TreatiseTreatise

Exempt and Hybrid Securities Offerings (3rd Edition)

 by Anna T Pinedo, James R Tanenbaum
 
 Copyright: 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402429514
  • Page Count: 2816
  • Number of Volumes: 3
  •  

This book provides comprehensive guidance on how to structure exempt and hybrid securities offerings.  Packed with checklists, transactional timelines, SEC guidance, and a wealth of labor-saving sample documents, the third edition of Exempt and Hybrid Securities Offerings offers the relative advantages and drawbacks of the most commonly used forms of exempt and hybrid offerings. It clearly explains: the mechanics of conducting venture private placements • traditional PIPE transactions • structured PIPE transactions • institutional (debt) private placements • Rule 144A offerings • Regulation S offerings • expedited shelf takedowns • registered direct offerings • at-the-market offerings • confidentially marketed public offerings • and continuous issuance programs, including MTN and CP programs.

This comprehensive three-volume treatise integrates the impact of the Dodd-Frank Act and other regulatory changes resulting from the financial downturn of the Great Recession.
  Preface to First Edition
  Preface to Second Edition
  Preface to Third Edition
  Introduction
  Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Why an Exempt Offering or a Hybrid Offering?
  • § 1:1 : Introduction1-2
  • § 1:2 : Exempt Offerings and Hybrid Offerings1-4
    • § 1:2.1 : Exempt Offerings1-4
    • § 1:2.2 : Hybrid Offerings1-4
  • § 1:3 : Growth of Exempt Offerings and Hybrid Offerings1-5
  • § 1:4 : Securities Regulatory Framework—In Brief1-7
  • § 1:5 : IPO and Exchange Act Registration1-8
  • § 1:6 : Being Public1-10
    • § 1:6.1 : Proxy Rules1-10
    • § 1:6.2 : Reporting for Significant Security Holders1-11
    • § 1:6.3 : Sarbanes-Oxley1-11
    • § 1:6.4 : Investment Company Act1-13
    • § 1:6.5 : Trust Indenture Act1-14
    • § 1:6.6 : Securities Exchange Regulations1-14
    • § 1:6.7 : State Blue Sky Laws1-15
    • § 1:6.8 : Regulation FD1-15
    • § 1:6.9 : Liability Concerns1-15
  • § 1:7 : IPO or No IPO—Considerations1-17
    • § 1:7.1 : Larger Companies Make Better Public Companies1-18
    • § 1:7.2 : Compliance Costs1-18
    • § 1:7.3 : Foreign Issuers May Choose to Avoid U.S. Reporting1-19
    • § 1:7.4 : Limited Flexibility1-20
    • § 1:7.5 : The IPO Process Is Expensive1-20
    • § 1:7.6 : Alternative Financing Options1-21
    • § 1:7.7 : The Growth of Private Equity and Hedge Funds1-22
    • § 1:7.8 : The Increased Value of Restricted Securities1-22
    • § 1:7.9 : Alternative Liquidity Events and the Availability of Hedging Transactions1-23
  • § 1:8 : Exempt Offering Alternatives1-23
    • § 1:8.1 : Section 4(a)(2) and Regulation D1-24
    • § 1:8.2 : Rule 144A1-24
    • § 1:8.3 : Regulation S1-25
    • § 1:8.4 : Combined Rule 144A/Regulation S Offerings1-26
    • § 1:8.5 : Rule 1441-27
  • § 1:9 : Restricted Securities and the Illiquidity Discount1-28
  • § 1:10 : Private Placement Reform1-30
  • § 1:11 : Shelf Registration and Improvements to Capital Formation1-31
  • § 1:12 : Reporting Issuers Turning to Exempt Offerings and Hybrid Offerings1-34
Chapter 2: Private Placements—An Overview
  • § 2:1 : Registration Requirements2-2
  • § 2:2 : Exemptions from Section 5 Registration Requirements2-3
    • § 2:2.1 : Section 4(a)(2)2-3
      • [A] : Background2-3
      • [B] : Scope of the Private Placement Exemption2-5
        • [B][1] : Statutory Private Placement2-5
        • [B][2] : Case Law Relating to Private Placements2-5
      • [C] : Rule 1462-12
    • § 2:2.2 : Regulation D2-13
      • [A] : Background2-13
      • [B] : Overview of Regulation D2-14
      • [C] : Rule 501: Definitions2-14
        • [C][1] : “Accredited Investor”2-14
        • [C][2] : Calculation of Purchasers2-16
        • [C][3] : Proposed “Large Accredited Investor” Definition2-17
        • [C][4] : Determination of Individual Net Worth2-20
        • [C][5] : Review of the “Accredited Investor” Standard2-24
      • [D] : Rule 502: General Conditions2-25
        • [D][1] : Integration2-25
        • [D][2] : Information Requirements2-27
          • [D][2][a] : When Must Information Be Furnished?2-27
          • [D][2][b] : Type of Information to Be Furnished2-27
        • [D][3] : Limitations on Manner of Offering2-30
        • [D][4] : Limitations on Resales2-30
      • [E] : Rule 503: Notice2-31
      • [F] : Rule 504: Exemption for Smaller Offerings2-33
        • [F][1] : Historic Rule 504 Exemption2-33
        • [F][2] : Amendment to Rule 5042-35
      • [G] : Rule 505: Exemption for Smaller Offerings2-36
        • [G][1] : Historic Rule 505 Exemption2-36
        • [G][2] : Repeal of Rule 5052-37
      • [H] : Rule 507: Disqualification2-37
      • [I] : Rule 508: The Substantial Compliance Rule2-38
  • § 2:3 : Other Private Placement Exemptions2-38
    • § 2:3.1 : General2-38
    • § 2:3.2 : Rule 147 and Rule 147A2-38
      • [A] : Principal Place of Business and Doing Business Requirement2-39
      • [B] : Reasonable Belief Standard2-40
      • [C] : Limitation on Resales2-40
      • [D] : Integration2-40
  • § 2:4 : State-Specific Private Placement Exemptions2-41
    • § 2:4.1 : General2-41
    • § 2:4.2 : Rule 504 Offerings and State Blue Sky Laws2-42
      • [A] : New York2-43
      • [B] : Florida and California2-44
    • § 2:4.3 : Rule 506 Offerings and State Blue Sky Laws2-46
  • § 2:5 : Restricted Securities2-47
    • § 2:5.1 : General2-47
    • § 2:5.2 : Selling Restricted Securities2-47
Chapter 3: Rule 506 Offerings
  • § 3:1 : General Solicitation3-2
    • § 3:1.1 : No-Action Letter Guidance3-2
    • § 3:1.2 : Express Exclusions from the Prohibition Against General Solicitation3-6
    • § 3:1.3 : Relaxation of Offering Communication Rules3-7
    • § 3:1.4 : Filing a Shelf Registration Statement3-8
    • § 3:1.5 : Filing a Resale Registration Statement3-9
    • § 3:1.6 : Internet-Related Issues3-9
    • § 3:1.7 : Broker-Dealers and Use of the Internet3-10
    • § 3:1.8 : Concerns Regarding the General Solicitation Prohibition3-11
    • § 3:1.9 : Relaxation of the Prohibition on General Solicitation3-12
  • § 3:2 : Rule 506: Exemption for Limited Offers and Sales Without Regard to Dollar Amount3-13
    • § 3:2.1 : Overview3-13
    • § 3:2.2 : Rule 506(b)3-15
    • § 3:2.3 : Rule 506(c)3-15
      • [A] : Reasonable Steps to Verify Accredited Investor Status3-16
      • [B] : Reasonable Belief3-18
      • [C] : Form D Amendments3-18
      • [D] : Integration with Offshore Offerings3-18
      • [E] : Staff Guidance3-19
  • § 3:3 : Disqualification of Felons and Other “Bad Actors”3-19
    • § 3:3.1 : Overview3-19
    • § 3:3.2 : “Covered Persons”3-20
    • § 3:3.3 : Disqualifying Events3-21
      • [A] : Criminal Convictions3-22
      • [B] : Court Injunctions and Restraining Orders3-22
      • [C] : Final Orders of Certain Regulators3-22
      • [D] : Commission Disciplinary Orders3-24
      • [E] : Certain Commission Cease and Desist Orders3-24
      • [F] : Suspension or Expulsion from SRO Membership or Association with an SRO Member3-25
      • [G] : Stop Orders and Orders Suspending the Regulation A Exemption3-25
      • [H] : U.S. Postal Service False Representation Orders3-25
      • [I] : Reasonable Care Exception3-25
    • § 3:3.4 : Waivers3-26
    • § 3:3.5 : Transition Issues3-26
    • § 3:3.6 : Amendment to Form D3-27
  • § 3:4 : Proposed Amendments to Regulation D, Form D, and Rule 1563-27
Chapter 4: Section 4(a)(1) and Concept of 4(a)(1½)
  • § 4:1 : Overview4-2
  • § 4:2 : Analysis4-3
    • § 4:2.1 : Who Is Involved in the Proposed Transaction?4-3
      • [A] : Analysis of Critical Concepts4-3
        • [A][1] : “Issuer”4-3
        • [A][2] : “Underwriter”4-4
          • [A][2][a] : “Control”4-6
          • [A][2][b] : “Distribution”4-7
          • [A][2][c] : “Dealer”4-9
          • [A][2][d] : “Broker”4-9
      • [B] : Application of Definition of “Underwriter”4-9
        • [B][1] : Persons Who Purchase from an Issuer with a View to Distribution4-9
        • [B][2] : Persons Who Sell for an Issuer in Connection with a Distribution4-11
        • [B][3] : Participants in Any Purchase from or the Sale for an Issuer, with a View to, or in Connection with, a Distribution4-11
        • [B][4] : Participants in the Direct or Indirect Underwriting of Any Such Purchase from or the Sale for an Issuer, with a View to, or in Connection with, a Distribution4-13
    • § 4:2.2 : What Is the Status of the Security Subject to the Proposed Transaction?4-13
      • [A] : Control Securities4-13
      • [B] : Restricted Securities4-13
    • § 4:2.3 : What Is the Nature of the Proposed Transaction?4-16
      • [A] : Private Sales of Restricted or Control Securities—“Section 4(a)(1½)”4-16
    • § 4:2.4 : Section 4(a)(7) Limited Resale Exemption4-19
      • [A] : History of the Resale Exemption4-19
      • [B] : Conditions for the Exemption4-20
      • [C] : Limitations on the Availability of the Exemption4-22
      • [D] : Character of the Securities Sold in Reliance on the Exemption4-22
      • [E] : State Securities Requirements4-23
      • [F] : Documenting a Resale Transaction4-23
Chapter 5: Section 4(a)(3) and Section 4(a)(4)
  • § 5:1 : Registration Requirements5-2
  • § 5:2 : Section 4(a)(3)—Dealers’ Exemption5-2
    • § 5:2.1 : Background5-2
    • § 5:2.2 : Dealers5-4
      • [A] : Who Is a Dealer?5-4
      • [B] : Dealer Versus Underwriter5-6
    • § 5:2.3 : Exempted Dealer Transactions5-9
      • [A] : Ordinary Trading5-9
      • [B] : Affiliates’ Securities5-9
    • § 5:2.4 : Scope of the Dealer Transaction Exemption5-9
      • [A] : Periods During Which the Section 4(a)(3) Exemption Is Unavailable5-10
        • [A][1] : Forty-Day Compliance Period—Illegal Distributions5-10
        • [A][2] : Forty-Day or Ninety-Day Compliance Period—Registered Offerings5-10
        • [A][3] : Dealer Buying Additional Securities of Outstanding Class of Securities5-11
      • [B] : Rule 1745-11
      • [C] : Unsold Allotment or Subscription—Participating Dealer5-12
    • § 5:2.5 : Relationship with Rule 144A5-13
  • § 5:3 : Section 4(a)(4)—Brokers’ Exemption5-13
    • § 5:3.1 : Background5-13
    • § 5:3.2 : Brokers5-14
      • [A] : Who Is a Broker?5-14
    • § 5:3.3 : Exempted Brokers’ Transactions5-15
      • [A] : Ordinary Brokers’ Transactions5-15
      • [B] : Interrelationship Between Section 4(a)(4) and Rule 144(g)5-15
    • § 5:3.4 : Scope of the Brokers’ Transaction Exemption5-15
      • [A] : Broker-Dealer As Agent5-16
      • [B] : Usual and Customary Broker’s Commission5-18
      • [C] : No Solicitation of Customers’ Orders5-19
      • [D] : Duty to Investigate5-21
      • [E] : Orders Executed on an Exchange or in the Over-the-Counter Market5-21
Chapter 6: Rule 144
  • § 6:1 : The Rule 144 Safe Harbor6-2
    • § 6:1.1 : Securities Subject to Rule 1446-3
      • [A] : Restricted Securities Under Rule 144(a)(3)6-3
      • [B] : Control Securities6-4
      • [C] : Unavailability of Rule 144 for Securities of Shell Companies6-6
    • § 6:1.2 : Development of Rule 1446-6
    • § 6:1.3 : 2007 Amendments to Rule 1446-8
  • § 6:2 : Conditions Under Rule 1446-9
    • § 6:2.1 : Distinction Between Affiliates and Non-Affiliates6-10
      • [A] : Sales by Non-Affiliates6-10
      • [B] : Sales by Affiliates6-10
    • § 6:2.2 : The Five Conditions6-10
      • [A] : Adequate Current Public Information6-10
      • [B] : Holding Period6-11
        • [B][1] : Tacking Issues6-12
          • [B][1][a] : The Tacking Concept6-12
          • [B][1][b] : Specific Tacking and Aggregation Situations6-14
            • [B][1][b][i] : Stock Dividends, Splits and Recapitalizations6-14
            • [B][1][b][ii] : Conversions6-15
            • [B][1][b][iii] : Contingent Stock6-15
            • [B][1][b][iv] : Pledges6-17
            • [B][1][b][v] : Gifts6-17
            • [B][1][b][vi] : Trusts6-18
            • [B][1][b][vii] : Estates6-18
            • [B][1][b][viii] : Cashless Exercise of Options and Warrants6-19
            • [B][1][b][ix] : Affiliated Fund’s Distribution-in-Kind of Portfolio Company Securities to Fund Investors6-19
      • [C] : Volume Limitations6-20
        • [C][1] : Equity Securities6-20
        • [C][2] : Debt Securities6-21
        • [C][3] : Convertible Securities6-21
        • [C][4] : Aggregation6-21
      • [D] : Manner of Sale6-22
        • [D][1] : “Unsolicited Brokers’ Transaction” Within the Meaning of Section 4(a)(4) of the Securities Act6-23
        • [D][2] : Transaction Directly with a Market Maker6-24
        • [D][3] : Riskless Principal Transactions6-24
      • [E] : Form 1446-25
  • § 6:3 : Compliance with Rule 1446-25
    • § 6:3.1 : Responsibility for Complying with Rule 1446-25
    • § 6:3.2 : Consequences of Non-Compliance with Rule 1446-26
  • § 6:4 : Special Situations6-26
    • § 6:4.1 : Employee Benefit Plans6-27
    • § 6:4.2 : Short Sales of Restricted Securities6-27
  • § 6:5 : Rule 1456-28
  • § 6:6 : Hedging Transactions and Risk Mitigation6-28
    • § 6:6.1 : Hedging Transactions6-28
    • § 6:6.2 : Tolling Provisions Related to Hedging Transactions6-28
  • § 6:7 : Financing Transactions—Private Placements and PIPEs6-30
Chapter 7: Rule 144A
  • § 7:1 : Introduction7-2
    • § 7:1.1 : Proposed Rule 144A7-3
    • § 7:1.2 : Adopted Rule 144A7-4
  • § 7:2 : Rule 144A Safe Harbor7-5
  • § 7:3 : Persons Who May Rely on Rule 144A7-6
    • § 7:3.1 : Any Persons, Other than Issuers7-6
    • § 7:3.2 : Broker-Dealers7-6
    • § 7:3.3 : Domestic Issuers7-7
    • § 7:3.4 : Foreign Issuers7-7
  • § 7:4 : Rule 144A’s Relationship to Section 4(a)(2), Rule 144, and Reg S7-7
  • § 7:5 : Rule 144A Requirements7-9
  • § 7:6 : Eligible Purchasers7-9
    • § 7:6.1 : QIBs7-10
      • [A] : Registered Investment Companies7-11
      • [B] : Banks and Savings and Loan Associations7-11
      • [C] : Broker-Dealers7-12
    • § 7:6.2 : Qualifying Amount7-12
      • [A] : Valuation of Securities7-12
      • [B] : Excluded Securities7-13
    • § 7:6.3 : Reasonable Belief of QIB Status7-14
    • § 7:6.4 : General Solicitation7-15
  • § 7:7 : Notice Requirements7-16
    • § 7:7.1 : Legend7-16
    • § 7:7.2 : Offering Memorandum7-16
  • § 7:8 : Eligible Securities—Fungibility7-17
    • § 7:8.1 : Time of Determination of Eligibility7-18
    • § 7:8.2 : Types of Eligible Securities7-18
      • [A] : Debt Securities7-18
      • [B] : Equity Securities7-18
        • [B][1] : American Depositary Receipts7-19
        • [B][2] : Convertible or Exchangeable Securities7-19
        • [B][3] : Warrants and Options7-21
  • § 7:9 : Information Requirements7-21
    • § 7:9.1 : Overview7-21
    • § 7:9.2 : Reasonably Current Information7-23
    • § 7:9.3 : How Is the “Right to Obtain” Established?7-23
    • § 7:9.4 : Foreign Issuers7-24
  • § 7:10 : Permitted Communications7-25
    • § 7:10.1 : Screen-Based and Other “Offers”7-25
    • § 7:10.2 : Research Reports7-26
    • § 7:10.3 : Rule 135c7-27
  • § 7:11 : Rule 144A Offerings of Equity Securities7-27
  • § 7:12 : Foreign Issuers7-28
    • § 7:12.1 : ADRs7-29
  • § 7:13 : Registration of Securities Issued in a Rule 144A Transaction7-31
    • § 7:13.1 : A/B Exchange Offers7-32
      • [A] : Structure7-32
      • [B] : Broker-Dealers and A/B Exchange Offers7-34
      • [C] : Advantages7-35
      • [D] : Developments in A/B Exchange Offers7-35
  • § 7:14 : Resales7-37
  • § 7:15 : Secondary Markets7-38
  • § 7:16 : FINRA TRACE Reporting7-40
  • § 7:17 : DTC7-41
  • § 7:18 : Other Issues Under Rule 144A7-42
    • § 7:18.1 : Liability in Rule 144A Transactions7-42
      • [A] : Section 12 Liability7-43
      • [B] : Section 11 Liability7-44
    • § 7:18.2 : Regulation M7-44
    • § 7:18.3 : Investment Company Act7-45
    • § 7:18.4 : FINRA7-47
    • § 7:18.5 : State Blue Sky Laws and Section 18 of the Securities Act7-47
    • § 7:18.6 : Trust Indenture Act7-48
Chapter 8: Regulation S
  • § 8:1 : Introduction8-2
  • § 8:2 : Reg S Exclusion from Registration Requirements8-5
  • § 8:3 : Conditions of Reg S8-6
    • § 8:3.1 : Offshore Transactions8-7
    • § 8:3.2 : Directed Selling Efforts8-8
      • [A] : Activity Not Covered by Directed Selling Efforts8-9
      • [B] : Internet Postings8-11
      • [C] : Foreign Offerors8-12
      • [D] : Domestic Offerors8-12
      • [E] : Foreign Press-Related Activity8-13
      • [F] : Research Reports8-14
      • [G] : Notices of Unregistered Offerings8-15
      • [H] : Advertising8-15
      • [I] : Miscellaneous Activities8-16
      • [J] : Registered or Exempt Offers Excluded8-16
  • § 8:4 : Conditions for Reliance on Rule 901: Morrison and the End of the Conduct and Effects Tests8-17
  • § 8:5 : Who Can Rely on Reg S?8-18
    • § 8:5.1 : U.S. Persons8-19
    • § 8:5.2 : Non-U.S. Persons8-20
  • § 8:6 : Issuer Safe Harbor—Rule 9038-21
    • § 8:6.1 : Category 1 Transactions8-22
      • [A] : Offerings for Which There Is Believed to Be No SUSMI8-22
      • [B] : Overseas Directed Offerings8-23
      • [C] : Securities Backed by a Foreign Government8-23
      • [D] : Securities Offered Pursuant to an Employee Benefit Plan8-23
    • § 8:6.2 : Category 2 Transactions8-24
      • [A] : Offering Restrictions8-25
      • [B] : Transactional Restrictions8-26
    • § 8:6.3 : Category 3 Transactions8-27
      • [A] : Additional Category 3 Transactional Restrictions8-28
        • [A][1] : Debt Securities8-28
        • [A][2] : Equity Securities8-28
  • § 8:7 : Resale Safe Harbor—Rule 9048-30
  • § 8:8 : Distribution Compliance Periods8-31
    • § 8:8.1 : Measurement of Distribution Compliance Periods and Potential Issues with Continuous Offerings, Unsold Allotments, and ADRs8-32
      • [A] : Medium-Term Notes8-32
      • [B] : American Depositary Shares8-32
      • [C] : Warrants8-33
      • [D] : Convertible Securities8-33
  • § 8:9 : Concurrent Private Placements in the United States and Reg S Offerings8-33
  • § 8:10 : Reg S Offerings of Debt Securities8-34
    • § 8:10.1 : Category 1 Safe Harbor for Debt8-34
    • § 8:10.2 : Category 2 Safe Harbor for Debt8-35
    • § 8:10.3 : Category 3 Safe Harbor for Debt8-35
  • § 8:11 : Reg S Offerings of Equity Securities8-36
    • § 8:11.1 : Category 1 Safe Harbor for Equity8-36
    • § 8:11.2 : Category 2 Safe Harbor for Equity8-37
    • § 8:11.3 : Category 3 Safe Harbor for Equity8-37
  • § 8:12 : Problematic Practices8-37
    • § 8:12.1 : Pre-1998 Amendments8-37
    • § 8:12.2 : Adoption of Rule 905—Resale Limitations8-40
    • § 8:12.3 : Other 1998 Amendments8-40
  • § 8:13 : Consequences of Non-Compliance with Reg S8-41
    • § 8:13.1 : Applicability of Securities Act Liability Provisions8-41
      • [A] : Section 12 Liability8-41
      • [B] : Section 11 Liability8-42
    • § 8:13.2 : Applicability of Exchange Act Liability and Anti-Fraud Provisions, and State Blue Sky Laws8-42
  • § 8:14 : Other Issues8-43
    • § 8:14.1 : Regulation M8-43
    • § 8:14.2 : Investment Company Act8-44
    • § 8:14.3 : FINRA8-45
    • § 8:14.4 : Trust Indenture Act8-45
    • § 8:14.5 : Regulation S-K and Disclosure of Sales of Unregistered Securities8-45
Chapter 9: Rule 701
  • § 9:1 : Introduction9-1
    • § 9:1.1 : Original Rule 7019-1
    • § 9:1.2 : Limitations of Original Rule 7019-2
  • § 9:2 : Amended Rule 7019-3
    • § 9:2.1 : Conditions for Rule 7019-4
  • § 9:3 : Eligible Issuers9-5
  • § 9:4 : Exempt Compensatory Arrangements and Transactions9-5
  • § 9:5 : Eligible Participants9-5
  • § 9:6 : Aggregate Amount of Securities9-8
    • § 9:6.1 : Amounts That May Be Sold9-8
    • § 9:6.2 : Calculating the Aggregate Sales Price9-9
    • § 9:6.3 : Time of the Calculation9-10
    • § 9:6.4 : Calculating the Outstanding Securities9-10
  • § 9:7 : Disclosure Requirements9-11
  • § 9:8 : Foreign Private Issuers9-12
  • § 9:9 : No Integration with Other Offerings9-13
  • § 9:10 : Resale Limitations9-14
  • § 9:11 : Failure to Comply with Rule 7019-15
  • § 9:12 : State Blue Sky Laws9-16
    • § 9:12.1 : Florida9-16
    • § 9:12.2 : California9-17
    • § 9:12.3 : New York9-18
  • § 9:13 : Impact of the JOBS Act9-18
Chapter 10: Shelf Registration Statements
  • § 10:1 : What Is Shelf Registration?10-2
    • § 10:1.1 : Advantages of Shelf Registration Statements10-5
    • § 10:1.2 : Types of Offerings on a Shelf Registration Statement10-9
  • § 10:2 : Rule 41510-10
    • § 10:2.1 : Difference Between a Delayed Offering and a Continuous Offering10-10
    • § 10:2.2 : Securities Eligible for Issuance Under Rule 41510-11
    • § 10:2.3 : Expiration of Shelf Registration Statements10-13
  • § 10:3 : Eligibility for Use of Form S-310-14
    • § 10:3.1 : Registrant Requirements10-14
    • § 10:3.2 : Transaction Requirements10-16
    • § 10:3.3 : Smaller Public Companies—2007 Amendments to Form S-310-19
      • [A] : Shell Restrictions10-22
      • [B] : Listing Requirement10-23
      • [C] : One-Third of Public Float Limitation10-23
      • [D] : Different Methods of Calculating Public Float10-24
      • [E] : Effect of Fluctuations in Public Float10-25
      • [F] : Failure to Satisfy Form S-3 Eligibility Requirements10-25
      • [G] : Effect of 2007 Amendments on Exchange Approval Requirements for Private Offerings of 20% or More of Outstanding Shares10-26
    • § 10:3.4 : Automatic Shelf Offerings by Well-Known Seasoned Issuers10-27
      • [A] : Benefits of Being a Well-Known Seasoned Issuer10-27
      • [B] : Definition of WKSI10-28
        • [B][1] : Majority-Owned Subsidiaries10-29
        • [B][2] : Timing of WKSI Determination10-30
        • [B][3] : Public Float10-31
    • § 10:3.5 : Ongoing Satisfaction of Eligibility Requirements10-31
      • [A] : Impact of Late Filings of Exchange Act Reports10-32
      • [B] : Ineligible Issuer Concerns for WKSIs10-33
  • § 10:4 : Primary Offerings and Secondary Offerings10-34
    • § 10:4.1 : Differences Between Primary and Secondary Offerings10-34
    • § 10:4.2 : Disguised Primary Offering10-35
  • § 10:5 : Plan of Distribution10-36
  • § 10:6 : Shelf Registration Statements on Form S-110-38
  • § 10:7 : Liability for Shelf Registration Statements10-40
  • § 10:8 : Blackout Periods10-41
  • § 10:9 : Other Issues10-42
    • § 10:9.1 : FINRA Filings10-42
    • § 10:9.2 : Regulation FD10-43
    • § 10:9.3 : Trust Indenture Act10-45
Chapter 11: Securities Offering Reform
  • § 11:1 : Overview11-2
    • § 11:1.1 : Background of Securities Offering Reform11-4
  • § 11:2 : New Categories of Issuers11-6
  • § Table 11-1 : Differences Among Categories of Issuers11-8
    • § § 11:2.1 : WKSIs11-9
    • § § 11:2.2 : Seasoned Issuers11-10
    • § § 11:2.3 : Unseasoned Issuers11-12
    • § § 11:2.4 : Non-Reporting Issuers11-12
    • § § 11:2.5 : Ineligible Issuers11-13
  • § § 11:3 : Revamping the Communications Regime11-16
    • § § 11:3.1 : Overview11-16
  • § Table 11-2 : Section 5 Before Securities Offering Reform11-21
  • § Table 11-3 : Section 5 After Securities Offering Reform11-22
    • § § 11:3.2 : Safe Harbors for Regularly Released Information11-23
      • [A] : Rule 16811-23
      • [B] : Rule 16911-25
    • § § 11:3.3 : Safe Harbor for Communications Made More than Thirty Days Before Filing a Registration Statement11-26
    • § § 11:3.4 : Research Report Safe Harbors11-28
      • [A] : Overview of the Expansion of Research Safe Harbors11-28
        • [A][1] : Definition of Research Report11-30
        • [A][2] : Rule 144A and Regulation S Offerings11-31
        • [A][3] : Issuer-Based Exclusions11-32
      • [B] : Rule 137—Broker-Dealers Not Participating in the Distribution11-32
      • [C] : Rule 138—Broker-Dealers Participating in the Distribution of a Different Security11-33
      • [D] : Rule 139—Broker-Dealers Participating in the Distribution of the Same Security11-34
        • [D][1] : Issuer-Specific Reports11-35
        • [D][2] : Industry-Specific Reports11-36
  • § § 11:4 : Liability and the Time of Sale Concept11-37
  • § § 11:5 : Other Securities Offering Reform Changes11-39
  • § § 11:6 : Practical Effects of Securities Offering Reform11-40
    • § § 11:6.1 : Underwriting Agreements11-40
    • § § 11:6.2 : Legal Opinions11-41
    • § § 11:6.3 : SEC Review Process11-41
Chapter 12: Private Placement Reform
  • § 12:1 : Introduction12-1
  • § 12:2 : Advisory Committee on Smaller Public Companies12-5
    • § 12:2.1 : Establishment of Advisory Committee12-6
      • [A] : Agenda and Initial Comments12-7
    • § 12:2.2 : Advisory Committee Recommendations12-8
      • [A] : Recommendation IV.P.312-9
      • [B] : Recommendation IV.P.512-10
      • [C] : Recommendation IV.P.612-11
      • [D] : Recommendation IV.S.712-12
      • [E] : Recommendation IV.S.912-12
      • [F] : Recommendation IV.S.1112-12
  • § 12:3 : ABA Recommendations12-13
  • § 12:4 : SEC Adoption of Amendments to Rules Affecting Smaller Reporting Companies and the Private Placement of Securities12-17
  • § 12:5 : Private Placement Reform12-19
    • § 12:5.1 : Proposed Revisions to Regulation D—August 200712-19
    • § 12:5.2 : Comments to Proposed Revisions to Regulation D12-21
    • § 12:5.3 : The Dodd-Frank Act and Private Placements12-22
    • § 12:5.4 : Post-Dodd-Frank Act Proposed Changes12-23
  • § 12:6 : The JOBS Act and Private Placement Reform12-26
    • § 12:6.1 : Overview12-26
    • § 12:6.2 : Relaxation of the Ban on General Solicitation12-28
    • § 12:6.3 : Matchmaking Sites12-28
    • § 12:6.4 : Crowdfunding12-29
    • § 12:6.5 : Distinctions Between Private and Public Offerings12-30
Chapter 13: Staying Private
  • § 13:1 : Introduction13-2
  • § 13:2 : Exchange Act Reporting13-2
    • § 13:2.1 : History of Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act13-4
      • [A] : Prior to the JOBS Act13-4
      • [B] : JOBS Act Changes to Sections 12(g) and 15(d)13-5
    • § 13:2.2 : Total Assets13-6
    • § 13:2.3 : Equity Security13-6
      • [A] : Excluding Optionholders13-7
      • [B] : Other Equity Compensation13-11
    • § 13:2.4 : Holders of Record13-14
    • § 13:2.5 : Suspension of Filing Obligation—Rule 12h-313-16
    • § 13:2.6 : State Law Matters13-17
  • § 13:3 : Ownership Limitations13-18
    • § 13:3.1 : Transfer Restrictions13-19
    • § 13:3.2 : Rights of First Refusal and Co-Sale13-19
    • § 13:3.3 : Fees and Legal Opinions13-19
    • § 13:3.4 : Insider Trading Policies13-20
    • § 13:3.5 : Right to Redeem13-21
    • § 13:3.6 : Legality of the Restrictions13-22
  • § 13:4 : Use of Special Purpose Investment Vehicles13-23
  • § 13:5 : Liquidity Opportunities13-26
    • § 13:5.1 : Employee Sales13-26
    • § 13:5.2 : Structured Secondary Sales13-27
    • § 13:5.3 : Private Placement Exemption and Tender Offer Rules13-27
  • § 13:6 : Private Secondary Trading Markets13-27
    • § 13:6.1 : History and Market Size13-28
    • § 13:6.2 : SecondMarket13-29
    • § 13:6.3 : SharesPost13-31
    • § 13:6.4 : The NASDAQ Private Market13-32
    • § 13:6.5 : The PORTAL Alliance13-34
    • § 13:6.6 : Legal Considerations13-36
      • [A] : SEC Supervision13-36
      • [B] : Alternative Trading System13-37
      • [C] : Passive Bulletin Board13-39
      • [D] : FINRA13-40
      • [E] : Compliance13-41
      • [F] : Insider Trading13-42
    • § 13:6.7 : Other Issues13-43
      • [A] : Liquidity13-43
      • [B] : Valuation and Section 409A13-43
      • [C] : Valuation in an IPO13-45
      • [D] : Legal Risks13-45
Chapter 14: Venture Private Placements
  • § 14:1 : Introduction14-2
  • § 14:2 : Structuring a Venture Private Placement14-3
    • § 14:2.1 : Section 4(a)(2)/Regulation D14-3
    • § 14:2.2 : Other Considerations14-4
  • § 14:3 : Offering Process14-6
    • § 14:3.1 : Initial Preparations14-6
    • § 14:3.2 : Determining the Type of Security14-7
    • § 14:3.3 : Identifying and Contacting Investors14-7
    • § 14:3.4 : Offering Document14-9
    • § 14:3.5 : Preparing the Term Sheet14-10
    • § 14:3.6 : Due Diligence14-11
    • § 14:3.7 : Preparing Transaction Documentation14-13
    • § 14:3.8 : Corporate Approvals14-13
    • § 14:3.9 : Offering and Sale of the Securities14-14
    • § 14:3.10 : Closing14-14
    • § 14:3.11 : Filing Form D14-15
  • § 14:4 : Documentation for a Venture Private Placement14-16
    • § 14:4.1 : Term Sheet14-17
      • [A] : Non-Binding Nature of the Term Sheet14-18
      • [B] : Confidentiality14-18
      • [C] : Exclusive Dealing14-18
    • § 14:4.2 : Stock Purchase Agreement14-19
    • § 14:4.3 : Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation14-21
      • [A] : Dividends14-22
      • [B] : Liquidation Preference14-22
      • [C] : Voting Rights14-23
        • [C][1] : Electing Directors14-23
        • [C][2] : Protective Provisions14-24
      • [D] : Conversion14-25
        • [D][1] : Mandatory Conversion14-25
          • [D][1][a] : Qualified Initial Public Offering14-25
          • [D][1][b] : Pay-to-Play Provision14-25
        • [D][2] : Optional Conversion14-26
      • [E] : Anti-Dilution Protection14-26
      • [F] : Redemption14-27
    • § 14:4.4 : Investor Rights Agreement14-27
      • [A] : Registration Rights14-28
        • [A][1] : Demand Registration Rights14-29
        • [A][2] : Piggyback Registration Rights14-29
        • [A][3] : Form S-3 Rights14-29
        • [A][4] : “Haircuts,” Stand-Asides, and Lockups14-30
      • [B] : Information and Observer Rights14-30
        • [B][1] : Delivery of Financial Statements14-30
        • [B][2] : Observer Rights14-30
      • [C] : Right of First Offer14-31
      • [D] : Affirmative Covenants14-31
      • [E] : Negative Covenants14-32
    • § 14:4.5 : Voting Agreement14-32
    • § 14:4.6 : Right of First Refusal and Co-Sale Agreement14-33
    • § 14:4.7 : Case Law Related to Venture Capital Transaction Documents14-34
Chapter 15: Traditional PIPE Transactions
  • § 15:1 : What Is a PIPE Transaction?15-4
    • § 15:1.1 : Growth of PIPE Transactions15-5
    • § 15:1.2 : Traditional PIPE Transactions Compared to Structured PIPE Transactions15-5
      • [A] : Securities Offered15-5
      • [B] : Pricing15-5
      • [C] : Covenants15-6
      • [D] : Market for Traditional PIPE Transactions Versus Structured PIPE Transactions15-6
    • § 15:1.3 : Why Use a PIPE Transaction?15-6
      • [A] : Advantages of a PIPE Transaction for the Issuer15-6
        • [A][1] : Lower Transaction Expenses15-6
        • [A][2] : Expand Accredited Investor Base15-6
        • [A][3] : Less Incentive to Hedge15-7
        • [A][4] : Disclosure Only After Definitive Agreements15-7
        • [A][5] : Streamlined Offering Materials and Documentation15-8
      • [B] : Advantages of a PIPE Transaction for Investors15-9
        • [B][1] : Shares Sold at a Discount15-9
        • [B][2] : Funding After Resale Registration Statement Is Available15-9
    • § 15:1.4 : Why Wouldn’t an Issuer Use a PIPE Transaction?15-9
      • [A] : Disadvantages of a PIPE Transaction for the Issuer15-9
        • [A][1] : Shares Sold at a Discount15-9
        • [A][2] : Restrictions on “Blackout” Periods15-10
        • [A][3] : Limitations on Marketing15-10
        • [A][4] : Limitations on Number of Shares Sold15-10
        • [A][5] : Delays in Effectiveness of Resale Registration Statement15-11
      • [B] : Disadvantages of a PIPE Transaction for Investors15-11
        • [B][1] : Pricing Risk15-11
        • [B][2] : Liquidity Risk15-12
    • § 15:1.5 : Why a PIPE Transaction and for Which Issuers?15-12
      • [A] : Factors to Consider When Evaluating a PIPE Transaction15-12
      • [B] : Smaller Public Companies15-12
      • [C] : Technology, Life Sciences and Biotechnology Issuers15-13
      • [D] : Distressed Issuers15-13
      • [E] : More Larger and Well-Established Issuers15-14
      • [F] : Shelf Eligibility for PIPE Issuers15-14
        • [F][1] : Form S-3 and Form S-115-15
        • [F][2] : Using Form S-315-15
        • [F][3] : Rule 415 and Secondary Offerings15-16
    • § 15:1.6 : What Types of Investors Invest in PIPE Transactions?15-16
      • [A] : Fundamental and Technical Investors15-17
        • [A][1] : Fundamental Investors15-17
        • [A][2] : Technical Investors15-17
  • § 15:2 : Federal Legal and Regulatory Framework15-18
    • § 15:2.1 : Discussion of Legal Structure15-18
      • [A] : Information Requirements15-18
      • [B] : General Solicitation15-19
      • [C] : Limitations on Resale15-20
      • [D] : Integration15-20
        • [D][1] : Initial Sale to Purchasers15-20
        • [D][2] : Rule 152 and Resale Registration Statement Issues15-21
      • [E] : State Blue Sky Laws15-23
  • § 15:3 : Placement Agents15-23
    • § 15:3.1 : Engaging a Placement Agent15-23
    • § 15:3.2 : Engagement Letter Issues15-24
      • [A] : Fees15-24
      • [B] : Comfort Letter, Opinion, and Other Closing Deliveries15-24
      • [C] : Issuer Lock-Up15-25
      • [D] : Tails, Right of First Refusal, and Other Terms15-25
      • [E] : Indemnification15-25
    • § 15:3.3 : Placement Agent’s Role15-26
      • [A] : Contacting Investors15-26
        • [A][1] : No General Solicitation15-26
        • [A][2] : How Are Investors Solicited?15-27
        • [A][3] : When Is a Confidentiality Agreement Required?15-27
      • [B] : Preparation of Documents15-28
    • § 15:3.4 : Placement Agent Best Practices15-29
      • [A] : Watch Lists and Information Walls15-29
      • [B] : Marketing Efforts15-30
      • [C] : Execution Issues15-31
  • § 15:4 : Information Requirements15-31
    • § 15:4.1 : What Is Disclosed in a Private Placement Memorandum?15-31
      • [A] : Relying on the Issuer’s Exchange Act Filings15-31
        • [A][1] : Important Considerations15-32
        • [A][2] : Summary of the Offering15-32
        • [A][3] : Forward-Looking Statements15-33
        • [A][4] : Overview15-33
        • [A][5] : Risk Factors15-33
        • [A][6] : Use of Proceeds15-33
        • [A][7] : Capitalization15-33
    • § 15:4.2 : Confidential Information in the Private Placement Memorandum15-33
    • § 15:4.3 : Additional Disclosure Concerns15-34
      • [A] : Regulation FD15-34
      • [B] : Insider Trading15-34
  • § 15:5 : Due Diligence15-35
    • § 15:5.1 : Placement Agent Due Diligence15-35
      • [A] : Reasons to Conduct Due Diligence15-35
      • [B] : Level of Due Diligence15-35
    • § 15:5.2 : Investors15-36
  • § 15:6 : Documentation15-36
    • § 15:6.1 : What Is in the Purchase Agreement for Issuers?15-36
      • [A] : Representations and Warranties of the Issuer15-36
      • [B] : Covenants15-38
      • [C] : Indemnification15-39
    • § 15:6.2 : What Is in the Purchase Agreement for Investors?15-39
      • [A] : Transferability Restrictions and Investment Representations and Warranties15-39
      • [B] : Other Representations and Warranties15-41
      • [C] : Covenants15-41
    • § 15:6.3 : Securities Exchange Issues15-41
      • [A] : Sales Limitations15-41
        • [A][1] : New York Stock Exchange15-42
        • [A][2] : NYSE MKT15-42
        • [A][3] : Nasdaq15-42
      • [B] : Integration Issues15-43
    • § 15:6.4 : Resale Registration Statement on Form S-315-44
      • [A] : Filing Commitments15-44
        • [A][1] : Failure to File or Be Declared Effective Within Prescribed Periods15-44
      • [B] : Blackout Periods15-44
      • [C] : Content and Potential Concerns15-44
  • § 15:7 : Closing Conditions15-45
    • § 15:7.1 : Typical Deliverables and Other Closing Conditions15-45
      • [A] : Opinions15-45
        • [A][1] : Purpose of Legal Opinions in Traditional PIPE Transactions15-45
        • [A][2] : Process15-45
        • [A][3] : Corporate Legal Opinion15-46
          • [A][3][a] : Introduction15-46
          • [A][3][b] : Qualifications and Exceptions15-46
          • [A][3][c] : Jurisdiction15-47
          • [A][3][d] : Opinion Points15-47
          • [A][3][e] : Relationships15-49
          • [A][3][f] : Reliance15-49
          • [A][3][g] : Special Opinions15-49
        • [A][4] : Negative Assurance15-49
          • [A][4][a] : Diligence15-49
          • [A][4][b] : Negative Assurance15-50
      • [B] : Opinion of Counsel to the Placement Agent15-50
      • [C] : Comfort Letters15-50
        • [C][1] : Purpose15-50
        • [C][2] : Content15-51
      • [D] : Officer’s Certificate15-51
  • § 15:8 : Legends and Stop Orders15-52
    • § 15:8.1 : SEC Release on Use of Legends15-52
    • § 15:8.2 : Lifting Legends15-53
  • § 15:9 : Pricing and Settlement Issues15-53
    • § 15:9.1 : Pricing Issues15-53
      • [A] : Signed Documents15-54
    • § 15:9.2 : Settlement Issues15-54
  • § Chart 15-1 : SEC Viewpoints on PIPES—A Brief History15-56
Chapter 16: Structured PIPE Transactions
  • § 16:1 : What Is a Structured PIPE Transaction?16-3
    • § 16:1.1 : Typical Structured PIPE Transactions16-4
      • [A] : Common Stock with Warrant Coverage16-4
      • [B] : Convertible Preferred Stock16-6
      • [C] : Convertible Notes or Debentures16-7
  • § 16:2 : Why a Structured PIPE Transaction Versus a Traditional PIPE Transaction?16-8
    • § 16:2.1 : Differences Between a Structured PIPE and a Traditional PIPE Transaction16-8
      • [A] : Advantages to Issuer16-9
      • [B] : Advantages to Investor16-9
      • [C] : Disadvantages to Issuer16-10
      • [D] : Disadvantages to Investor16-10
    • § 16:2.2 : Issuer Profile16-10
    • § 16:2.3 : Investor Profile16-12
  • § 16:3 : Investor Perspective16-13
  • § 16:4 : Convertible Structures16-14
    • § 16:4.1 : Considerations Relating to Convertible Securities16-14
    • § 16:4.2 : Registration Issues16-15
  • § 16:5 : Process for Conducting a Structured PIPE Transaction16-16
    • § 16:5.1 : Engaging the Placement Agent16-16
    • § 16:5.2 : Role of the Placement Agent16-16
      • [A] : Launch of the Transaction16-16
      • [B] : Preliminary Matters16-17
      • [C] : Private Placement Memorandum and Other Offering Materials16-17
    • § 16:5.3 : Soliciting Investors16-18
    • § 16:5.4 : Investor Term Sheets16-18
      • [A] : Purpose16-18
      • [B] : Contents16-19
      • [C] : Binding Effect16-20
    • § 16:5.5 : Lead Investor Role16-20
    • § 16:5.6 : Investor Counsel16-21
  • § 16:6 : Information Requirements16-21
  • § 16:7 : Documentation16-22
    • § 16:7.1 : Documentation16-22
      • [A] : Securities Purchase Agreement16-22
      • [B] : Certificates of Designations/Convertible Notes/Convertible Debentures16-23
        • [B][1] : Floors and Ceilings16-23
        • [B][2] : Conversion Adjustments—Antidilution Provisions for Subsequent Sales of Equity16-23
      • [C] : Mandatory Conversion16-26
      • [D] : Redemptions/Prepayments16-26
    • § 16:7.2 : Ongoing Covenants/Financial Covenants16-27
      • [A] : Negative Covenants16-27
      • [B] : Affirmative Covenants16-29
    • § 16:7.3 : Registration Rights16-29
      • [A] : Time Periods16-30
      • [B] : Blackouts16-30
      • [C] : Penalty Provisions16-30
    • § 16:7.4 : Transfer Agent Issues16-31
      • [A] : Instructions16-31
      • [B] : Legends and Blanket Opinions16-31
      • [C] : Penalty Shares for Not Processing Transfers; Buy-Ins16-31
    • § 16:7.5 : Additional Documents16-32
      • [A] : Debentures/Notes16-32
      • [B] : Certificate of Designations (or Board Resolution)16-33
      • [C] : Warrant16-33
      • [D] : Security Agreements/Pledge Agreements16-34
    • § 16:7.6 : Closing Documents16-34
      • [A] : Additional Opinions16-34
      • [B] : Comfort Letter16-35
      • [C] : Officers’ Certificate/Secretary’s Certificate16-35
    • § 16:7.7 : Investment Representations/Hedging Transactions16-35
    • § 16:7.8 : Group Issues16-35
      • [A] : Effects of Being Deemed a Group16-36
      • [B] : Contractual Provisions to Disclaim Group Status16-37
      • [C] : Other Steps to Avoid Being Deemed a Group16-38
    • § 16:7.9 : Public Announcements of PIPE Transactions16-38
      • [A] : Press Release16-38
      • [B] : Current Report on Form 8-K16-39
    • § 16:7.10 : European PIPE Transactions16-39
      • [A] : England16-40
      • [B] : Germany16-40
      • [C] : The Netherlands16-42
      • [D] : France16-42
Chapter 17: Questions Arising in Connection with PIPE Transactions
  • § 17:1 : Questions Arising in Connection with PIPE Transactions17-2
    • § 17:1.1 : Completed PIPEs17-2
      • [A] : Timing of Registration of Privately Placed Securities17-2
        • [A][1] : Closing Conditions17-3
        • [A][2] : Determination of Purchase Price17-6
        • [A][3] : Filing of Registration Statement in Close Proximity with Closing17-6
        • [A][4] : Transaction Must Be “Closed”17-7
        • [A][5] : Securities Must Be Fully Paid17-8
          • [A][5][a] : Payment of Purchase Price17-8
          • [A][5][b] : Payment Finality17-9
        • [A][6] : Securities Must Be Outstanding17-10
  • § 17:2 : Formula Pricing17-10
    • § 17:2.1 : Death Spirals17-11
    • § 17:2.2 : Equity Lines of Credit17-12
  • § 17:3 : Multiple Tranche Deals17-13
    • § 17:3.1 : Integration of Offerings17-13
      • [A] : Regulation D17-14
      • [B] : Employee Benefit Plan Offerings17-15
      • [C] : Regulation A17-15
      • [D] : Rule 144A17-15
      • [E] : Regulation S17-15
  • § 17:4 : The Primary Offering Versus the Secondary Offering Issue and the Ability to Issue Shares on a Continuous Basis Pursuant to Rule 41517-15
    • § 17:4.1 : Determining Whether an Offering Is a Primary or a Secondary Offering17-19
    • § 17:4.2 : Effect of a Resale Being Deemed a Primary Offering17-20
    • § 17:4.3 : Alternatives to Registration As a Primary Offering17-21
  • § 17:5 : Convertible Securities and Registration of Underlying Securities17-22
  • § 17:6 : EITF 00-19 and Warrants and Registration Rights17-23
  • § 17:7 : Accounting Issues Relating to Convertible Securities17-24
  • § 17:8 : Add-Ons to Announced Deals17-25
  • § 17:9 : Selling Security Holder Disclosures17-26
    • § 17:9.1 : Issues Arising in Connection with Selling Stockholders That Are Broker-Dealers17-27
    • § 17:9.2 : Hedging Restricted Securities17-29
  • § 17:10 : Shareholder Approval Requirements17-30
Chapter 18: Conducting Institutional “4(a)(2)” Private Debt Placements
  • § 18:1 : Introduction18-2
    • § 18:1.1 : Institutional Debt Placement Versus a Rule 144A Offering18-4
    • § 18:1.2 : Institutional Private Placements, Public Offerings and Bank Loans18-4
    • § 18:1.3 : Advantages of Institutional Private Placements18-5
    • § 18:1.4 : The Institutional Private Placement Market18-6
    • § 18:1.5 : Market History18-7
  • § 18:2 : Procedures for Conducting Institutional Private Placements18-8
    • § 18:2.1 : Engage Placement Agent(s)18-8
    • § 18:2.2 : Engage Pre-Designated Investors’ Counsel18-8
      • [A] : Conflicts of Interest18-8
      • [B] : Responsibilities18-9
    • § 18:2.3 : Other Advisors18-10
      • [A] : Issuer’s Counsel18-10
      • [B] : Investor’s In-House Counsel18-10
      • [C] : Local Counsel18-10
    • § 18:2.4 : Due Diligence18-11
    • § 18:2.5 : Consents18-11
    • § 18:2.6 : Documentation and Marketing18-12
      • [A] : Offering Memorandum18-12
      • [B] : Term Sheet18-12
      • [C] : Note Purchase Agreement18-12
        • [C][1] : Notes18-13
        • [C][2] : Guarantee Agreement18-14
        • [C][3] : Marketing18-14
        • [C][4] : Pre-Circle18-14
        • [C][5] : Post-Circle18-15
    • § 18:2.7 : Notes Sold to Investors and the Private Placement Closes18-16
      • [A] : Private Placement Number18-16
      • [B] : Opinions18-16
        • [B][1] : Form of Opinion of Issuer’s Counsel18-16
        • [B][2] : Form of Opinion of Pre-Designated Counsel18-17
      • [C] : Other Closing Deliverables18-17
  • § 18:3 : Standard Form Private Placement Agreement18-18
    • § 18:3.1 : Closing Conditions18-19
    • § 18:3.2 : Issuer Representations and Warranties18-21
    • § 18:3.3 : Investor Representations18-24
    • § 18:3.4 : Information Delivered by the Issuer to Institutional Investors18-24
    • § 18:3.5 : Required and Optional Prepayment of the Notes18-25
      • [A] : Required Prepayments and Maturity18-25
      • [B] : Optional Prepayments with Make-Whole Amount18-26
      • [C] : Make-Whole Amount18-26
    • § 18:3.6 : Affirmative Covenants18-26
    • § 18:3.7 : Negative Covenants18-27
    • § 18:3.8 : Events of Default18-28
  • § 18:4 : Investment Representations18-29
  • § 18:5 : Other Legal Considerations18-30
    • § 18:5.1 : Withholding Tax Issues18-30
    • § 18:5.2 : NAIC Requirements18-31
      • [A] : Ratings and Reserve Requirements18-31
      • [B] : Legal Investment Requirements18-32
    • § 18:5.3 : Trust Indenture Act18-32
  • § 18:6 : Secondary Private Placements18-32
    • § 18:6.1 : Diligence Review of Documents18-33
    • § 18:6.2 : Secondary Transaction Letters18-34
      • [A] : Purchaser Letter18-34
      • [B] : Seller Letter18-35
      • [C] : Confidentiality Letter18-35
      • [D] : Transfer Agreement—Distressed Securities18-36
Chapter 19: Conducting Rule 144A and Regulation S Offerings
  • § 19:1 : Structuring a Rule 144A Offering19-4
  • § 19:2 : Choosing Between a Rule 144A Offering and a Registered Offering19-7
    • § 19:2.1 : Timing and Efficiency19-7
    • § 19:2.2 : Disclosure19-8
    • § 19:2.3 : Types of Potential Investors19-9
    • § 19:2.4 : Liquidity—Restrictions on Resale and Secondary Trading Market19-10
    • § 19:2.5 : Offering Size19-11
    • § 19:2.6 : Access to U.S. Market by Foreign Issuers Without Becoming a U.S. Reporting Company19-11
    • § 19:2.7 : Continuing Disclosure Obligations and Corporate Governance19-11
    • § 19:2.8 : Liability19-13
    • § 19:2.9 : Rule 144A Offerings Are Exempt from Regulation M19-13
  • § 19:3 : Summary of Rule 144A Conditions19-14
  • § 19:4 : Structuring a Regulation S Offering19-15
  • § 19:5 : Advantages and Disadvantages of a Regulation S Offering19-17
    • § 19:5.1 : Advantages19-17
      • [A] : Bright Line Safe Harbor19-17
      • [B] : No SEC Review or Ongoing U.S. Disclosure Obligations19-18
      • [C] : Alternative Access to Non-U.S. Public Markets19-18
      • [D] : Access to Foreign Investors19-18
      • [E] : Benefits for Foreign Investors19-19
      • [F] : Benefits for Foreign Issuers19-19
    • § 19:5.2 : Disadvantages19-19
  • § 19:6 : Summary of Regulation S Conditions19-20
    • § 19:6.1 : Offshore Transactions19-21
    • § 19:6.2 : Directed Selling Efforts19-21
    • § 19:6.3 : Transactional and Offering Restrictions19-22
      • [A] : Transactional Restrictions19-23
      • [B] : Offering Restrictions19-24
    • § 19:6.4 : Defining a U.S. Person19-24
    • § 19:6.5 : Regulation S Categories and Special Situations19-25
      • [A] : Category 1 Transactions19-25
      • [B] : Category 2 Transactions19-26
      • [C] : Category 3 Transactions19-26
      • [D] : Convertible Securities and Warrants of U.S. Issuers—Different Emphasis from Rule 144A19-26
  • § 19:7 : U.S. Federal Income Tax Issues in Structuring Offerings of Debt Securities19-27
    • § 19:7.1 : OID19-27
      • [A] : In General19-27
      • [B] : AHYDO Rules19-28
    • § 19:7.2 : TEFRA Requirements—Intersection of Federal Income Tax Law with Regulation S19-29
      • [A] : In General19-29
      • [B] : Repeal of TEFRA Exemption19-36
  • § 19:8 : Regulation S—Alone and in Combination with Other Offerings19-37
    • § 19:8.1 : Standalone Regulation S Offerings19-37
    • § 19:8.2 : Combined Rule 144A and Regulation S Offerings19-38
    • § 19:8.3 : Listing on a Non-U.S. Exchange19-39
  • § 19:9 : The Offering Process for a Rule 144A or Combined Rule 144A/Regulation S Transaction19-40
    • § 19:9.1 : Overview19-40
    • § 19:9.2 : Due Diligence19-44
    • § 19:9.3 : Road Shows19-45
      • [A] : Use of the Internet19-45
    • § 19:9.4 : Press Releases19-48
    • § 19:9.5 : Resale Limitations and Transfer Restrictions19-50
      • [A] : Rule 144A Offering Only19-52
      • [B] : Institutional Accredited Investors in a “Side-by-Side” Placement19-52
        • [B][1] : Initial Resale Under Rule 144A19-52
        • [B][2] : Bifurcated Trading19-52
        • [B][3] : Fungible Trading19-53
      • [C] : Regulation S Restrictions19-53
    • § 19:9.6 : Legends19-55
      • [A] : Rule 144A19-55
      • [B] : Regulation S19-55
    • § 19:9.7 : Clearance and Settlement19-55
      • [A] : Clearing Systems19-56
      • [B] : Global Securities in Combined Offerings19-57
  • § 19:10 : Rule 144A and Regulation S Transaction Documents19-60
    • § 19:10.1 : Overview19-60
      • [A] : In General19-60
      • [B] : “Disclosure Package”19-61
    • § 19:10.2 : Offering Memorandum19-63
      • [A] : Form and Style19-63
      • [B] : Regulation FD and Other Disclosure Matters19-66
      • [C] : Content19-67
    • § 19:10.3 : Purchase Agreement19-73
    • § 19:10.4 : Registration Rights Agreement19-76
      • [A] : A/B Exchange Offer19-76
      • [B] : Resale Shelf Registration Statements19-79
      • [C] : Changes to Registration Rights Arrangements19-80
    • § 19:10.5 : Comfort Letters19-81
    • § 19:10.6 : Legal Opinions and Other Legal Letters19-82
  • § 19:11 : Debt Offerings19-83
    • § 19:11.1 : In General19-83
    • § 19:11.2 : High Yield Debt Offerings19-83
    • § 19:11.3 : Continuous Offering Programs for Debt Securities19-85
    • § 19:11.4 : Convertible Debt Offerings19-86
    • § 19:11.5 : Indenture and Description of Notes19-88
    • § 19:11.6 : Trust Indenture Act19-88
  • § 19:12 : Equity Securities Offerings19-89
    • § 19:12.1 : Non-Fungibility19-89
    • § 19:12.2 : Private “IPOs”19-89
    • § 19:12.3 : Depositary Receipts19-90
      • [A] : Secondary Market for ADRs19-91
        • [A][1] : Subsequent Filing of Form F-619-91
        • [A][2] : Rule 12g3-2(b)19-94
  • § 19:13 : Private Investment Companies19-96
    • § 19:13.1 : “Investment Company” Under the Investment Company Act of 194019-96
    • § 19:13.2 : Section 3(c)(1) Exemption—100 Owners19-97
    • § 19:13.3 : Section 3(c)(7) Exemption—Qualified Purchasers19-98
    • § 19:13.4 : Difficult Choice19-99
    • § 19:13.5 : Monitoring the Exemption19-99
      • [A] : Reasonable Belief19-100
      • [B] : SIFMA Procedures19-101
      • [C] : Lawyers’ Approach19-102
    • § 19:13.6 : Recommended Section 3(c)(7) Offering Procedures19-104
      • [A] : U.S. Issuers19-105
        • [A][1] : U.S. Non-fund Issuers of Debt Securities19-105
        • [A][2] : U.S. Non-fund Issuers of Equity Securities19-107
        • [A][3] : U.S. Classic Investment Companies (Fund Issuers) Issuing Debt Securities19-108
        • [A][4] : U.S. Classic Investment Companies (Fund Issuers) Issuing Equity Securities19-109
      • [B] : Non-U.S. Issuers19-109
        • [B][1] : Non-U.S. Non-fund Issuers of Debt Securities19-109
        • [B][2] : Non-U.S. Non-fund Issuers of Equity Securities19-109
        • [B][3] : Non-U.S. Classic Investment Companies (Fund Issuers) Issuing Debt or Equity Securities19-112
Chapter 20: Conducting Shelf Takedowns
  • § 20:1 : Introduction20-2
  • § 20:2 : Preparing for a Shelf Registration Statement Filing20-3
    • § 20:2.1 : Contents of a Shelf Registration Statement20-4
    • § 20:2.2 : The “Base” Prospectus20-5
      • [A] : Information That May Be Omitted from the Base Prospectus20-6
        • [A][1] : Issuers Eligible to File Form S-3 for a Primary Offering20-6
        • [A][2] : WKSIs20-7
        • [A][3] : Secondary Offerings20-7
      • [B] : Supplying Omitted Information20-9
    • § 20:2.3 : The Undertakings20-10
    • § 20:2.4 : Exhibits20-12
      • [A] : Legality Opinion20-13
      • [B] : Consents of Accountants and Others20-14
    • § 20:2.5 : FINRA Filings and Exchange Listings20-15
    • § 20:2.6 : Declaration of Effectiveness20-16
  • § 20:3 : The Takedown20-17
    • § 20:3.1 : Prospectus Supplement20-17
    • § 20:3.2 : Free Writing Prospectus—Relation to “Time of Sale”20-19
    • § 20:3.3 : Due Diligence20-22
    • § 20:3.4 : Underwriting Agreements20-23
      • [A] : Firm Commitment Underwriting Agreement20-25
      • [B] : Agency or Best Efforts Agreement20-26
    • § 20:3.5 : Legal Opinions and Other Legal Letters20-27
      • [A] : Legal Opinions20-27
      • [B] : Rule 10b-5 or Negative Assurance Letter20-28
    • § 20:3.6 : Comfort Letter20-30
  • § 20:4 : Alternative Methods of Shelf Takedowns20-30
    • § 20:4.1 : Underwritten Takedowns20-30
      • [A] : Bought Deals and Overnighters20-31
      • [B] : Wall-Crossed or Confidentially Marketed Public Offerings20-33
      • [C] : Block Trades20-34
    • § 20:4.2 : Agency Takedowns20-37
      • [A] : Registered Direct Offerings20-38
      • [B] : At-the-Market Offerings or Equity Distribution Programs20-38
        • [B][1] : Compliance-Related Issues20-41
          • [B][1][a] : Restricted Lists20-41
          • [B][1][b] : Research Coverage20-42
        • [B][2] : Conflicts Issues20-45
        • [B][3] : Application of Regulation M20-45
  • § 20:5 : Smaller Public Company Concerns20-46
Chapter 21: Public Hybrid Transactions
  • § 21:1 : What Is a Public Hybrid Transaction?21-3
  • § 21:2 : Registered Direct Offerings21-4
  • § 21:3 : Why a Registered Direct Offering Instead of a PIPE Transaction or a Traditional Follow-On Offering?21-5
    • § 21:3.1 : Advantages of a Registered Direct Offering21-5
      • [A] : Efficient Marketing21-5
      • [B] : Prompt Pricing and Closing21-5
      • [C] : Better Pricing21-6
      • [D] : Less Hedging Activity21-6
    • § 21:3.2 : Disadvantages of a Registered Direct Offering21-7
      • [A] : Not Widely Distributed21-7
      • [B] : Not a Public Offering Under Securities Exchange Rules21-7
  • § 21:4 : Issuer Profile21-7
  • § 21:5 : Investor Profile21-8
  • § 21:6 : Treatment of Registered Direct Offerings by Securities Exchanges21-8
    • § 21:6.1 : Shareholder Approval Rules21-8
    • § 21:6.2 : Is a Registered Direct Offering a Public Offering?21-9
      • [A] : Nasdaq Marketplace Rules21-10
      • [B] : NYSE MKT Company Guide21-11
      • [C] : NYSE Listed Company Manual21-11
  • § 21:7 : Registering the Registered Direct Offering21-12
    • § 21:7.1 : Selling Security Holder Securities21-12
    • § 21:7.2 : Bullet Registration Statements21-13
  • § 21:8 : FINRA Filings21-13
  • § 21:9 : Possible Structures of a Registered Direct Offering21-15
    • § 21:9.1 : All or None Offerings21-15
    • § 21:9.2 : Minimum/Maximum Offerings21-16
    • § 21:9.3 : Any or All Offerings21-16
    • § 21:9.4 : Effect of Rule 10b-921-17
  • § 21:10 : Escrow Account21-18
  • § 21:11 : Placement Agent21-19
    • § 21:11.1 : Engaging the Placement Agent21-19
    • § 21:11.2 : Engagement Letter Issues21-20
      • [A] : Fees21-20
      • [B] : Comfort Letter, Opinion and Other Closing Deliverables21-20
      • [C] : Issuer Lock-Up21-20
      • [D] : Indemnification21-20
    • § 21:11.3 : Placement Agent’s Role21-21
      • [A] : Contacting Investors21-21
        • [A][1] : How Are Investors Solicited?21-22
        • [A][2] : When Is a Confidentiality Agreement Required?21-22
      • [B] : Preparation of Documents21-23
    • § 21:11.4 : Placement Agent Best Practices21-23
      • [A] : Watch Lists and Information Walls21-23
      • [B] : Execution Issues21-23
  • § 21:12 : Due Diligence21-24
  • § 21:13 : The Placement Agency Agreement21-24
    • § 21:13.1 : What Is in the Placement Agency Agreement?21-24
      • [A] : Representations and Warranties of the Issuer21-24
      • [B] : Covenants of the Issuer21-26
      • [C] : Closing Conditions21-26
      • [D] : Indemnification21-27
    • § 21:13.2 : Typical Deliverables and Other Closing Conditions21-27
      • [A] : Opinions of Counsel to the Issuer; Negative Assurance Letter21-27
      • [B] : Opinion of Counsel to the Placement Agent21-28
      • [C] : Comfort Letter21-28
      • [D] : Officer’s and Secretary’s Certificates21-28
    • § 21:13.3 : Investment Agreements21-28
  • § 21:14 : Pricing and Settlement Issues21-29
    • § 21:14.1 : Pricing and Closing21-29
  • § 21:15 : Equity Lines of Credit21-30
    • § 21:15.1 : Advantages21-32
      • [A] : Quick Source of Capital21-32
      • [B] : Ability to Control Financing21-32
    • § 21:15.2 : Disadvantages21-33
      • [A] : Dilutive Form of Financing21-33
      • [B] : Negative View of Equity Lines of Credit21-33
    • § 21:15.3 : Who Invests in Equity Lines of Credit?21-33
  • § 21:16 : Treatment of Equity Lines of Credit21-33
    • § 21:16.1 : Treatment by the SEC21-33
      • [A] : Status of Investor21-33
      • [B] : Form of Registration Statement21-34
      • [C] : Broker-Dealer21-34
    • § 21:16.2 : Treatment by Securities Exchanges21-35
    • § 21:16.3 : Treatment by FINRA21-35
  • § 21:17 : Common Stock Purchase Agreement21-36
    • § 21:17.1 : What Is in the Purchase Agreement?21-36
      • [A] : Sale21-36
      • [B] : Representations and Warranties21-36
      • [C] : Covenants of the Issuer21-36
      • [D] : Closing Conditions21-37
      • [E] : Conditions to Obligations to Accept a Draw Down21-38
      • [F] : Indemnification21-38
    • § 21:17.2 : Typical Deliverables and Other Closing Conditions21-39
      • [A] : Warrant21-39
      • [B] : Additional Listing Application21-39
  • § 21:18 : Registration Rights Agreement21-39
  • § 21:19 : Pricing and Settlement Issues21-40
  • § 21:20 : Draw Down Procedures21-40
    • § 21:20.1 : Deliverables by Issuer21-40
    • § 21:20.2 : Public Filings21-40
Chapter 22: Continuous Private Placements and Other Unregistered Programs
  • § 22:1 : Overview22-3
  • § 22:2 : Medium-Term Note Programs22-5
    • § 22:2.1 : What Is a Medium-Term Note Program?22-5
      • [A] : Growth of the MTN Market22-5
    • § 22:2.2 : What Are the Benefits of an MTN Program?22-5
      • [A] : Funding Gap22-5
      • [B] : Low Cost22-6
      • [C] : Flexibility22-6
      • [D] : Legal Framework22-7
      • [E] : Investor-Driven Market22-7
    • § 22:2.3 : What Types of Issuers Use MTN Programs?22-8
  • § 22:3 : MTN Program Structures22-8
    • § 22:3.1 : MTN Program Structures in the United States22-8
      • [A] : Rule 144A Programs22-8
        • [A][1] : Information Requirements22-9
        • [A][2] : Sales Only to QIBs22-9
        • [A][3] : Benefits of a Rule 144A Program22-9
        • [A][4] : In Tandem with a Regulation S Program22-10
      • [B] : Bank Note Programs22-10
      • [C] : Registered MTN Programs22-10
    • § 22:3.2 : MTN Programs in Foreign Jurisdictions22-11
      • [A] : Legal Framework Outside the United States22-11
        • [A][1] : Incorporation by Reference22-12
        • [A][2] : PD-Compliant Prospectus22-12
      • [B] : Regulation S Programs22-14
        • [B][1] : Resale Limitations22-14
        • [B][2] : Bearer Notes22-15
          • [B][2][a] : Closing with Bearer Securities in a Regulation S Offering22-15
    • § 22:3.3 : Posting and Settlement22-15
      • [A] : Posting22-16
      • [B] : Settlement22-16
  • § 22:4 : Arranger and Dealers22-16
    • § 22:4.1 : Role of the Arranger22-16
    • § 22:4.2 : Role of Dealers22-17
      • [A] : Program Dealers22-17
        • [A][1] : Due Diligence Concerns22-17
      • [B] : Adding Dealers22-18
        • [B][1] : New Program Dealers22-18
        • [B][2] : Dealer for a Day22-18
  • § 22:5 : Documentation22-19
    • § 22:5.1 : Disclosure22-19
      • [A] : Offering Memorandum22-19
        • [A][1] : Legends and Other Disclosure22-19
        • [A][2] : Issuer Information22-19
        • [A][3] : Risk Factors22-20
        • [A][4] : Description of the Securities Offered22-20
          • [A][4][a] : Terms of the Debt Securities22-20
          • [A][4][b] : Types of Interest Rates22-21
        • [A][5] : Additional Disclosure22-21
      • [B] : Pricing Supplement/Final Terms22-21
        • [B][1] : Specific Terms of Notes22-21
        • [B][2] : New Issuer Information22-22
        • [B][3] : ICMA Forms22-22
    • § 22:5.2 : Program Agreement22-22
      • [A] : Issuer Representations and Warranties22-23
      • [B] : Issuer Covenants22-24
      • [C] : Indemnification22-25
      • [D] : Administrative Procedures Memorandum22-25
    • § 22:5.3 : Fiscal and Paying Agency Agreements22-25
      • [A] : What Is a Fiscal and Paying Agency Agreement?22-25
      • [B] : How Does a Fiscal and Paying Agency Agreement Differ from an Indenture?22-26
      • [C] : Calculation Agent22-26
      • [D] : Exchange Rate Agent22-26
    • § 22:5.4 : Closing Deliverables22-26
      • [A] : Program Signing22-27
        • [A][1] : Legal Opinion22-27
        • [A][2] : Comfort Letter22-28
        • [A][3] : Forms of Note22-29
      • [B] : At Issuance22-29
  • § 22:6 : Regulation M22-30
    • § 22:6.1 : Rule 144A and Section 4(a)(2)22-30
    • § 22:6.2 : Investment Grade Securities22-31
    • § 22:6.3 : Regulation S22-31
  • § 22:7 : Integration Issues22-32
    • § 22:7.1 : Continuous Private Placements and Regulation D Offerings22-32
    • § 22:7.2 : Continuous Private Placements and the Section 3(a)(3) Commercial Paper Program22-32
  • § 22:8 : Bank Note Programs22-33
    • § 22:8.1 : Exempt Securities22-33
    • § 22:8.2 : Bank Regulatory Concerns22-34
      • [A] : Part 16—Securities Offering Disclosure Rules22-34
  • § 22:9 : Commercial Paper22-35
    • § 22:9.1 : Exemptions22-35
      • [A] : Section 3(a)(3)22-35
      • [B] : Section 4(a)(2)22-36
      • [C] : Regulation S22-37
      • [D] : Section 3(a)(2)22-37
    • § 22:9.2 : Short-Term Funding Requirement22-37
      • [A] : Current Transactions22-38
    • § 22:9.3 : Types of Commercial Paper22-38
      • [A] : “Plain Vanilla”22-38
      • [B] : Asset-Backed22-39
    • § 22:9.4 : Documentation22-39
      • [A] : Information Statement22-39
      • [B] : Dealer Agreement22-40
      • [C] : Settlement22-41
    • § 22:9.5 : Distribution Issues22-41
  • § 22:10 : Comparative Tables22-41
  • § Table 22-1 : Ongoing Borrower Obligations22-42
  • § Table 22-2 : SEC Registration Versus Rule 144A Disclosure and Related Considerations22-43
  • § Table 22-3 : Registered U.S. MTN Programs22-45
Chapter 23: Communications in Connection with Exempt and Hybrid Securities Offerings
  • § 23:1 : Overview—The World Changes23-2
  • § 23:2 : How Offerees Are Contacted23-4
    • § 23:2.1 : Avoiding General Solicitation23-4
    • § 23:2.2 : Rule 135c23-6
      • [A] : Eligible Issuers23-7
      • [B] : No Conditioning of U.S. Market23-7
      • [C] : Required Information23-7
    • § 23:2.3 : Rule 135e, Offshore Interviews and General Solicitation23-8
    • § 23:2.4 : Concurrent or Near in Time Public and Private Offerings and General Solicitation; Gun Jumping23-9
    • § 23:2.5 : Research Reports and Communications with Research Analysts23-11
    • § 23:2.6 : Rule 13723-13
    • § 23:2.7 : Rule 13823-13
    • § 23:2.8 : Rule 13923-14
    • § 23:2.9 : Rule 168 and Rule 169 Safe Harbors23-15
    • § 23:2.10 : The Internet and General Solicitation23-16
    • § 23:2.11 : Rule 43323-16
  • § 23:3 : Information Requirements23-17
    • § 23:3.1 : Regulation FD23-18
      • [A] : Material Information23-19
      • [B] : Non-Public Information23-20
      • [C] : Intentional Versus Non-Intentional Disclosure23-20
      • [D] : Prohibited Persons and the Exclusion Rule23-21
    • § 23:3.2 : Confidentiality Agreements23-21
    • § 23:3.3 : Non-Deal Road Shows and Industry Conferences23-24
    • § 23:3.4 : Regulation FD, Public Disclosure and the Internet23-24
  • § 23:4 : Liability Issues23-27
    • § 23:4.1 : Misuse of Non-Public Information23-27
      • [A] : Rule 10b5-123-28
      • [B] : Rule 10b5-223-29
    • § 23:4.2 : Insider Trading Penalties23-30
    • § 23:4.3 : Court Decisions23-32
      • [A] : SEC v. Cuban23-32
      • [B] : Zacharias v. SEC23-35
      • [C] : Galleon Management, LP, Raj Rajaratnam, Rajat Gupta, and Zvi Goffer23-36
      • [D] : SEC v. Dorozhko23-38
      • [E] : SAC Capital Advisors23-40
      • [F] : Private Litigation23-41
Chapter 24: Conducting Exempt Offerings Using the Internet
  • § 24:1 : Introduction24-2
  • § 24:2 : SEC Interpretive Guidance on Electronic Communications24-4
  • § 24:3 : Using the Internet to Conduct Different Types of Exempt Offerings24-6
    • § 24:3.1 : General Solicitation Issues24-6
      • [A] : Online Private Offerings Under Section 4(a)(2)/Rule 506(b)24-6
        • [A][1] : Procedures for Qualifying Investors24-8
          • [A][1][a] : Broker-Dealer Websites24-8
          • [A][1][b] : Non-Broker-Dealer Websites24-10
          • [A][1][c] : Issuer Websites24-12
          • [A][1][d] : Analysis Post-JOBS Act24-12
      • [B] : Regulation S Offerings24-13
      • [C] : Rule 144A Offerings24-14
      • [D] : Exempt Offerings Relying on Matchmaking Sites24-15
    • § 24:3.2 : Specific Concerns from the Issuer’s Perspective24-18
      • [A] : Issuers’ Web Content Generally24-18
      • [B] : Information Posted on Third-Party Websites24-20
        • [B][1] : Cul-de-Sac Theory24-22
        • [B][2] : Envelope Theory24-23
        • [B][3] : Disclaimers24-23
      • [C] : Issuers and General Solicitations24-24
      • [D] : Regulation FD and Issuer Websites24-25
    • § 24:3.3 : Specific Concerns from the Broker-Dealer’s Perspective24-26
      • [A] : Using the Internet for Electronic Delivery of Offering Materials24-26
      • [B] : Information Posted on Third-Party Websites24-28
      • [C] : Research Reports on the Internet24-28
      • [D] : FINRA and the Internet24-29
  • § 24:4 : Pitfalls24-30
    • § 24:4.1 : AgriStar Global Networks, Ltd.24-30
    • § 24:4.2 : In the Matter of CGI Capital24-32
    • § 24:4.3 : In the Matter of Tier One, Inc.24-32
    • § 24:4.4 : SEC v. Elzein24-33
Chapter 25: Conditional Small Issues Exemption: Regulation A
  • § 25:1 : Overview25-2
  • § 25:2 : Background25-4
    • § 25:2.1 : Legislative History and Purpose of Regulation A25-4
    • § 25:2.2 : Regulation A Offering Abuses and Legislative Evolution of Regulation A25-6
    • § 25:2.3 : Regulation A Reform25-9
  • § 25:3 : Implementing the JOBS Act Mandate25-11
    • § 25:3.1 : Required Study on Blue Sky Laws25-11
    • § 25:3.2 : Proposed Regulation A Rules25-12
    • § 25:3.3 : Final Rules Amending and Modernizing Regulation A25-13
  • § 25:4 : Regulation A Requirements25-14
    • § 25:4.1 : Introduction25-14
    • § 25:4.2 : Eligible Issuers and Offerings25-15
      • [A] : Issuers25-15
      • [B] : Offerings25-15
    • § 25:4.3 : Bad Actor Provisions25-16
    • § 25:4.4 : Offering Limitations25-16
      • [A] : Investment Limitation25-16
      • [B] : Integration25-16
        • [B][1] : Exchange Act Threshold25-17
        • [B][2] : Filing and Delivery Requirements25-17
        • [B][3] : Non-Public Review25-18
    • § 25:4.5 : The Offering Statement25-18
      • [A] : Form 1-A25-18
      • [B] : Continuous Offerings25-19
      • [C] : Offering Communications25-20
      • [D] : Ongoing Reporting Requirements25-20
      • [E] : Rule 15c2-11, Rule 144 and Rule 144A25-21
      • [F] : Tier 2 Offering with Concurrent Exchange Act Registration25-22
      • [G] : Termination or Suspension of Tier 2 Disclosure Obligations25-22
      • [H] : State Securities Law Requirements25-22
      • [I] : Securities Act Liability25-23
      • [J] : Character of the Securities Sold in a Regulation A Offering25-23
      • [K] : FINRA Review25-24
  • § 25:5 : Considerations in Conducting a Regulation A Offering25-24
    • § 25:5.1 : Advantages25-24
      • [A] : Costs and Timing25-24
      • [B] : Financial Statements25-25
      • [C] : No Limitation on Offerees25-26
      • [D] : Nature of Securities25-26
      • [E] : Testing the Waters, Advertising, and General Solicitation25-27
    • § 25:5.2 : Disadvantages25-27
      • [A] : Offering Threshold25-27
      • [B] : Requirement of State Registration25-28
      • [C] : Underwriting25-28
Chapter 26: Crowdfunding and Regional Offerings
  • § 26:1 : Overview26-3
  • § 26:2 : What Is Crowdfunding?26-4
  • § 26:3 : Types of Crowdfunding26-5
  • § 26:4 : Regulatory Issues26-7
    • § 26:4.1 : Are “Securities” Being Sold?26-7
      • [A] : Donation Model26-8
      • [B] : Reward and Pre-Purchase Models26-8
      • [C] : Lending Model26-9
      • [D] : Equity Model26-11
    • § 26:4.2 : Exemptions from Registration Available Prior to the JOBS Act26-11
      • [A] : Section 4(a)(2) of the Securities Act26-11
      • [B] : Rule 506(b) of Regulation D26-12
      • [C] : Rule 506(c) of Regulation D26-12
      • [D] : Regulation A26-12
    • § 26:4.3 : Are Crowdfunding Websites Subject to Regulation?26-13
      • [A] : What Activities Are Conducted by Crowdfunding Websites?26-13
      • [B] : Are Crowdfunding Websites “Exchanges”?26-14
      • [C] : Are Crowdfunding Websites Brokers?26-15
    • § 26:4.4 : Are Crowdfunding Websites Investment Advisers?26-16
      • [A] : Publisher Exception26-18
  • § 26:5 : Significant Regulatory Action Regarding Crowdfunding26-19
    • § 26:5.1 : LendingClub Corporation (2008)26-19
    • § 26:5.2 : Prosper Marketplace, Inc. (2008)26-19
    • § 26:5.3 : Michael Migliozzi II and Brian Flatow (2011)26-20
    • § 26:5.4 : ProFounder (2011)26-21
  • § 26:6 : Legislative and Regulatory History26-21
  • § 26:7 : JOBS Act—Title III—Crowdfund Act26-22
    • § 26:7.1 : Section 4(a)(6)26-23
    • § 26:7.2 : Crowdfunding Issuers26-24
    • § 26:7.3 : Crowdfunding Intermediaries; Funding Portals26-25
    • § 26:7.4 : Obligations of Crowdfunding Intermediaries26-26
    • § 26:7.5 : Liability26-27
    • § 26:7.6 : Resales of Securities Purchased in Crowdfunded Offerings26-27
    • § 26:7.7 : State Law Preemption26-27
    • § 26:7.8 : Disqualification Provisions26-28
    • § 26:7.9 : Exclusion from Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act26-28
  • § 26:8 : SEC’s Regulation Crowdfunding Rules26-29
    • § 26:8.1 : Issuer Requirements26-29
      • [A] : Eligible Issuers26-29
      • [B] : Disqualifications26-30
      • [C] : Form of Offering26-30
      • [D] : Disclosure Requirements—The Offering26-30
      • [E] : Disclosure Requirements—Ongoing26-32
      • [F] : Offering Amount and Offering Mechanics26-33
      • [G] : Investment Limits26-33
      • [H] : Status of Securities26-34
      • [I] : Integration26-34
      • [J] : Restrictions on Advertising and Promotion26-34
      • [K] : Promoter Compensation26-35
    • § 26:8.2 : Intermediaries—Conducting a Crowdfunded Offering26-35
      • [A] : Single Intermediary26-35
      • [B] : Promoter Compensation26-36
      • [C] : Financial Interest in Issuer26-36
      • [D] : Measures to Reduce Risk of Fraud26-36
      • [E] : Account Opening26-37
      • [F] : Educational Materials26-38
      • [G] : Issuer Information26-38
      • [H] : Investor Qualifications26-38
      • [I] : Investor’s Acknowledgment of Risks26-39
      • [J] : Communication Channels26-39
      • [K] : Notice of Investment Commitment26-40
      • [L] : Maintenance and Transmission of Funds26-40
      • [M] : Confirmation of Transaction26-41
      • [N] : Completion of Offerings, Cancellations and Reconfirmations26-41
    • § 26:8.3 : Intermediary Registration and Other Requirements26-42
      • [A] : Registration and SRO Membership26-42
      • [B] : Non-U.S. Funding Portals26-43
      • [C] : Intermediary Payments to Third Parties26-44
      • [D] : Funding Portal Permitted Activities26-44
      • [E] : Exemptions from Broker-Dealer Registration26-45
      • [F] : Compliance Policies and Procedures26-45
      • [G] : Intermediary Disqualification (“Bad Actor”) Provisions26-46
  • § 26:9 : FINRA Funding Portal Rules26-46
  • § 26:10 : State Crowdfunding Initiatives26-47
Chapter 27: Issues Arising in Connection with Private Placements and Public Offerings Conducted in Close Proximity
  • § 27:1 : Introduction27-2
  • § 27:2 : History and Development of Integration Concepts27-4
    • § 27:2.1 : Original Statement of Integration Concept27-4
    • § 27:2.2 : Rule 15227-4
      • [A] : Rule 152 and Resale Registration Statement Issues27-6
      • [B] : Rule 152 and Rule 506(c) Offerings27-7
    • § 27:2.3 : The Five-Factor Test27-8
      • [A] : First Factor: Offerings Are Part of a Single Plan of Financing27-10
      • [B] : Second Factor: Offerings Involve Issuance of the Same Class of Security27-11
      • [C] : Third Factor: Offerings Are Made at or About the Same Time27-13
      • [D] : Fourth Factor: Same Type of Consideration Is to Be Received27-13
      • [E] : Fifth Factor: Offerings Are Made for the Same General Purpose27-13
    • § 27:2.4 : Integration Safe Harbors27-13
      • [A] : Regulation D Integration Safe Harbor27-14
      • [B] : Additional Sale Integration Safe Harbors27-14
        • [B][1] : Employee Benefit Plan Offerings27-14
        • [B][2] : Regulation A27-15
        • [B][3] : Rule 144A27-15
        • [B][4] : Regulation S27-16
        • [B][5] : Intra-State Offerings27-16
        • [B][6] : Crowdfunded Offerings27-17
    • § 27:2.5 : 1986 Report of the Task Force on Integration27-18
    • § 27:2.6 : 1996 Task Force on Disclosure Simplification and SEC Advisory Committee on the Capital Formation and Regulatory Process27-19
    • § 27:2.7 : 1996 Concept Release27-20
    • § 27:2.8 : Aircraft Carrier Release—Proposed Revisions to Rule 15227-20
      • [A] : Completed Offerings27-21
      • [B] : Abandoned Offerings27-22
      • [C] : Offerings Eligible for Rule 152 Safe Harbor27-22
    • § 27:2.9 : Rule 15527-22
    • § 27:2.10 : General Principles27-23
    • § 27:2.11 : Rule 155(b)—Abandoned Private Offering Followed by a Registered Offering27-23
    • § 27:2.12 : Rule 155(c) Abandoned Public Offering Followed by a Private Offering27-26
    • § 27:2.13 : 2001—ABA Committee on Federal Regulation of Securities; Updated Recommendations27-28
    • § 27:2.14 : Regulation D—Proposing Release; Guidance27-29
  • § 27:3 : Integration and the JOBS Act27-32
    • § 27:3.1 : Rule 506 Offerings27-32
    • § 27:3.2 : Rule 144A Offerings27-33
    • § 27:3.3 : Gun-Jumping Considerations27-34
  • § 27:4 : Application and Review27-34
  • § 27:5 : Securities Law Integration Versus SRO Integration27-38
  • § 27:6 : ABA Committee on Federal Regulation of Securities—2007 Letter to the SEC27-38
  • § 27:7 : Does It Still Make Sense?27-39
Chapter 28: Liability Considerations
  • § 28:1 : Introduction28-2
  • § 28:2 : Who Can Be Liable?28-4
    • § 28:2.1 : Issuer Liability28-5
    • § 28:2.2 : Selling Security Holder Liability28-6
    • § 28:2.3 : Underwriter Liability and “Underwriter” Status28-6
  • § 28:3 : Securities Act Liabilities28-8
    • § 28:3.1 : Section 1128-8
    • § 28:3.2 : Section 12(a)28-12
      • [A] : Section 12(a)(1)28-13
      • [B] : Section 12(a)(2)28-14
    • § 28:3.3 : Section 17(a)28-19
    • § 28:3.4 : Section 13—Statute of Limitations28-22
  • § 28:4 : Section 10(b) and Rule 10b-5 of the Exchange Act28-22
  • § 28:5 : Debt Versus Equity28-25
  • § 28:6 : Non-U.S. Jurisdictions28-26
  • § 28:7 : Proactive Measures to Defend Against Liability28-26
  • § 28:8 : Due Diligence28-26
    • § 28:8.1 : Standards28-28
    • § 28:8.2 : Process28-34
    • § 28:8.3 : Documentary Protections28-38
      • [A] : Comfort Letters28-38
        • [A][1] : Overview28-38
        • [A][2] : Preparation28-40
        • [A][3] : SAS 72 Representation Letter28-41
        • [A][4] : Content of SAS 72 Comfort Letter28-42
        • [A][5] : SAS 76 Comfort Letter28-47
      • [B] : Legal Opinions and Other Legal Letters28-48
  • § 28:9 : Risk Factors, Cautionary Statements, and Known Trends28-48
    • § 28:9.1 : Risk Factors28-49
    • § 28:9.2 : Cautionary Statements28-50
    • § 28:9.3 : Known Trends28-53
  • § 28:10 : Indemnification Protections28-54
  • § 28:11 : Exchange Act Filings28-57
Chapter 29: Big Boy Letters
  • § 29:1 : Overview29-1
  • § 29:2 : Use of Big Boy Letters in Private Securities Actions29-3
    • § 29:2.1 : Section 29(a) of the Securities Exchange Act29-3
    • § 29:2.2 : Related Case Law29-3
      • [A] : Claim Waiver29-3
      • [B] : Reasonable Reliance29-7
    • § 29:2.3 : Recent Application of Big Boy Letters29-9
  • § 29:3 : Use of Big Boy Letters in SEC Enforcement Actions29-10
  • § 29:4 : Practical Applications and Use of Big Boy Letters29-11
Chapter 30: FINRA and the Exchanges
  • § 30:1 : Overview30-2
  • § 30:2 : FINRA Compensation Review30-4
    • § 30:2.1 : Overview30-4
    • § 30:2.2 : Rule 5110 Filing Requirements30-5
    • § 30:2.3 : Rule 5110 Filing Deadline; Same Day Clearance Process; Expedited Clearance30-9
    • § 30:2.4 : Offerings Exempt from Filing Under Rule 511030-13
    • § 30:2.5 : Offerings Exempt from Rule 511030-15
    • § 30:2.6 : Offerings Required to Be Filed30-17
    • § 30:2.7 : Underwriting Compensation30-18
      • [A] : Overview30-18
      • [B] : “Fair and Reasonable”30-19
      • [C] : Items of Value30-20
      • [D] : Pre-Offering Compensation—180-Day Period30-22
    • § 30:2.8 : Exceptions from Underwriting Compensation30-22
    • § 30:2.9 : Valuation of Non-Cash Compensation30-25
    • § 30:2.10 : Lock-Up Requirements30-27
    • § 30:2.11 : Unreasonable Terms and Arrangements30-28
    • § 30:2.12 : Direct Participation Programs and REITs30-32
  • § 30:3 : Stock or Warrant Compensation for a Placement Agent30-33
  • § 30:4 : FINRA—Conflicts of Interest Rule30-33
  • § 30:5 : Exchange-Required Shareholder Approval Regulations30-36
    • § 30:5.1 : Overview30-36
    • § 30:5.2 : Summary of the Rules30-37
    • § 30:5.3 : When Is Shareholder Approval Required?30-38
      • [A] : Change of Control30-38
      • [B] : NYSE Rules Regarding Equity Issuances to Related Parties30-41
      • [C] : Nasdaq and NYSE MKT Acquisition Rules30-42
      • [D] : The “20% Rule”30-44
      • [E] : Two-Step Transactions and Use of Share Caps to Comply with the 20% Rule30-48
      • [F] : Use of Warrants for Purposes of the 20% Rule30-50
    • § 30:5.4 : Public Offering Exception30-52
    • § 30:5.5 : Financial Viability Exception30-54
    • § 30:5.6 : Limited Partnership Exception30-56
    • § 30:5.7 : Treasury Stock Exemption Eliminated by NYSE30-56
    • § 30:5.8 : Foreign Issuers30-57
    • § 30:5.9 : Establishment of and Material Amendments to Equity Compensation Plans30-58
      • [A] : Material Amendments30-59
      • [B] : Equity Compensation Plan Exemptions30-59
      • [C] : Formula and Evergreen Plans30-60
      • [D] : Repricings30-61
  • § 30:6 : Disproportionate and Minimum Voting Rights30-61
  • § 30:7 : Required Notices and Applications to the Exchanges30-64
    • § 30:7.1 : Sales of Convertible Securities30-65
    • § 30:7.2 : Sales of Warrants30-65
    • § 30:7.3 : Offerings in Proximity to an Acquisition30-67
  • § 30:8 : Broker-Dealer Diligence Obligations in Regulation D Offerings30-68
    • § 30:8.1 : Federal Anti-Fraud Provisions and FINRA Rules30-69
    • § 30:8.2 : FINRA Suitability Obligations30-71
    • § 30:8.3 : Required Level of Investigation30-73
    • § 30:8.4 : Broker-Dealer Affiliated with Issuer30-74
    • § 30:8.5 : Broker-Dealer Involved in the Preparation of the Private Placement Memorandum30-74
    • § 30:8.6 : Red Flags30-76
    • § 30:8.7 : Reliance on Counsel and Syndicate Members30-76
    • § 30:8.8 : FINRA’s Continuing Oversight30-76
  • § 30:9 : FINRA Rule 5123—Participation in Private Placements30-77
    • § 30:9.1 : Definition of Private Placement30-77
    • § 30:9.2 : Exemption from Filing Under Rule 512330-78
    • § 30:9.3 : Filing with FINRA; Timing30-79
    • § 30:9.4 : Amendments to Rule 5123 Filing Process; FINRA Review30-80
    • § 30:9.5 : Confidentiality30-82
    • § 30:9.6 : Liability30-82
Chapter 31: Application of Regulation M to Exempt and Hybrid Offerings
  • § 31:1 : Overview of Regulation M31-2
    • § 31:1.1 : History31-4
    • § 31:1.2 : Rule 10131-4
      • [A] : Entities31-5
        • [A][1] : Distribution Participant31-5
        • [A][2] : Prospective Underwriter31-5
        • [A][3] : Affiliated Purchaser31-6
      • [B] : “Distribution”31-6
        • [B][1] : “Covered Securities” and “Reference Securities”31-8
        • [B][2] : Restricted Period31-9
          • [B][2][a] : “Sticky Deals”31-11
      • [C] : Excepted Securities31-12
      • [D] : Excepted Activity31-12
        • [D][1] : Research31-13
        • [D][2] : Transactions in Rule 144A Securities31-13
    • § 31:1.3 : Rule 10231-14
      • [A] : Excepted Securities31-15
      • [B] : Excepted Activity31-15
      • [C] : Plans31-16
      • [D] : Exemptive Relief for Certain Business Development Companies31-16
      • [E] : Rule 10b-1831-17
    • § 31:1.4 : Rule 10331-17
    • § 31:1.5 : Rule 10431-18
    • § 31:1.6 : Rule 10531-18
  • § 31:2 : Shorting and Rule 10531-18
    • § 31:2.1 : Rule 105 Prior to the August 2007 Amendment31-19
    • § 31:2.2 : 2007 Amendments to Rule 10531-21
      • [A] : Limitation to Registered Equity Securities That Are “Subject” Securities; Rejection of Actively Traded Exception31-22
      • [B] : Continued Exclusion of Best Efforts Transactions31-23
    • § 31:2.3 : Rule 105 Exceptions31-23
      • [A] : Excepted Activity31-23
        • [A][1] : Bona Fide Purchases31-23
        • [A][2] : Separate Accounts and Investment Companies31-24
    • § 31:2.4 : Regulatory Actions Relating to Rule 10531-24
      • [A] : In re Palmyra Capital Advisors31-24
      • [B] : In re Carlson Capital31-25
      • [C] : In re Leonard J. Adams and In re Peter G. Grabler31-26
      • [D] : Other SEC Actions31-26
  • § 31:3 : Application of Regulation M to Specific Transactions31-27
    • § 31:3.1 : Private Placements and PIPE Transactions31-27
    • § 31:3.2 : Rule 144A Offerings31-28
      • [A] : Hedging of Rule 144A Convertible Debt Transactions31-29
    • § 31:3.3 : Regulation S Offerings31-30
    • § 31:3.4 : Shelf Takedowns31-31
    • § 31:3.5 : Registered Direct Offerings31-32
    • § 31:3.6 : At-the-Market Offerings31-32
    • § 31:3.7 : Continuous Offering Programs31-34
  • § 31:4 : FINRA Rules Relating to Regulation M31-35
Chapter 32: Investment Representations/Hedging
  • § 32:1 : Background32-2
  • § 32:2 : Investment Intent and Holding Periods32-3
    • § 32:2.1 : Adoption of Rule 14432-4
      • [A] : PIPE Transactions and Investment Intent32-5
      • [B] : Equity Lines of Credit and Investment Intent32-7
    • § 32:2.2 : Holding Periods and Hedging32-8
    • § 32:2.3 : Double-Prints32-15
  • § 32:3 : Short Selling32-16
    • § 32:3.1 : Applicable Regulations32-17
      • [A] : Regulation M32-17
      • [B] : Regulation SHO32-18
    • § 32:3.2 : 2008 Emergency Regulatory Actions Against Short Selling32-23
    • § 32:3.3 : Rule 10b-2132-26
    • § 32:3.4 : Short Sales and PIPE Transactions32-27
    • § 32:3.5 : SEC Enforcement Actions32-27
      • [A] : SEC v. Langley Partners, L.P.32-29
      • [B] : Gryphon Partners32-30
      • [C] : SEC v. Spiegel32-31
      • [D] : SEC v. TCMP3 Partners, L.P.32-32
    • § 32:3.6 : Court Decisions32-32
      • [A] : SEC v. Mangan32-33
      • [B] : SEC v. Lyon32-35
      • [C] : SEC v. Berlacher32-37
      • [D] : Court Arguments32-39
    • § 32:3.7 : FINRA Enforcement32-40
  • § 32:4 : Practice Pointers32-42
    • § 32:4.1 : Hedging Transaction Practice Pointers32-42
    • § 32:4.2 : Tax Practice Pointers32-43
Chapter 33: Change of Control Transactions
  • § 33:1 : Overview33-2
  • § 33:2 : The Concept of Control33-2
    • § 33:2.1 : Securities Act and Exchange Act Definitions of Change of Control33-3
    • § 33:2.2 : NASDAQ and NYSE Definitions of Change of Control33-5
    • § 33:2.3 : State Law Definitions of Change of Control33-7
  • § 33:3 : Section 13 Reporting Requirements33-8
    • § 33:3.1 : Calculation of Beneficial Ownership Under Section 13(d)33-10
  • § 33:4 : Section 1633-10
    • § 33:4.1 : Section 16(a) Reporting Requirements33-11
    • § 33:4.2 : Section 16(b) Short Swing Profits33-11
    • § 33:4.3 : Calculation of Beneficial Ownership Under Section 1633-12
    • § 33:4.4 : Complications Associated with Determination of Beneficial Ownership33-12
  • § 33:5 : Anti-Takeover Measures33-14
    • § 33:5.1 : DGCL Section 20333-14
      • [A] : To Waive or Not to Waive33-16
        • [A][1] : Incorporation33-17
        • [A][2] : Pre-IPO33-17
        • [A][3] : Post-IPO33-17
    • § 33:5.2 : Change of Control PIPE Transactions33-19
    • § 33:5.3 : Poison Pills33-20
    • § 33:5.4 : Triggering a Poison Pill33-21
  • § 33:6 : Stock Exchange Listing Requirements33-22
  • § 33:7 : Hart-Scott-Rodino Pre-Merger Notifications33-23
Chapter 34: Private Placements and Acquisitions
  • § 34:1 : Overview34-1
  • § 34:2 : Rule 145 Transactions34-5
    • § 34:2.1 : Overview34-5
    • § 34:2.2 : Historical Background34-6
      • [A] : No-Sale Theory34-6
      • [B] : No-Sale Rule—Rule 13334-7
      • [C] : Rejection of No-Sale Rule and Survival of Presumptive Underwriter Doctrine34-9
    • § 34:2.3 : Current Rule 14534-12
      • [A] : Registration of Securities Issued in a Rule 145 Transaction34-13
      • [B] : Communications Before Registration Statement Is Filed34-18
      • [C] : Resales of Securities Acquired in Registered Rule 145 Transactions34-19
  Appendices
Appendix A1: American Council of Life Insurance, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A2: Verticom, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A3: Black Box, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A4: Squadron, Ellenoff, Pleasant & Lehrer, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A5: Exxon Capital, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A6: Cravath, Swaine & Moore, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A7: Touche, Remnant & Company, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A8: Morgan Stanley and Co., Inc., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A9: Brown & Wood, LLP, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A10: Shearman & Sterling, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A11: CommScan, LLC, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A12: IPONet, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A13: Lamp Technologies, Inc., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A14: Lamp Technologies, Inc., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A15: Net Roadshow, Inc., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A16: Net Roadshow, Inc., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A17: Bloomberg L.P., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A18: AngelList, LLC, SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A19: FundersClub Inc., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A20: Citizen VC, Inc., SEC No-Action Letter
Appendix A21: Interpretive Release on Regulation D
Appendix A22: Rule 144 Adopting Release
Appendix A23: Rule 144A Adopting Release
Appendix A24: Rule 155 Adopting Release
Appendix A25: Regulation S Adopting Release
Appendix A26: Adopting Release Eliminating the Prohibition Against General Solicitation and General Advertising in Rule 506 and Rule 144A Offerings
Appendix A27: Adopting Release Amendments for Small and Additional Issues Exemptions under the Securities Act (Regulation A)
Appendix A28: Regulation Crowdfunding Adopting Release
Appendix A29: Exemptions to Facilitate Intrastate and Regional Crowdfunding Adopting Release
Appendix A30: FINRA Corporate Financing Rule
Appendix A31: FINRA Conflicts of Interest Rule
Appendix A32: NYSE Shareholder Approval Rule
Appendix A33: NYSE Voting Rights Rule
Appendix A34: Nasdaq Shareholder Approval Rule
Appendix A35: Nasdaq Voting Rights Rule
Appendix A36: NYSE MKT Shareholder Approval Rule
Appendix A37: NYSE MKT Voting Rights Rule
Appendix B1: Summary Timeline of Exempt Offering Developments
Appendix B2: Timeline of Exempt Offering Rules
  Forms
  Accredited Investor Questionnaire
  Qualified Institutional Buyer Questionnaire
  Purchaser Representative Acknowledgment
  Securities Purchase Agreement
  Non-Affiliate Seller’s 144 Representation Letter
  Affiliate Seller’s 144 Representation Letter
  Non-Affiliate Legend Removal Letter
  Plan of Distribution
  Securities Offering Reform Summary
  Timetable for Private Placement with Resale Rights
  Timetable for PIPE Transactions
  Engagement Letter for PIPE Transaction
  Sales Script for Institutional Sales
  Sales Script for Contacting Current Holders
  Confidentiality Agreement
  Confidentiality Agreement
  Procedures for Wall Crossing Investors
  Common Stock Term Sheet
  Confidential Private Placement Memorandum
  Purchase Agreement
  Closing Checklist
  Transfer Agent Instructions
  Resale Registration Statement
  Term Sheet—Convertible Debentures, Warrants, and Common Stock
  Term Sheet—Convertible Preferred Stock
  Placement Agent Representation Letter
  Opinion in Lieu of Representation Letter
  Blanket Removal Letter
  Confidential Offering Memorandum
  Indenture
  Purchase Agreement
  Registration Rights Agreement
  SIFMA Rule 144 Procedures
  Procedures Memorandum—Removal of 144 Restrictive Legends
  Exxon Capital Exchange Letter
  SIFMA 3c-7 Procedures
  3c-7 Notice
  Rule 904 Sale Under Reg S Selling Shareholder Certificate
  Sample Legend for Rule 903
  Timeline for At-The-Market Offering
  Distribution Agreement
  Plan of Distribution
  Indicative Timeline for Block Trade
  Engagement Letter for Registered Direct Offering
  Engagement Letter for Registered Direct Offering
  Indicative Timeline for Registered Direct Offering
  Script for Registered Direct Transaction
  Lock-Up Agreement for Registered Direct Offering
  Placement Agency Agreement for “All or None” Registered Direct Offering
  Investor Purchase Agreement for Registered Direct Offering
  Plan of Distribution for “Any or All” Registered Direct Offering
  Plan of Distribution for “All or None” Registered Direct Offering
  Big Boy Letter
  Reasonable Investigations in Regulation D Offerings
  Sample Shorting Reps
  Standby Purchase Agreement
  Table of Authorities
  Index

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