial88
    • § 2:12.4 : Leading Questions90
    • § 2:12.5 : Scope of Cross-Examination90
    • § 2:12.6 : Judge’s Calling and Questioning Witnesses90
      • [A] : Overview90
      • [B] : Illustrative Recent Circuit Court Cases: Judge Questioning Witness and Commenting on Evidence91
        • [B][1] : First Circuit: United States v. Melendez-Rivas91
        • [B][2] : First Circuit: United States v. Angulo-Hernandez92
        • [B][3] : Second Circuit: Rivas v. Brattesani93
        • [B][4] : Third Circuit: United States v. Ottaviano94
        • [B][5] : Seventh Circuit: United States v. Barnhart94
        • [B][6] : D.C. Circuit: United States v. Tilghman95
    • § 2:12.7 : Sequestration95
    • § 2:12.8 : Discretion Concerning Admissibility98
  • § 2:13 : Burdens and Presumptions99
    • § 2:13.1 : Overview99
    • § 2:13.2 : Evidentiary Principles99
  • § 2:14 : Appellate Review106
    • § 2:14.1 : Overview106
    • § 2:14.2 : Waiver and “Door Opening”106
    • § 2:14.3 : Abuse of Discretion Review107
    • § 2:14.4 : Prejudicial Versus Harmless Error109
    • § 2:14.5 : Plain Error Review113
      • [A] : Overview113
      • [B] : Waiver115
Chapter 3: Relevance, Unfair Prejudice, and Other Fed. R. Evid. 403 Factors
  • § 3:1 : Introduction118
    • § 3:1.1 : Interplay Between Relevance and Fed. R. Evid. 403119
  • § 3:2 : Relevance120
    • § 3:2.1 : Definition120
    • § 3:2.2 : Evidence Need Not Prove Fact Conclusively120
    • § 3:2.3 : Facts of Consequence121
    • § 3:2.4 : Fact Need Not Be in Dispute123
    • § 3:2.5 : Direct and Circumstantial Evidence: Basis for Excluding Evidence on Relevance and Fed. R. Evid. 403 Grounds123
      • [A] : Overview123
      • [B] : Books and Films in Criminal Defendant’s Possession125
      • [C] : Criminal Defendant’s Motive130
      • [D] : “Consciousness of Guilt”134
  • § 3:3 : Conditional Relevance143
    • § 3:3.1 : Overview143
    • § 3:3.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 104(b)143
  • § 3:4 : Fed. R. Evid. 403: Is Probative Value Substantially Outweighed by Unfair Prejudice, Confusing Issues, Misleading Jury, or Causing Delay148
    • § 3:4.1 : Overview148
    • § 3:4.2 : Governing Principles148
    • § 3:4.3 : Unfair Prejudice149
      • [A] : Overview149
      • [B] : Gruesome Photographs151
      • [C] : Gang Membership155
      • [D] : Rap Lyrics156
      • [E] : Limiting Instructions and Other Steps to Mitigate Unfair Prejudice160
    • § 3:4.4 : Confusing Issues or Misleading the Jury161
    • § 3:4.5 : Time Factors (Undue Delay, Wasting Time, or Needlessly Presenting Cumulative Evidence)162
    • § 3:4.6 : Witness Credibility163
    • § 3:4.7 : Surprise163
    • § 3:4.8 : Stipulated Facts163
    • § 3:4.9 : When Fed. R. Evid. 403 Does Not Apply167
  • § 3:5 : Relevance and Fed. R. Evid. 403 on Appeal168
    • § 3:5.1 : Introduction168
    • § 3:5.2 : Abuse of Discretion Review168
Chapter 4: Character, Other Act, and Habit Evidence
  • § 4:1 : Introduction173
  • § 4:2 : Character Evidence174
    • § 4:2.1 : Overview174
    • § 4:2.2 : Character Evidence in Criminal Prosecutions175
      • [A] : Prosecution Evidence of Defendant’s “Bad” Character Prohibited175
      • [B] : Defendant Allowed to Introduce Evidence of Good Character178
        • [B][1] : Governing Principles178
          • [B][1][a] : Risks to Defendant182
        • [B][2] : Filling in the Details184
          • [B][2][a] : Prosecution Right to Rebut and Cross-Examination of Character Witness: In General184
          • [B][2][b] : Civil Defendants Have No Right to Introduce Good Character Evidence185
          • [B][2][c] : Rebuttal on Particular Trait185
          • [B][2][d] : Prosecutor Cannot Try to “Help” Defendant with Good Character Evidence186
          • [B][2][e] : Proof of Character (“Methods of Proving Character”)186
            • [B][2][e][i] : “Reputation or Opinion”187
            • [B][2][e][ii] : Negative Character Evidence187
            • [B][2][e][iii] : Laying the Foundation188
          • [B][2][f] : Cross-Examination of Character Witness192
      • [C] : What if Defendant Testifies on His Own Behalf?194
    • § 4:2.3 : Character of Victim in Criminal Cases195
      • [A] : Overview195
      • [B] : Homicide Self-Defense Cases195
      • [C] : Sexual Assault Cases—Rape Shield Law197
        • [C][1] : Overview197
        • [C][2] : Civil Cases199
        • [C][3] : Procedural Aspects200
        • [C][4] : Other Issues in Sexual Misconduct Prosecutions204
    • § 4:2.4 : Character in Issue204
  • § 4:3 : “Other Act” Evidence in Criminal Cases212
    • § 4:3.1 : Overview212
    • § 4:3.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 404(b)213
      • [A] : Overview213
      • [B] : Fed. R. Evid. 404(b)(1) Exclusionary Rule214
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 404(b)(2) Permissible Purposes216
      • [D] : “Reverse 404(b)”: Other Acts of Someone Other than Criminal Defendant226
      • [E] : Potential Permissible Purposes for Admitting Other Act Evidence227
        • [E][1] : “Intent,” “Knowledge” and “Absence of Mistake or Lack of Accident”227
        • [E][2] : Identity234
        • [E][3] : Motive236
        • [E][4] : “Common Plan or Scheme”239
    • § 4:3.3 : Other Special Examples240
  • § 4:4 : “Other Act” Evidence in Sexual Assault and Child Molestation Cases243
    • § 4:4.1 : Overview243
    • § 4:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 413–415243
  • § 4:5 : Admissibility of Other Act Evidence in Civil Litigation: Discrimination and Accident Claims247
    • § 4:5.1 : Overview247
    • § 4:5.2 : Discrimination Cases248
    • § 4:5.3 : Tort Cases (“Other Accidents”)251
    • § 4:5.4 : Other Lawsuits254
  • § 4:6 : Habit and Routine Practice Evidence254
    • § 4:6.1 : Overview254
    • § 4:6.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 406255
    • § 4:6.3 : Important Points257
    • § 4:6.4 : Methods for Proving Habit260
    • § 4:6.5 : Special Examples261
Chapter 5: Special Relevance Issues: Remedial Measures; Settlements; Medical Expenses; Plea Bargaining; Liability Insurance
  • § 5:1 : Introduction266
  • § 5:2 : Fed. R. Evid. 407: Subsequent Remedial Measures266
    • § 5:2.1 : Overview266
    • § 5:2.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 407267
    • § 5:2.3 : Exceptions to the Fed. R. Evid. 407 Exclusionary Rule269
  • § 5:3 : Fed. R. Evid. 408: Settlement Evidence272
    • § 5:3.1 : Overview272
    • § 5:3.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 408272
      • [A] : The Rule and Its Rationales272
      • [B] : Must Be a “Disputed” Claim273
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 408 Difficulties274
      • [D] : Offers to Settle and Settlements276
      • [E] : Conduct and Statements During Negotiations277
      • [F] : Physical and Documentary Evidence Referenced During Negotiations278
      • [G] : Exceptions to Exclusionary Rule279
      • [H] : 2006 Amendments to Fed. R. Evid. 408280
      • [I] : Fed. R. Evid. 408 and “Work Product”283
      • [J] : Does Fed. R. Evid. 408 Create an Evidentiary Privilege?283
  • § 5:4 : Fed. R. Evid. 409: Payments and Offers to Pay Medical Expenses284
    • § 5:4.1 : Overview284
    • § 5:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 409284
  • § 5:5 : Fed. R. Evid. 410: Plea Bargaining285
    • § 5:5.1 : Overview285
    • § 5:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 410286
    • § 5:5.3 : Waiver289
  • § 5:6 : Fed. R. Evid. 411: Liability Insurance293
    • § 5:6.1 : Overview293
    • § 5:6.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 411293
    • § 5:6.3 : Governmental Indemnification294
Chapter 6: Demystifying Hearsay: What Is and What Is Not Hearsay
  • § 6:1 : Introduction298
  • § 6:2 : Fundamental Hearsay Principles300
    • § 6:2.1 : Overview300
    • § 6:2.2 : Hearsay300
      • [A] : Definition300
      • [B] : Justifications for Exclusionary Rule301
      • [C] : Witness’s Testimony About a Declarant’s Out-of-Court Statement303
        • [C][1] : Interviews303
        • [C][2] : Implicit Revelations of Out-of-Court Statements304
      • [D] : Witness’s Recounting of Her Own Out-of-Court Statement305
      • [E] : “Hearsay Alerts”: Recognizing Hearsay in the Heat of Trial306
        • [E][1] : Oral Testimony Red Flags307
        • [E][2] : Documentary Evidence307
        • [E][3] : Electronic Evidence308
  • § 6:3 : “Mere Making of Out-of-Court Statement”308
    • § 6:3.1 : Overview308
    • § 6:3.2 : Distinction Between Out-of-Court Statement Offered for Its Truth and Merely for Fact Statement Was Made308
    • § 6:3.3 : Categories of Relevant Out-of-Court Statements312
      • [A] : Verbal Acts312
        • [A][1] : Overview312
        • [A][2] : Examples312
      • [B] : Verbal Parts of Acts314
      • [C] : State of Mind315
        • [C][1] : State of Mind of Declarant315
        • [C][2] : State of Mind of Listener (Notice or Warning)319
      • [D] : Prior Inconsistent Statements321
      • [E] : Questions and Contextual Statements321
        • [E][1] : Questions321
        • [E][2] : Context324
      • [F] : Orders, Commands, Threats, and Instructions326
  • § 6:4 : Machine Readings and Animal Sounds Are Not Hearsay328
    • § 6:4.1 : Overview328
    • § 6:4.2 : Machine Readings328
    • § 6:4.3 : Animal Sounds329
  • § 6:5 : Declarant’s Intent: Silence, Conduct, and Implied Assertions333
    • § 6:5.1 : Overview333
    • § 6:5.2 : Silence334
    • § 6:5.3 : Conduct334
    • § 6:5.4 : Doctrine of Implied Assertions336
      • [A] : The Issue336
      • [B] : Common Law Rejection of Doctrine of Implied Assertions337
      • [C] : Implied Assertions Under the Federal Rules of Evidence338
        • [C][1] : Overview338
        • [C][2] : “Verbal Act” Cases338
      • [D] : “Closer Call” Cases Under Federal Rules of Evidence: The “Non-Verbal Act” Cases340
      • [E] : Ongoing Debate About Implied Assertions342
Chapter 7: Recurring Hearsay Exemptions and Exceptions: A “Transactional” Approach
  • § 7:1 : Introduction to Hearsay Exemptions and Exceptions352
    • § 7:1.1 : Overview352
    • § 7:1.2 : Exemptions Versus Exceptions352
    • § 7:1.3 : Transactional Approach354
      • [A] : Overview354
      • [B] : Mastering the Elements354
      • [C] : Some Exemptions and Exceptions Saved for Later354
      • [D] : Nicknamed Exceptions355
      • [E] : Confrontation Clause355
  • § 7:2 : Statements of Opposing Party (“Admissions”)356
    • § 7:2.1 : Overview356
    • § 7:2.2 : Common Law Treatment: Theory of Admissibility356
    • § 7:2.3 : Under the Federal Rules of Evidence357
      • [A] : Overview357
      • [B] : Proponent May Not Introduce Her Own Out-of-Court Statement359
      • [C] : How “Admissions” Come About: Statements, Adopted Statements, Conduct, and Silence359
      • [D] : Are Admissions Binding? Formal Judicial Admissions Versus Evidential Admissions362
      • [E] : Criminal Prosecutions; Confessions363
  • § 7:3 : Statements by Agents and Employees (“Vicarious Admissions”)368
    • § 7:3.1 : Overview368
    • § 7:3.2 : Federal Rules of Evidence Expansion of Common Law Vicarious Admission Rule369
      • [A] : Overview369
      • [B] : Statements of Illegal Activity371
      • [C] : Statements by Attorney for Party371
      • [D] : Proof of Elements of Vicarious Admissions372
      • [E] : Special Vicarious Admission Examples372
  • § 7:4 : Statements of Co-Conspirators376
    • § 7:4.1 : Overview376
    • § 7:4.2 : Under the Federal Rules of Evidence376
      • [A] : Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(2)(E)376
      • [B] : Proponent’s Burden of Establishing Elements of Co-Conspirator Rule381
      • [C] : Confrontation Clause382
  • § 7:5 : Out-of-Court Identifications382
    • § 7:5.1 : Overview382
    • § 7:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(1)(C): Rationale and Scope383
  • § 7:6 : Present Sense Impressions and Excited Utterances: Statements Describing Events and Statements Made Under Stress—911 Calls; Accident Scene Statements; Crime Scene Statements; Emergency Room Statements385
    • § 7:6.1 : Overview385
    • § 7:6.2 : Down with Res Gestae!385
    • § 7:6.3 : Statements Describing or Explaining an Event (Fed. R. Evid. 803(1))386
    • § 7:6.4 : Statements Made Under Stress or Excitement of Event388
    • § 7:6.5 : Comparing Present Sense Impression and Excited Utterance Hearsay Exceptions392
    • § 7:6.6 : Special Examples: Present Sense Impression and Excited Utterances394
  • § 7:7 : Statements of Present Physical or Mental State, and Intent to Act in the Future405
    • § 7:7.1 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(3)405
      • [A] : Overview405
      • [B] : Theory of Reliability406
      • [C] : Conscious Fabrications407
    • § 7:7.2 : Statements of Present Physical Condition407
    • § 7:7.3 : Statements of Present Mental or Emotional State408
      • [A] : Overview408
      • [B] : Relevance in General410
      • [C] : Relevance Under Substantive Law410
    • § 7:7.4 : Statement of Intent to Act in the Future (Hillmon Doctrine)412
      • [A] : Overview412
      • [B] : Hillmon Under the Federal Rules of Evidence417
      • [C] : Intention to Act with Another417
      • [D] : Backward-Looking Statements422
  • § 7:8 : Statements for Purpose of Medical Diagnosis or Treatment425
    • § 7:8.1 : Introduction425
    • § 7:8.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(4): Rationale and Scope425
      • [A] : Overview425
      • [B] : Cause of Illness, Injury or Malady427
        • [B][1] : Overview427
        • [B][2] : Child Abuse, Sexual Abuse and Domestic Abuse Cases428
      • [C] : Statements for Medical Diagnosis429
      • [D] : Applications of Fed. R. Evid. 803(4)429
  • § 7:9 : Business Records (Including Hospital and Physicians’ Records and Accident Reports)432
    • § 7:9.1 : Overview432
    • § 7:9.2 : Theory of Reliability433
    • § 7:9.3 : Broad Definition of “Business,” Even “Illegal Business”433
    • § 7:9.4 : Broad Definition of “Record”435
      • [A] : Overview435
      • [B] : Computer-Generated Records437
      • [C] : Public Records438
      • [D] : Personal Diaries438
    • § 7:9.5 : Foundation Requirements: “Business Duty to Transmit”439
      • [A] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(6)439
        • [A][1] : Overview439
        • [A][2] : Records Required by Law440
        • [A][3] : Emails440
      • [B] : No Business Duty to Transmit: The Johnson v. Lutz Issue441
      • [C] : Establishing the Foundation443
    • § 7:9.6 : Patient Records: Hospital and Other Medical Records445
    • § 7:9.7 : Accident Reports447
  • § 7:10 : Proving a Negative: Absence of Entry in Business Record448
    • § 7:10.1 : Overview448
    • § 7:10.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(7)449
  • § 7:11 : Governmental Records451
    • § 7:11.1 : Overview451
    • § 7:11.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(8) Categories of Public Records452
      • [A] : Overview452
      • [B] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(8)(A)(i): Reports of Government Agency Activities452
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(8)(ii): Records Based on Personal Knowledge and Duty to Report; “Law Enforcement Personnel”453
      • [D] : Fed. R. Evid. 803(8)(iii): Government Investigatory Reports456
        • [D][1] : Overview456
        • [D][2] : Examples of Recently Publicized Government Investigatory Reports458
        • [D][3] : Elements of Investigatory Report Hearsay Exception460
        • [D][4] : Trustworthiness461
        • [D][5] : “Evaluative Reports”: Opinions and Conclusions461
        • [D][6] : “Hearsay Within Hearsay”463
        • [D][7] : Fed. R. Evid. 403463
        • [D][8] : Congressional Reports465
      • [E] : Relationship Between Public Records and Business Records Rules466
  • § 7:12 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(10): Absence of Entry in Governmental Record467
  • § 7:13 : Hearsay Exceptions for Other Types of Records468
    • § 7:13.1 : Overview468
    • § 7:13.2 : Records of Birth, Death, and Marriage469
    • § 7:13.3 : Records of Religious Organizations Concerning Personal or Family History470
    • § 7:13.4 : Marriage and Baptism Certificates470
    • § 7:13.5 : Family Records471
    • § 7:13.6 : Property Records: Deeds and Mortgages471
    • § 7:13.7 : Market Reports and Commercial Publications472
    • § 7:13.8 : Judgments of Conviction473
  • § 7:14 : The Fed. R. Evid. 804 Exceptions: “Unavailability”; Forfeiture by Wrongdoing475
    • § 7:14.1 : Overview475
    • § 7:14.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 804(a): “Criteria for Being Unavailable”475
      • [A] : Overview475
      • [B] : “Wrongful Conduct”477
      • [C] : Forfeiture by Wrongdoing477
  • § 7:15 : “Former Testimony”478
    • § 7:15.1 : Overview478
    • § 7:15.2 : Elements of Former Testimony Hearsay Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(1)478
      • [A] : Overview478
      • [B] : Adequate Opportunity and Similar Motive to Cross-Examine the Declarant479
        • [B][1] : Civil Cases: “Predecessor in Interest”480
        • [B][2] : Criminal Cases481
          • [B][2][a] : Overview481
          • [B][2][b] : Grand Jury Testimony484
  • § 7:16 : “Dying Declarations”486
    • § 7:16.1 : Overview486
    • § 7:16.2 : Rationale for Dying Declaration Exception486
    • § 7:16.3 : Elements of the Dying Declaration Hearsay Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(2)489
      • [A] : Overview489
      • [B] : Declarant Is Unavailable490
      • [C] : Declarant Believed Death Was Imminent When Making Her Statement490
      • [D] : Out-of-Court Statement About Cause or Circumstances of Declarant’s Impending Death493
  • § 7:17 : Statements Against Declarant’s Pecuniary, Proprietary or Penal Interest494
    • § 7:17.1 : Overview494
    • § 7:17.2 : Rationale494
    • § 7:17.3 : Elements of Declaration Against Interest Hearsay Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(3)495
    • § 7:17.4 : “Parsing the Statement”500
  • § 7:18 : “Forfeiture by Wrongdoing”502
    • § 7:18.1 : Overview502
    • § 7:18.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 804(b)(6)503
  • § 7:19 : “Residual” Exception: Fed. R. Evid. 807504
    • § 7:19.1 : Overview504
    • § 7:19.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 807505
  • § 7:20 : Impeachment of Hearsay Declarant506
    • § 7:20.1 : Overview506
    • § 7:20.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 806507
  • § 7:21 : “Hearsay Within Hearsay”507
Chapter 8: Confrontation Clause in the Post-Crawford World
  • § 8:1 : Introduction511
  • § 8:2 : Confrontation Clause512
    • § 8:2.1 : Overview512
    • § 8:2.2 : Confrontation Clause Protections513
      • [A] : Protects Only Criminal Defendants513
      • [B] : Confrontation Clause and Sentencing513
  • § 8:3 : Crawford v. Washington Works a Sea Change515
    • § 8:3.1 : Overview515
    • § 8:3.2 : Crawford v. Washington Overrules Ohio v. Roberts515
    • § 8:3.3 : Specific Issue in Crawford: Formal Police Interrogation518
  • § 8:4 : Crawford and Its Progeny522
    • § 8:4.1 : Davis v. Washington and Hammon v. Indiana: Emergence of the Primary Purpose Test (Statements of Domestic Abuse Victims)522
      • [A] : Overview522
      • [B] : 911 Calls523
      • [C] : Crime Scene Statements526
    • § 8:4.2 : Michigan v. Bryant: Crime Scene Statements Revisited526
      • [A] : Overview526
      • [B] : Issues and Rulings528
      • [C] : Decision, Concurrences, Dissents, and an Open Issue531
    • § 8:4.3 : Ohio v. Clark: Statements of Child Abuse Victims533
    • § 8:4.4 : Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts: Forensic Laboratory Reports538
      • [A] : Overview538
      • [B] : Issues and Rulings539
      • [C] : Limits on Court’s Decision in Melendez-Diaz544
    • § 8:4.5 : Bullcoming v. New Mexico: Blood Alcohol Reports545
      • [A] : Overview545
      • [B] : Background546
      • [C] : Rulings547
        • [C][1] : Blood Alcohol Report Is Testimonial547
        • [C][2] : “Surrogate” Analyst Insufficient548
      • [D] : Concurrence and Dissent550
        • [D][1] : Sotomayor Concurrence: Focus on Unresolved Issues550
        • [D][2] : Dissent550
    • § 8:4.6 : Williams v. Illinois: Expert’s Reliance on Forensic Report551
      • [A] : Overview551
      • [B] : Trial Court Testimony551
      • [C] : Issue Thought to Be Presented to U.S. Supreme Court553
      • [D] : Alito Plurality554
        • [D][1] : Overview: “A Bench Trial”554
        • [D][2] : Hearsay Offered for Mere Making of Statement555
        • [D][3] : Report Not Testimonial556
      • [E] : Concurrences557
        • [E][1] : Breyer Concurrence557
        • [E][2] : Thomas Concurrence558
      • [F] : Kagan Four-Justice Dissent559
      • [G] : Uncertainty Abounds559
    • § 8:4.7 : Unresolved Government Reports Issues561
    • § 8:4.8 : Forfeiture by Wrongdoing563
  • § 8:5 : The Bruton Co-Defendant Interlocking Confession Problem565
    • § 8:5.1 : Overview565
    • § 8:5.2 : The Bruton Rule566
    • § 8:5.3 : Bruton and Crawford567
    • § 8:5.4 : Cross-Examination of Trial Witnesses568
Chapter 9: “Witness Competence”: Who May Testify
  • § 9:1 : Introduction570
  • § 9:2 : From the Common Law to the Federal Rules of Evidence571
    • § 9:2.1 : Overview571
    • § 9:2.2 : Common Law Background571
    • § 9:2.3 : Under the Federal Rules of Evidence572
      • [A] : Overview572
      • [B] : State Law Claims in Federal Court: Dead Man’s Acts574
        • [B][1] : Overview574
        • [B][2] : Dead Man’s Statute in a Nutshell575
  • § 9:3 : Oath or Affirmation577
    • § 9:3.1 : Overview577
    • § 9:3.2 : Oaths Under the Federal Rules of Evidence578
  • § 9:4 : Personal Knowledge579
    • § 9:4.1 : Overview579
    • § 9:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 602579
    • § 9:4.3 : Relationship Between Personal Knowledge Requirement and Rule Against Hearsay581
  • § 9:5 : Children582
    • § 9:5.1 : Overview582
    • § 9:5.2 : Determining the Competency of Young Children to Testify584
  • § 9:6 : Judge As Witness592
    • § 9:6.1 : Overview592
    • § 9:6.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 605592
  • § 9:7 : Juror As Witness593
    • § 9:7.1 : Overview593
    • § 9:7.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 606(a): “At the Trial”594
    • § 9:7.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 606(b): Post-Verdict594
      • [A] : Overview594
      • [B] : Juror Use of Alcohol and Drugs600
      • [C] : Juror-Conducted Experiments602
      • [D] : Juror Pressure and Threats Against Fellow Jurors604
      • [E] : Juror’s Racial Bias605
      • [F] : Clerical Error607
      • [G] : Google Twitter” Issue609
      • [H] : Juror’s Personal Knowledge and Experiences612
  • § 9:8 : Attorneys As Witnesses615
    • § 9:8.1 : Overview615
    • § 9:8.2 : Advocate Witness Rule615
    • § 9:8.3 : Examples616
  • § 9:9 : Constitutional Aspect of Witness Competence622
    • § 9:9.1 : Overview622
    • § 9:9.2 : Rock v. Arkansas: Criminal Defendant As Witness (“The Hypnotized Witness”)622
Chapter 10: Direct Examination of Witnesses
  • § 10:1 : Introduction628
  • § 10:2 : Judicial Control of Direct Testimony628
    • § 10:2.1 : Overview628
    • § 10:2.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 611628
  • § 10:3 : Juror Questioning of Witnesses629
    • § 10:3.1 : Overview629
    • § 10:3.2 : S.E.C. v. Koenig630
    • § 10:3.3 : United States v. Rawlings632
    • § 10:3.4 : Circuit-by-Circuit—Juror Questioning of Witnesses634
    • § 10:3.5 : State Courts637
    • § 10:3.6 : ABA Principles; Seventh Circuit Study637
      • [A] : ABA Principles637
      • [B] : Seventh Circuit Study638
  • § 10:4 : Leading Questions—Generally Prohibited on Direct and Allowed on Cross641
    • § 10:4.1 : Overview641
    • § 10:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 611(c)642
      • [A] : Overview642
      • [B] : Exceptions to the No Leading Questions Rule644
        • [B][1] : “Develop the Witness’s Testimony”644
        • [B][2] : Hostile Witnesses, Adverse Parties, and Witnesses Identified with Adverse Parties646
        • [B][3] : Cross-Examination648
  • § 10:5 : Witnesses with Memory Problems: Present Recollection Refreshed and Past Recollection Recorded: Don’t Mix Them Up651
    • § 10:5.1 : Overview651
    • § 10:5.2 : Distinguishing Present Recollection Refreshed and Past Recollection Recorded652
    • § 10:5.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 612: Present Recollection Refreshed655
      • [A] : Overview655
      • [B] : What Kind of Writing? Any Kind!655
      • [C] : Procedural Protections657
      • [D] : What if the Document Is Privileged?659
    • § 10:5.4 : Illustrations—Present Recollection Refreshed660
    • § 10:5.5 : Fed. R. Evid. 803(5): Past Recollection Recorded665
    • § 10:5.6 : So Which Is It, Present Recollection Refreshed or Past Recollection Recorded?669
Chapter 11: Cross-Examination, Impeachment, and Rehabilitation
  • § 11:1 : Introduction675
  • § 11:2 : Right of Cross-Examination675
    • § 11:2.1 : Overview675
    • § 11:2.2 : Cross-Examination Is a Right, Not a Privilege675
      • [A] : Overview675
      • [B] : Waiver of Fifth Amendment Privilege Against Self-Incrimination682
      • [C] : Leading Questions Usually Allowed on Cross-Examination682
    • § 11:2.3 : Scope of Cross-Examination683
    • § 11:2.4 : The Art of Cross-Examination687
      • [A] : “The Ten Commandments of Cross-Examination”688
  • § 11:3 : Impeachment: In General692
    • § 11:3.1 : Overview692
    • § 11:3.2 : The Authorized Methods of Impeachment693
      • [A] : Using the Impeachment Methods694
      • [B] : Bolstering and Rehabilitation695
    • § 11:3.3 : “Collateral” Versus “Non-Collateral” Impeachment695
    • § 11:3.4 : Religious Beliefs Are Off Limits696
    • § 11:3.5 : No Expert Testimony on Credibility697
  • § 11:4 : Who May Impeach698
    • § 11:4.1 : Overview698
    • § 11:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 607698
  • § 11:5 : Impeachment by Disabilities705
    • § 11:5.1 : Overview705
    • § 11:5.2 : Legal Principles705
    • § 11:5.3 : Illustrative Applications706
  • § 11:6 : Impeachment by Bias716
    • § 11:6.1 : Overview716
    • § 11:6.2 : Bases for Attacking Witness As Biased717
    • § 11:6.3 : Governing Principles718
      • [A] : Bias Is Non-Collateral Method of Impeachment718
      • [B] : What if the Criminal Defendant Testifies on His Own Behalf?721
    • § 11:6.4 : Confrontation Clause721
    • § 11:6.5 : Illustrations: Impeachment by Bias722
      • [A] : Witness’s Deal with Government722
      • [B] : Financial Interest726
      • [C] : Racial Motivation729
      • [D] : Personal Animosity, Anger, Hostility, and the Like732
  • § 11:7 : Impeachment by Conviction734
    • § 11:7.1 : Overview734
    • § 11:7.2 : Common Law Background and Significance of Issue734
    • § 11:7.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 609736
      • [A] : Overview736
      • [B] : Fed. R. Evid. 609(a)(2): Crimen Falsi Convictions (Element of Deceit or False Statement)736
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 609(a)(1): “Other Felonies”738
      • [D] : “Other Misdemeanors”740
      • [E] : Making Sense of the Categories740
      • [F] : Convictions Based on Plea of Nolo Contendere741
      • [G] : Elderly Convictions742
      • [H] : Traffic Infractions743
      • [I] : Arrests743
      • [J] : Delinquency Adjudications750
      • [K] : Appeal from Conviction751
      • [L] : Pardons751
      • [M] : Evidence of Conviction751
      • [N] : Details Concerning Conviction752
      • [O] : Criminal Defendant Must Testify to Challenge on Appeal Ruling Allowing His Convictions to Be Used to Impeach752
      • [P] : “Opening the Door to Remove the Sting”753
    • § 11:7.4 : Illustrations: Impeachment by Conviction755
  • § 11:8 : Immoral Acts Impeachment759
    • § 11:8.1 : Overview759
    • § 11:8.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 608(b)760
      • [A] : Overview760
      • [B] : Subject to Fed. R. Evid. 403761
      • [C] : Collateral Method: No Extrinsic Evidence761
      • [D] : Good Faith Basis764
      • [E] : Privilege Against Self-Incrimination764
      • [F] : Judicial Finding in Prior Proceeding Witness Not Credible764
      • [G] : Relationship Between Fed. R. Evid. 404(b) and Fed. R. Evid. 608(b)766
      • [H] : Reconciling Fed. R. Evid. 608 and Fed. R. Evid. 609767
    • § 11:8.3 : Illustrations: Immoral Acts Impeachment767
  • § 11:9 : Character for Truth and Veracity775
    • § 11:9.1 : Overview775
    • § 11:9.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 608(a)776
      • [A] : Overview776
      • [B] : Laying the Foundation777
      • [C] : Relevant Community777
      • [D] : Pertinent Character Trait: “Truth and Veracity”778
    • § 11:9.3 : Illustration of Bad Character for Truth and Veracity Impeachment779
  • § 11:10 : Impeachment by Prior Inconsistent Statement779
    • § 11:10.1 : Overview779
    • § 11:10.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 613780
      • [A] : Overview780
      • [B] : Omissions and Failures to Recall781
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 801(d)(1)(A): Hearsay Aspect785
      • [D] : Impeachment by Inconsistent Statement Is Neither Collateral nor Non-Collateral: A Hybrid Method of Impeachment787
      • [E] : Witness’s Opportunity to Explain Inconsistency: How about The Queen Caroline Case?789
    • § 11:10.3 : Illustrations: Inconsistent Statement Impeachment791
  • § 11:11 : Specific Contradiction799
    • § 11:11.1 : Overview799
    • § 11:11.2 : Governing Principles800
    • § 11:11.3 : Illustration: Specific Contradiction802
  • § 11:12 : Distinguishing the Impeachment Methods806
    • § 11:12.1 : Overview806
    • § 11:12.2 : Distinction Between Immoral Acts and Specific Contradiction Impeachment806
    • § 11:12.3 : Distinction Between Immoral Acts Impeachment and Prior Inconsistent Statement Impeachment806
    • § 11:12.4 : Distinction Between Prior Inconsistent Statement and Specific Contradiction807
  • § 11:13 : No Expert Testimony on Credibility807
    • § 11:13.1 : Overview807
    • § 11:13.2 : Other Illustrations; Expert Testimony Not Admissible to Impeach813
    • § 11:13.3 : Lay Witness Not Permitted to Opine About Another Witness’s Truthfulness814
  • § 11:14 : Rehabilitation and Bolstering: Good Character for Truth and Veracity and Prior Consistent Statements818
    • § 11:14.1 : Overview818
    • § 11:14.2 : Good Character for Truth and Veracity819
      • [A] : Vouching820
    • § 11:14.3 : Cooperation Agreements820
    • § 11:14.4 : Prior Consistent Statement821
    • § 11:14.5 : Illustrations: Prior Consistent Statements828
Chapter 12: Expert Testimony and Lay Opinion Testimony
  • § 12:1 : Introduction833
  • § 12:2 : Lay Opinions833
    • § 12:2.1 : Overview833
    • § 12:2.2 : Common Law Background834
    • § 12:2.3 : Fed. R. Evid. 701835
  • § 12:3 : Expert Testimony845
    • § 12:3.1 : Overview845
    • § 12:3.2 : Importance of Expert Testimony846
    • § 12:3.3 : Requirements for Admissibility of Expert Testimony848
    • § 12:3.4 : Expert Must Be “Qualified”853
      • [A] : Overview853
      • [B] : The Humble Expert855
      • [C] : Expert with “Stellar Qualifications”856
      • [D] : Paying Expert on Contingency Basis857
      • [E] : Examples of Qualifications of Experts858
    • § 12:3.5 : Should Trial Judge Inform Jury Witness Is an Expert?867
    • § 12:3.6 : Scientific and Non-Scientific Expert Testimony: Daubert–Kumho TireRelevance and Reliability Standards868
      • [A] : Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals868
      • [B] : Kumho Tire871
      • [C] : Admissibility Versus Weight873
      • [D] : Daubert Hearings875
      • [E] : Reliability: Principles and Methodology or Conclusion?875
      • [F] : “Reasonable Degree of Scientific Certainty?”876
      • [G] : “Experts for Hire” Under Daubert877
      • [H] : Daubert: Summary Judgment and Bench Trials877
      • [I] : Daubert and Class Actions879
      • [J] : Scientific Evidence Examples: From Fingerprinting to Polygraphs881
        • [J][1] : Overview881
        • [J][2] : Polygraphs883
        • [J][3] : “Unilateral Polygraphs”885
        • [J][4] : Improper Reference to Criminal Defendant’s Failing Polygraph Examination886
      • [K] : Distinction Between Reliability of Scientific Process and Manner Process Was Employed and Applied890
      • [L] : Appellate Review of Daubert Reliability Determinations892
    • § 12:3.7 : “Help the Trier of Fact”; Expert Testimony on Ultimate Issues892
      • [A] : “Help the Trier of Fact”892
      • [B] : Judicial Applications of the Helpfulness Standard893
        • [B][1] : Law Enforcement Operations893
        • [B][2] : Expert Testimony on Structure and Methods of Organized Crime and Gangs894
        • [B][3] : Operations of Drug Dealers896
        • [B][4] : Meaning of Drug Vernacular897
        • [B][5] : Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony900
        • [B][6] : False Confessions902
        • [B][7] : Meaning of Racial Epithet907
        • [B][8] : Human Memory908
      • [C] : Expert Testimony on “Ultimate Issues”908
        • [C][1] : Fed. R. Evid. 704(a)908
        • [C][2] : Fed. R. Evid. 704(b)911
    • § 12:3.8 : Basis for Expert Testimony (Focus on Fed. R. Evid. 703)917
      • [A] : Basis of Expert Testimony917
      • [B] : Expert’s Reliance on Inadmissible Evidence917
      • [C] : Fed. R. Evid. 705921
      • [D] : Hypothetical Questions921
    • § 12:3.9 : Cross-Examinations of Experts; Impeachment; Learned Treatise Rule922
      • [A] : Cross-Examination of Experts in General922
      • [B] : Impeachment923
      • [C] : Learned Treatise Rule929
  • § 12:4 : Distinguishing Lay Witness Testimony from Expert Testimony; “Dual Lay Expert” Witness Testimony932
    • § 12:4.1 : Overview932
    • § 12:4.2 : Distinguishing Lay Opinion Testimony from Expert Opinion Testimony932
    • § 12:4.3 : “Dual Lay and Expert Witness”945
    • § 12:4.4 : Circuit-by-Circuit—Illustrative Dual Witnesses Decisions947
  • § 12:5 : Court-Appointed Experts954
    • § 12:5.1 : Overview954
    • § 12:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 706955
Chapter 13: Real and Demonstrative Evidence
  • § 13:1 : Definitions of “Real” and “Demonstrative” Evidence959
  • § 13:2 : Real Evidence: Authentication and Identification961
    • § 13:2.1 : Overview961
    • § 13:2.2 : Authentication and Identification962
      • [A] : Definition962
      • [B] : Role of Judge and Jury964
        • [B][1] : Don’t Confuse Authenticity and Admissibility965
    • § 13:2.3 : Examples966
  • § 13:3 : Change in Condition; Chain of Custody969
    • § 13:3.1 : Overview969
    • § 13:3.2 : Changes in Condition970
    • § 13:3.3 : Chain of Custody970
  • § 13:4 : Display of Wound or Injuries971
    • § 13:4.1 : Overview971
    • § 13:4.2 : Legal Principles971
    • § 13:4.3 : Example972
    • § 13:4.4 : Demonstration of Effect of Injury973
  • § 13:5 : Jury Views974
    • § 13:5.1 : Overview974
    • § 13:5.2 : Legal Principles975
    • § 13:5.3 : Examples977
  • § 13:6 : Criminal Defendant As Source of Real or Physical Evidence981
    • § 13:6.1 : Overview981
    • § 13:6.2 : Legal Principles981
  • § 13:7 : Experiments and Other Demonstrations986
    • § 13:7.1 : Overview986
    • § 13:7.2 : Legal Principles987
  • § 13:8 : Reenactments989
    • § 13:8.1 : Overview989
    • § 13:8.2 : Legal Principles989
  • § 13:9 : Models and Replicas992
    • § 13:9.1 : Overview992
    • § 13:9.2 : Legal Principles992
  • § 13:10 : Diagrams995
    • § 13:10.1 : Overview995
    • § 13:10.2 : Legal Principles995
  • § 13:11 : Photographs997
    • § 13:11.1 : Overview997
    • § 13:11.2 : Legal Principles998
  • § 13:12 : Videotapes and Computer-Generated Simulations1002
    • § 13:12.1 : Overview1002
    • § 13:12.2 : Legal Principles: Admissibility of Videotapes1004
      • [A] : Overview1004
      • [B] : Use of Videotape on Summary Judgment1006
    • § 13:12.3 : Examples1008
    • § 13:12.4 : “Day in Life” Videotape1012
    • § 13:12.5 : Computer-Generated Simulations1013
  • § 13:13 : Audiotapes1017
    • § 13:13.1 : Overview1017
    • § 13:13.2 : Legal Principles: Admissibility of Audiotapes1017
      • [A] : Authenticity and Accuracy1017
      • [B] : Chain of Custody1018
      • [C] : Voice Identification1018
        • [C][1] : Overview1018
        • [C][2] : Attempts to Prevent Voice Identification1019
      • [D] : Part of Tape Inaudible1020
        • [D][1] : Overview1020
        • [D][2] : Inaudible Tapes—Background Sounds1021
      • [E] : Enhanced Tapes1021
      • [F] : Selective and Composite Tapes1021
      • [G] : Use of Transcripts1021
      • [H] : Function of Judge and Jury1022
    • § 13:13.3 : Example1023
  • § 13:14 : Exhibits in Jury Room1030
    • § 13:14.1 : Overview1030
    • § 13:14.2 : Legal Principles1030
Chapter 14: Documentary and Electronic Evidence
  • § 14:1 : Introduction1034
  • § 14:2 : Authentication of Handwriting1035
    • § 14:2.1 : Authentication Generally1035
    • § 14:2.2 : Recognized Methods for Authenticating Handwriting1036
      • [A] : Testimony of Witness with Knowledge1036
      • [B] : Nonexpert Opinion About Familiarity with Handwriting1037
      • [C] : Comparison with Authenticated Exemplar1037
      • [D] : Distinctive Characteristics1040
      • [E] : Ancient Documents1040
      • [F] : Role of Judge and Jury1042
      • [G] : “Self-Authentication”1042
  • § 14:3 : “Best Evidence Rule”1044
    • § 14:3.1 : Overview1044
    • § 14:3.2 : Under the Common Law1044
    • § 14:3.3 : When Are Contents of Writing in Issue?1046
    • § 14:3.4 : Federal Rules of Evidence “Original Document” Rules Provisions1047
      • [A] : Applications of Original Document Rule1047
        • [A][1] : “Writings”1047
          • [A][1][a] : Inscribed Chattels1048
        • [A][2] : Photographs and X-Rays1049
          • [A][2][a] : Photographs1049
          • [A][2][b] : X-Rays1050
      • [B] : What Is an Original? How About a Copy?1050
        • [B][1] : Advances in Mechanical and Electronic Reproduction1050
        • [B][2] : Multiple Originals1050
        • [B][3] : Duplicates1051
      • [C] : Excuses for Not Producing Original1052
      • [D] : Public Records1053
  • § 14:4 : Summaries and Charts1056
    • § 14:4.1 : Overview1056
    • § 14:4.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 1006: Summary Charts of Voluminous Documents1057
    • § 14:4.3 : “Pedagogical Charts”1059
    • § 14:4.4 : Illustrations1060
  • § 14:5 : Rule of Completeness1064
    • § 14:5.1 : Overview1064
    • § 14:5.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 1061064
  • § 14:6 : Electronic Evidence1067
    • § 14:6.1 : Overview1067
    • § 14:6.2 : Electronic Evidence Under the Federal Rules of Evidence1067
    • § 14:6.3 : Recent Decisions: Admissibility of Electronic Evidence1068
      • [A] : Emails1068
      • [B] : Text Messages and Chat Conversations1070
      • [C] : GPS Data1072
      • [D] : Social Media1073
      • [E] : Websites1079
  • § 14:7 : How to Present Documents and Electronic Evidence to Jury1080
    • § 14:7.1 : Overview1080
    • § 14:7.2 : Reading of Documentary Evidence1081
Chapter 15: Evidentiary Privileges
  • § 15:1 : Introduction1084
  • § 15:2 : Privileges Under the Federal Rules of Evidence: In General1085
    • § 15:2.1 : Overview1085
    • § 15:2.2 : Fed. R. Evid. 5011085
  • § 15:3 : Attorney-Client Privilege1087
    • § 15:3.1 : General Considerations1087
    • § 15:3.2 : Corporate Clients1093
    • § 15:3.3 : Joint Clients; Joint Defense Agreements; Common Legal Interest Doctrine; Controversies Between Attorney and Client1095
    • § 15:3.4 : Government Clients1097
    • § 15:3.5 : Crime-Fraud Exception1097
    • § 15:3.6 : Holder of Privilege1099
    • § 15:3.7 : Death of Client1100
    • § 15:3.8 : Waiver1101
      • [A] : Fed. R. Evid. 5021101
      • [B] : Intentional Disclosure1103
      • [C] : Inadvertent Disclosure1106
      • [D] : “Advice of Attorney” Placed in Issue1108
      • [E] : Selected Circuit Decisions: Waiver of Attorney-Client Privilege and Related Issues1110
    • § 15:3.9 : Appeals from Denial of Attorney-Client Privilege1114
  • § 15:4 : Marital Privileges1116
    • § 15:4.1 : Adverse Testimonial Privilege1117
    • § 15:4.2 : Confidential Communication Privilege1118
  • § 15:5 : Clergyperson Privilege1123
  • § 15:6 : Physician-Patient Privilege1127
  • § 15:7 : Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege1128
    • § 15:7.1 : Overview1128
    • § 15:7.2 : Jaffee v. Redmond1128
    • § 15:7.3 : Dangerous Patient Exception?1130
    • § 15:7.4 : Waiver Issues1131
  • § 15:8 : Journalist Privilege1138
    • § 15:8.1 : Overview1138
    • § 15:8.2 : Circuit-by-Circuit—Select Decisions Concerning Journalist Privilege1140
  • § 15:9 : Law Enforcement Privilege1147
  • § 15:10 : Privilege Against Self-Incrimination1148
    • § 15:10.1 : Overview1148
    • § 15:10.2 : The Heart of the Privilege1149
    • § 15:10.3 : “Testimonial”1151
    • § 15:10.4 : “Compulsion”1152
    • § 15:10.5 : Immunity1154
    • § 15:10.6 : Raising the Privilege1155
    • § 15:10.7 : Who Is Protected?1156
    • § 15:10.8 : Documents1157
    • § 15:10.9 : “Act of Production” Doctrine1158
    • § 15:10.10 : Waiver1159
Chapter 16: Judicial Notice (“The Judicial Shortcut”)
  • § 16:1 : Introduction1162
  • § 16:2 : Judicial Notice—Adjudicative Facts Versus Legislative Facts1163
    • § 16:2.1 : Overview1163
    • § 16:2.2 : Adjudicative and Legislative Facts1163
      • [A] : Distinctions1163
      • [B] : The “Brandeis Brief”: Noticing Legislative Facts to Sustain Legislation1164
      • [C] : Noticing Legislative Facts to Overturn Legislation1165
  • § 16:3 : Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts1168
    • § 16:3.1 : Overview1168
    • § 16:3.2 : Facts Generally Known Within Court’s Territorial Jurisdiction1168
      • [A] : Overview1168
      • [B] : Within Court’s Territorial Jurisdiction1169
      • [C] : Not Judge’s Personal Knowledge: Examples1170
      • [D] : Judicial Notice Taken: Examples1172
      • [E] : Judicial Notice Denied: Examples1176
    • § 16:3.3 : Judicial Notice of Adjudicative Facts—Reasonably Reliable Sources1177
      • [A] : Overview1177
      • [B] : “Almanac Facts”1177
      • [C] : Reliability of Scientific Processes1182
      • [D] : Court Records1183
      • [E] : Websites1184
      • [F] : Judicial Notice of Law1185
        • [F][1] : Overview1185
        • [F][2] : Federal Regulations and Federal Register Materials1186
        • [F][3] : Municipal Ordinances and Codes1187
        • [F][4] : Foreign Law1187
  • § 16:4 : Procedural Aspects of Judicial Notice1188
    • § 16:4.1 : Overview1188
    • § 16:4.2 : Court May Take Judicial Notice on Its Own Motion1188
    • § 16:4.3 : Judicial Notice May Be Taken at Any Stage; Judicial Notice on Appeal1189
    • § 16:4.4 : Opportunity to Be Heard1192
    • § 16:4.5 : Jury Instructions1192
Chapter 17: Model Evidentiary Instructions
  • § 17:1 : Introduction to Evidentiary Instructions1196
  • § 17:2 : General Instructions1197
  • § 17:3 : Exclusionary Rules1217
  • § 17:4 : Impeachment1220
  • § 17:5 : Lay Opinions and Expert Testimony1227
  • § 17:6 : Real and Demonstrative Evidence; Recordings; Documents1233
Appendix A: Federal Rules of Evidence
  Table of Authorities
  Index

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