TreatiseTreatise

Technology Transactions: A Practical Guide to Drafting and Negotiating Commercial Agreements

 by Mark G Malven
 
 Copyright: 2015-2018
 Last Updated: February 2018

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402423703
  • Page Count: 410
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

Technology Transactions: A Practical Guide to Drafting and Negotiating Commercial Agreements provides the reader with the tools necessary to draft, review and negotiate technology transaction agreements with confidence.

Spearheaded by lead author Mark G. Malven (Dykema Gossett PLLC), this book walks the reader through the major legal considerations that surround technology transactions, including:

  • Software license agreements
  • IT services
  • Software development agreements
  • Reseller agreements
  • Cloud computing agreements
  • Domain name transactions
  • Technology licensing and IP-centric joint ventures
  • Technology escrow agreements
  • Non-disclosure agreements

Technology Transactions also provides a useful discussion of many privacy considerations that must be kept in mind in an agreement to leverage any emerging technology.

Technology Transactions provides practical examples, form agreements, and practice tips on how to avoid common and uncommon legal traps for the unwary.
  Table of Contents
  Preface
Chapter 1: Software License Agreements; and Appendix 1A-1B
  • § 1:1 : Introduction1-2
  • § 1:2 : Scope of License Rights1-3
    • § 1:2.1 : License Grant1-3
    • § 1:2.2 : Limitations on the License Grant1-3
    • § 1:2.3 : Use of Functional Language1-4
    • § 1:2.4 : Commonly Understood Terms (That Really Are Not)1-5
    • § 1:2.5 : Backup Copies1-5
    • § 1:2.6 : Defined Terms1-5
    • § 1:2.7 : Subsequent Refinements1-5
  • § 1:3 : Protection of Intellectual Property Rights1-5
    • § 1:3.1 : Vendor Ownership of Off-the-Shelf Software1-6
    • § 1:3.2 : Customer Ownership of Data1-6
    • § 1:3.3 : Reverse-Engineering1-6
  • § 1:4 : Taxes1-7
  • § 1:5 : Certification and Audit Rights1-7
  • § 1:6 : Warranties1-8
    • § 1:6.1 : Software Performance1-8
    • § 1:6.2 : System Warranties1-9
    • § 1:6.3 : Quality of Services1-9
    • § 1:6.4 : Viruses and Limiting Routines1-9
    • § 1:6.5 : Compliance with Laws1-9
    • § 1:6.6 : Data Security and Privacy1-10
    • § 1:6.7 : Free and Open Source Software1-10
    • § 1:6.8 : Other Warranties1-11
    • § 1:6.9 : Remedies1-12
    • § 1:6.10 : Disclaimers1-12
      • [A] : Generally1-12
      • [B] : Title and Noninfringement1-13
    • § 1:6.11 : Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act1-13
  • § 1:7 : Implementation and Acceptance1-14
  • § 1:8 : Indemnification for Infringement or Misappropriation of Intellectual Property1-14
    • § 1:8.1 : Scope1-15
    • § 1:8.2 : Exclusions/Limitations1-15
    • § 1:8.3 : Terminology: “Indemnify,” “Defend,” and “Hold Harmless”1-16
  • § 1:9 : Limitations of Liability1-18
    • § 1:9.1 : Dollar Cap1-18
    • § 1:9.2 : Exclusion of Consequential and Other Types of Damages1-18
  • § 1:10 : Termination1-22
  • § 1:11 : Licensee Transferability Rights1-23
  • § 1:12 : Bankruptcy-Related Issues1-25
    • § 1:12.1 : Applicable Bankruptcy Principles1-25
      • [A] : Unenforceability of Ipso Facto Clauses1-25
      • [B] : Assignment and Assumption of Executory Contracts1-25
      • [C] : Unenforceability of Anti-Assignment Language1-26
      • [D] : Avoidance of Transfers1-26
    • § 1:12.2 : Bankruptcy of the Customer1-26
      • [A] : Protections for Vendors1-26
      • [B] : Potential Consequences for the Customer1-27
    • § 1:12.3 : Bankruptcy of the Vendor1-27
      • [A] : Protections for Customers1-27
      • [B] : Limitations of Bankruptcy Code Section 365(n)1-27
    • § 1:12.4 : Technology Escrow Agreements1-28
  • § 1:13 : Secured Creditors1-28
    • § 1:13.1 : Security Interests in Licensed IP1-28
    • § 1:13.2 : Nonexclusive Licensees in the Ordinary Course1-28
    • § 1:13.3 : Mitigating Secured Creditor Risks1-29
  • § 1:14 : Other Provisions1-30
    • § 1:14.1 : Force Majeure/Disaster Recovery1-30
    • § 1:14.2 : Price Protection1-30
    • § 1:14.3 : Export Regulations1-30
  • Appendix 1A : Software License Agreement (Vendor-Favorable)App.1A-1
  • Appendix 1B : Product Evaluation AgreementApp. 1B-1
Chapter 2: Software Development and Other IT Services Agreements; and Appendices 2A-2B
  • § 2:1 : Introduction2-2
  • § 2:2 : Overview: The Setting and the Players2-2
  • § 2:3 : Statements of Work: Setting Forth the “Five W’s”2-3
  • § 2:4 : Acceptance Process2-4
  • § 2:5 : Fees and Taxes2-5
  • § 2:6 : Intellectual Property Rights2-5
    • § 2:6.1 : Categories of Intellectual Property Rights2-6
    • § 2:6.2 : Ownership of Custom Software2-6
    • § 2:6.3 : Work-for-Hire Doctrine2-7
    • § 2:6.4 : Choice of Governing Law2-7
    • § 2:6.5 : Confidential Information2-8
  • § 2:7 : Vendor Personnel2-8
  • § 2:8 : Insurance2-8
  • § 2:9 : Term and Termination2-8
    • § 2:9.1 : Software Development Agreements2-8
    • § 2:9.2 : Ongoing IT Services Agreements2-9
    • § 2:9.3 : Termination for Cause2-9
    • § 2:9.4 : Effects of Termination2-9
  • § 2:10 : Vendor Warranties2-9
    • § 2:10.1 : Commonly Included Warranties2-9
      • [A] : Software Performance2-10
      • [B] : System Warranties2-10
      • [C] : Quality of Services2-10
      • [D] : Due Authority2-11
      • [E] : Compliance with Laws2-11
      • [F] : Data Security and Privacy2-11
      • [G] : Free and Open Source Software2-11
      • [H] : Viruses and Limiting Devices/Routines2-13
      • [I] : Other Warranties2-13
    • § 2:10.2 : Remedies2-13
    • § 2:10.3 : Disclaimers2-13
      • [A] : Generally2-13
      • [B] : Title and Noninfringement2-14
  • § 2:11 : Service Levels2-14
  • § 2:12 : Indemnification2-15
    • § 2:12.1 : Types of Indemnification2-15
    • § 2:12.2 : Infringement or Misappropriation of Intellectual Property2-15
      • [A] : Scope2-15
      • [B] : Exclusions/Limitations2-16
    • § 2:12.3 : Terminology: “Indemnify,” “Defend,” and “Hold Harmless”2-17
  • § 2:13 : Limitations of Liability2-19
    • § 2:13.1 : Dollar Cap2-19
    • § 2:13.2 : Exclusion of Consequential and Other Types of Damages2-19
  • Appendix 2A : Short-Form Services Agreement (Vendor-Favorable)App. 2A-1
  • Appendix 2B : Short-Form Services Agreement (Customer-Favorable)App. 2B-1
Chapter 3: Reseller Agreements; and Appendices 3A-3C
  • § 3:1 : Introduction3-2
  • § 3:2 : Scope of Relationship3-3
    • § 3:2.1 : Terminology3-3
    • § 3:2.2 : Subject Matter3-3
    • § 3:2.3 : Exclusivity3-4
    • § 3:2.4 : Geographical or Industry Limitations3-5
    • § 3:2.5 : Licensing Structure3-5
    • § 3:2.6 : Branding3-5
    • § 3:2.7 : Sales and Marketing Efforts3-5
    • § 3:2.8 : Product Development and Support3-6
    • § 3:2.9 : International Considerations3-6
    • § 3:2.10 : Prohibitions on Delegation and Assignment3-7
    • § 3:2.11 : Defined Terms3-7
    • § 3:2.12 : Subsequent Amendments3-7
  • § 3:3 : Sample Reseller Duties3-8
  • § 3:4 : Term of Relationship3-9
    • § 3:4.1 : Initial Length and Renewal3-9
    • § 3:4.2 : Termination3-10
      • [A] : Termination Rights3-10
      • [B] : Consequences of Termination3-10
  • § 3:5 : Price and Payment3-10
    • § 3:5.1 : Resale Price Maintenance Agreements3-10
    • § 3:5.2 : Price Discrimination (Robinson-Patman Act Violations)3-12
    • § 3:5.3 : Price Protection3-13
    • § 3:5.4 : Tax Treatment3-13
  • § 3:6 : Audit Rights3-13
  • § 3:7 : Compliance with Laws3-14
    • § 3:7.1 : Generally3-14
    • § 3:7.2 : Data Security and Privacy3-14
    • § 3:7.3 : Export Regulations3-14
  • § 3:8 : Warranties3-15
    • § 3:8.1 : Product Performance3-15
    • § 3:8.2 : Quality of Services3-15
    • § 3:8.3 : Other Warranties3-16
    • § 3:8.4 : End User Warranties3-16
  • § 3:9 : Protection of Intellectual Property Rights3-16
    • § 3:9.1 : Supplier Ownership of Off-the-Shelf Software3-16
    • § 3:9.2 : Reverse-Engineering3-17
    • § 3:9.3 : Confidential Information3-17
  • § 3:10 : Indemnification3-17
    • § 3:10.1 : Types of Indemnification3-17
    • § 3:10.2 : Infringement or Misappropriation of Intellectual Property3-18
      • [A] : Scope3-18
      • [B] : Exclusions/Limitations3-19
    • § 3:10.3 : Terminology: “Indemnify,” “Defend,” and “Hold Harmless”3-19
  • § 3:11 : Limitations of Liability3-21
    • § 3:11.1 : Dollar Cap3-21
    • § 3:11.2 : Exclusion of Consequential and Other Types of Damages3-21
  • § 3:12 : Bankruptcy-Related Issues3-24
    • § 3:12.1 : Applicable Bankruptcy Principles3-25
      • [A] : Unenforceability of Ipso Facto Clauses3-25
      • [B] : Assignment and Assumption of Executory Contracts3-25
      • [C] : Unenforceability of Anti-Assignment Language3-25
      • [D] : Avoidance of Transfers3-26
    • § 3:12.2 : Bankruptcy of the Reseller3-26
      • [A] : Protections for Suppliers3-26
      • [B] : Potential Consequences for the Reseller3-27
    • § 3:12.3 : Bankruptcy of the Supplier3-28
      • [A] : Protections for Resellers3-28
      • [B] : Limitations of Bankruptcy Code Section 365(n)3-28
  • Appendix 3A : Authorized Reseller AgreementApp. 3A-1
  • Appendix 3B : Referral Partner AgreementApp. 3B-1
  • Appendix 3C : Distribution AgreementApp. 3C-1
Chapter 4: Cloud Computing Agreements
  • § 4:1 : Introduction4-2
  • § 4:2 : Cloud Computing4-3
    • § 4:2.1 : Cloud Computing Defined4-3
    • § 4:2.2 : Cloud Deployment Models4-4
      • [A] : Private Cloud4-4
      • [B] : Public Cloud4-4
      • [C] : Community Cloud4-5
      • [D] : Hybrid Cloud4-5
    • § 4:2.3 : Cloud Services4-5
      • [A] : Software As a Service (SaaS)4-5
      • [B] : Platform As a Service (PaaS)4-5
      • [C] : Infrastructure As a Service (IaaS)4-5
      • [D] : Business Process As a Service (BPaaS)4-6
    • § 4:2.4 : Determine Whether CSP Uses a “Shared Responsibility” Cloud Model4-6
  • § 4:3 : Pre-Contract Considerations4-6
    • § 4:3.1 : Business Goals4-6
    • § 4:3.2 : Cloud Use and Risk Management4-7
    • § 4:3.3 : The “Cloud Team”4-7
    • § 4:3.4 : Due Diligence4-8
      • [A] : Security, Privacy, Jurisdictional Concerns4-8
      • [B] : Data Access and Control4-9
      • [C] : Regulatory Requirements/Compliance4-10
      • [D] : Intellectual Property Ownership/Use of Data4-11
      • [E] : Due Diligence Tools and Strategies4-11
      • [F] : Third-Party Services/Contractors4-13
  • § 4:4 : Negotiating Cloud Computing Agreements4-15
    • § 4:4.1 : Significant Cloud Contract Issues4-15
    • § 4:4.2 : Limitation of Liability4-17
    • § 4:4.3 : Indemnification4-18
    • § 4:4.4 : Service Levels and Service Credits4-19
  • § Figure 4-1 : Support/Service Desk SLAs: Uptime Percentages4-23
    • § § 4:4.5 : Security and Privacy4-26
    • § § 4:4.6 : Standards for Tracking and Auditing Data in the Cloud4-27
      • [A] : SSAE 164-28
      • [B] : SOC Reports4-29
      • [C] : SOC 3 Reports4-29
      • [D] : ISO 27000 Standards4-29
      • [E] : Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (FedRAMP)4-30
      • [F] : U.S. Regulations and Industry Standards4-30
      • [G] : Audit and Security Standards—Sample Provision4-31
    • § § 4:4.7 : Preservation/Production of Data in Litigation or Investigations4-32
    • § § 4:4.8 : Pricing4-33
    • § § 4:4.9 : Tax Considerations4-36
    • § § 4:4.10 : Term and Termination4-36
  • § § 4:5 : Government Agency Cloud Procurement4-37
Chapter 5: Domain Name Transactions; and Appendices 5A-5B
  • § 5:1 : Introduction5-1
  • § 5:2 : Pre-Contract Considerations5-2
    • § 5:2.1 : Gathering Background Information5-2
      • [A] : Ownership History5-2
      • [B] : Use History5-3
      • [C] : Unknown Unknowns5-4
    • § 5:2.2 : Spam Issues5-4
    • § 5:2.3 : Trademark Issues5-4
  • § 5:3 : Payment Considerations5-5
    • § 5:3.1 : Escrow Process and Fees5-5
    • § 5:3.2 : Ownership During Pay-Out Period5-5
  • § 5:4 : Transfer Considerations5-7
  • § 5:5 : Warranties5-8
    • § 5:5.1 : Seller’s Warranties5-8
    • § 5:5.2 : Buyer’s Warranties5-10
  • § 5:6 : Indemnification5-10
  • § 5:7 : Other Terms5-11
  • Appendix 5A : Internet Domain Name Purchase AgreementApp. 5A-1
  • Appendix 5B : Internet Domain Name Escrow AgreementApp. 5B-1
Chapter 6: Technology Licenses and IP-Centric Joint Ventures
  • § 6:1 : Introduction6-3
  • § 6:2 : License Grants6-3
    • § 6:2.1 : General Principles6-3
    • § 6:2.2 : Key Drafting Tips6-4
      • [A] : Contents and Placement6-4
      • [B] : Typical Licensing Terms6-4
      • [C] : Defined Terms6-5
      • [D] : Presently Effective Grant6-5
      • [E] : Subsequent Refinements6-5
    • § 6:2.3 : Parties6-6
    • § 6:2.4 : Additional Considerations for Exclusive Licenses6-6
  • § 6:3 : Royalty and Financial Terms6-7
    • § 6:3.1 : Royalty Structures6-7
    • § 6:3.2 : Royalty Base6-7
    • § 6:3.3 : Scope Considerations6-8
    • § 6:3.4 : Special Dispositions6-8
    • § 6:3.5 : Audit Rights6-9
    • § 6:3.6 : Tax and Currency Issues6-9
  • § 6:4 : Developed Intellectual Property6-10
    • § 6:4.1 : Ownership Options6-10
      • [A] : Vertical Relationships6-10
      • [B] : Collaborative Relationships6-10
    • § 6:4.2 : Joint Ownership6-11
      • [A] : Creation of Joint Ownership6-11
      • [B] : The Problems with Joint Ownership6-12
  • § Figure 6-1 : Exploiting Patents6-13
  • § Figure 6-2 : Exploiting Copyrights6-13
  • § § 6:5 : Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights6-14
    • § § 6:5.1 : Standing6-15
    • § § 6:5.2 : Control and Financial Terms6-16
  • § § 6:6 : Termination6-17
  • § § 6:7 : Licensee Transferability6-17
    • § § 6:7.1 : General Rules Regarding Transferability6-17
    • § § 6:7.2 : Transferability of Nonexclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses6-18
    • § § 6:7.3 : Transferability of Exclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses6-19
    • § § 6:7.4 : Transferability of Trade Secret Licenses6-19
    • § § 6:7.5 : Avoiding Transaction Surprises6-19
  • § § 6:8 : Bankruptcy-Related Issues6-21
    • § § 6:8.1 : Applicable Bankruptcy Principles6-21
      • [A] : Unenforceability of Ipso Facto Clauses6-21
      • [B] : Assignment and Assumption of Executory Contracts6-21
      • [C] : Unenforceability of Anti-Assignment Language6-22
      • [D] : Avoidance of Transfers6-22
    • § § 6:8.2 : Bankruptcy of the Licensee6-23
      • [A] : Protections for Licensors6-23
      • [B] : Transferability of Nonexclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses6-23
      • [C] : Transferability of Exclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses6-23
      • [D] : Transferability of Trade Secret Licenses6-23
      • [E] : Potential Consequences for the Licensee6-24
    • § § 6:8.3 : Bankruptcy of the Licensor6-24
      • [A] : Protections for Licensees6-24
      • [B] : Limitations of Bankruptcy Code Section 365(n)6-25
  • § § 6:9 : Secured Creditors6-25
    • § § 6:9.1 : Security Interests in Licensed IP6-25
    • § § 6:9.2 : Nonexclusive Licensees in the Ordinary Course6-25
    • § § 6:9.3 : Mitigating Secured Creditor Risks6-26
  • § § 6:10 : Other Provisions6-27
    • § § 6:10.1 : Warranties6-27
    • § § 6:10.2 : Limitations of Liability6-27
      • [A] : Dollar Caps6-27
      • [B] : Exclusion of Consequential and Other Types of Damages6-27
    • § § 6:10.3 : Confidential Information6-31
Chapter 7: Technology Escrow
  • § 7:1 : Introduction7-2
  • § 7:2 : Source Code7-2
  • § 7:3 : Escrow Arrangements7-3
    • § 7:3.1 : Function of Technology Escrow7-3
    • § 7:3.2 : Forms of Technology Escrow7-4
      • [A] : Two-Party Escrow Agreement7-4
      • [B] : Three-Party Escrow Agreement7-4
      • [C] : Hybrid Escrow Agreement7-4
    • § 7:3.3 : Elements of a Technology Escrow Agreement7-4
      • [A] : Deposit7-5
      • [B] : License7-5
      • [C] : Release Conditions and Procedure7-6
      • [D] : Other Provisions7-6
  • § 7:4 : Bankruptcy-Related Issues7-7
  • § 7:5 : Practical Considerations7-10
    • § 7:5.1 : Source Code Turnover Provisions7-10
    • § 7:5.2 : Tangible Property7-11
    • § 7:5.3 : Timing7-11
    • § 7:5.4 : Period During Which Escrow Should Apply7-12
    • § 7:5.5 : Release Conditions7-12
      • [A] : Immediate Release7-12
      • [B] : Tempering Bankruptcy or Receivership Conditions7-12
    • § 7:5.6 : Escrow in Hosted Service Models7-13
    • § 7:5.7 : Defining “Source Code”: Verification and Related Processes7-13
      • [A] : Ancillary Components7-14
      • [B] : Sample Definition7-14
      • [C] : Verification and Related Processes7-14
    • § 7:5.8 : Choosing to Use an Escrow Arrangement: Advantages and Disadvantages7-15
Chapter 8: Nondisclosure Agreements; and Appendices 8A-8B
  • § 8:1 : Overview8-2
  • § 8:2 : Key Provisions8-2
    • § 8:2.1 : Confidential Information8-2
      • [A] : Definition of CI8-2
      • [B] : Specific Types of CI8-3
      • [C] : Marking and Verbal Disclosures8-3
    • § 8:2.2 : Exceptions8-4
    • § 8:2.3 : Identifying the Parties8-5
    • § 8:2.4 : Recipient Duties8-5
      • [A] : Nondisclosure Obligations8-5
      • [B] : Limitations on Use8-6
    • § 8:2.5 : Personally Identifiable Information8-6
    • § 8:2.6 : Compliance with Government Authorities8-6
  • § Figure 8-1 : Compelled Disclosure Provisions: Negotiable Points8-7
    • § § 8:2.7 : Return/Destruction of CI; Backup Copies8-7
    • § § 8:2.8 : Duration8-7
    • § § 8:2.9 : Compliance with Export Laws8-8
    • § § 8:2.10 : Remedies8-8
    • § § 8:2.11 : Limitations of Liability; Exclusions of Certain Damage Types8-8
  • § § 8:3 : Possibly Inappropriate Provisions8-8
  • § § 8:4 : NDAs As a Precursor to a Corporate Transaction8-8
  • § § 8:5 : Interaction with Subsequent Agreements8-9
  • Appendix 8A : Mutual Nondisclosure AgreementApp. 8A-1
  • Appendix 8B : Unilateral Nondisclosure AgreementApp. 8B-1
Chapter 9: Employee Agreements; and Appendix 9A
  • § 9:1 : Introduction9-2
    • § 9:1.1 : Why Have an Employee Agreement?9-2
    • § 9:1.2 : What Should Be in an Employee Agreement?9-3
    • § 9:1.3 : What Should Be Kept Out of Employee Agreements?9-3
    • § 9:1.4 : Creating Consistency in Employee Agreements and Flexibility in Policies9-4
  • § 9:2 : The Life Cycle of an Employee Agreement9-5
    • § 9:2.1 : Begin with the Disaster in Mind9-5
    • § 9:2.2 : Updating the Employee Agreement9-5
    • § 9:2.3 : Versioning the Employee Agreement9-6
    • § 9:2.4 : A Note on Electronic Record Keeping9-7
  • § 9:3 : A Sample Employee Agreement9-8
    • § 9:3.1 : Use of Language9-8
    • § 9:3.2 : Section 1: Terms of Employment9-8
    • § 9:3.3 : Section 2: Confidentiality9-9
    • § 9:3.4 : Section 3: Intellectual Property9-10
      • [A] : Definitions9-10
      • [B] : Ownership of Intellectual Property Created Prior to Employment9-11
      • [C] : Ownership of Intellectual Property Created As an Employee9-12
      • [D] : Ownership of Intellectual Property Created Outside of Employment9-13
      • [E] : Shop Rights9-14
      • [F] : Compliance with State Law9-14
    • § 9:3.5 : Section 4: Employee Conduct9-14
      • [A] : Compliance with Policies9-15
      • [B] : Conflicts of Interest and Non-competition9-16
    • § 9:3.6 : Section 5: Terminating Employees9-17
      • [A] : Survival9-17
      • [B] : Return of Company Property9-17
      • [C] : Non-disparagement9-18
      • [D] : Non-solicitation and Maintenance of Company Relationships9-18
      • [E] : Disputed Ownership of Intellectual Property9-19
      • [F] : Tolling of the Restricted Period9-19
      • [G] : Provisions to Be Given Maximum Effect9-20
    • § 9:3.7 : Section 6: Dispute Resolution9-21
      • [A] : Mediation and Arbitration Procedure9-21
      • [B] : Claims on an Individual Basis Only9-23
      • [C] : Covered Claims (and Claims Not Covered)9-23
      • [D] : Costs, Fees, and Indemnification9-24
    • § 9:3.8 : Section 7: General9-25
      • [A] : Scope of Agreement9-25
      • [B] : Assignment9-25
      • [C] : Choice of law9-26
      • [D] : Intentionally Excluded: Execution by Counterparts9-26
  • Appendix 9A : Model Company Employee AgreementApp. 9A-1
Chapter 10: Understanding the IP Basics
  • § 10:1 : Introduction10-2
  • § 10:2 : Intellectual Property Law Basics10-3
    • § 10:2.1 : Copyright10-3
      • [A] : Registration10-3
      • [B] : Work for Hire10-4
      • [C] : Derivative Works10-4
    • § 10:2.2 : Trade Secrets and Know-How10-5
    • § 10:2.3 : Patents10-6
    • § 10:2.4 : Trademarks10-7
    • § 10:2.5 : Some Other IP Rights—Industrial Designs and Mask Works10-7
    • § 10:2.6 : Distinguishing Technology and Intellectual Property10-8
    • § 10:2.7 : Distinguishing Technology Licenses and Patent Licenses10-8
    • § 10:2.8 : Choice of Governing Law10-8
    • § 10:2.9 : The Intersection of Patent Law and Antitrust Law10-8
  • § 10:3 : Types of IP Transfers or Exchanges of Rights10-9
    • § 10:3.1 : Assignment10-9
    • § 10:3.2 : Licenses10-10
      • [A] : Exclusive Licenses10-10
      • [B] : Nonexclusive Licenses10-11
    • § 10:3.3 : Covenants Not to Sue10-11
    • § 10:3.4 : Presently Effective Grant10-11
  • § 10:4 : Licensee Transferability10-12
    • § 10:4.1 : General Rules Regarding Transferability10-12
    • § 10:4.2 : Transferability of Nonexclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses10-12
    • § 10:4.3 : Transferability of Exclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses10-13
    • § 10:4.4 : Transferability of Trade Secret Licenses10-14
    • § 10:4.5 : Avoiding Transaction Surprises10-14
  • § 10:5 : Bankruptcy-Related Issues10-15
    • § 10:5.1 : Applicable Bankruptcy Principles10-15
      • [A] : Unenforceability of Ipso Facto Clauses10-15
      • [B] : Assignment and Assumption of Executory Contracts10-15
      • [C] : Unenforceability of Anti-Assignment Language10-16
      • [D] : Avoidance of Transfers10-16
    • § 10:5.2 : Bankruptcy of the Licensee10-16
      • [A] : Protections for Licensors10-16
      • [B] : Transferability of Nonexclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses10-16
      • [C] : Transferability of Exclusive Patent and Copyright Licenses10-17
      • [D] : Transferability of Trade Secret Licenses10-17
      • [E] : Potential Consequences for the Licensee10-17
    • § 10:5.3 : Bankruptcy of the Licensor10-18
      • [A] : Protections for Licensees10-18
      • [B] : Limitations of Bankruptcy Code Section 365(n)10-18
  • § 10:6 : Secured Creditors10-18
    • § 10:6.1 : Security Interests in Licensed IP10-18
    • § 10:6.2 : Nonexclusive Licensees in the Ordinary Course10-19
    • § 10:6.3 : Mitigating Secured Creditor Risks10-19
  • § 10:7 : Joint Ownership Concerns10-20
    • § 10:7.1 : How Joint Ownership Is Created10-21
    • § 10:7.2 : The Problems with Joint Ownership10-21
  • § Figure 10-1 : Exploiting Patents10-22
  • § Figure 10-2 : Exploiting Copyrights10-22
  • § § 10:8 : Protection and Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights10-23
    • § § 10:8.1 : Standing10-24
    • § § 10:8.2 : Control and Financial Terms10-25
Chapter 11: Open Source Software
  • § 11:1 : Open Source Licensing: The Big Picture11-2
    • § 11:1.1 : What Is Open Source?11-2
    • § 11:1.2 : How Open Source Works11-3
  • § 11:2 : Defining Open Source11-4
    • § 11:2.1 : “Open Source” Definition11-4
    • § 11:2.2 : Open Source vs. Free Software11-6
    • § 11:2.3 : Types of Open Source Licenses11-6
      • [A] : Academic Licenses11-6
      • [B] : Permissive Licenses11-6
      • [C] : Limited Reciprocal Licenses11-7
      • [D] : Strong Reciprocal Licenses11-8
      • [E] : What License(s) Are the “Best”?11-8
  • § 11:3 : The Legal Landscape Around Open Source11-8
    • § 11:3.1 : Artifex v. Hancom11-9
    • § 11:3.2 : Jacobsen v. Katzer11-10
    • § 11:3.3 : The Limitations of Jacobsen and Artifex11-12
    • § 11:3.4 : Ambiguity in the Scope of Derivative Works Under Copyright Law11-13
    • § 11:3.5 : Analyzing the GPL Under Copyright Law11-13
      • [A] : Collective Works11-14
      • [B] : Derivative Works11-14
      • [C] : The GNU General Public License11-15
      • [D] : No Restrictions on Use11-15
      • [E] : Derivative Works in Code11-16
  • § 11:4 : Twelve Best Practices for Working with Open Source11-16
    • § 11:4.1 : Administrative Best Practices11-17
      • [A] : Treat Open Source Licensing As Part of the Software Procurement Process11-17
      • [B] : Use an Open Source Review Board11-17
      • [C] : Monitor Open Source Use with a Tracking System11-17
      • [D] : Create an Internal Open Source Repository11-18
    • § 11:4.2 : Best Practices for “Inbound” Open Source11-19
      • [A] : Apply Different Levels of Review to Different Software Uses11-19
      • [B] : Apply Different Levels of Review to Different Types of Licenses11-20
      • [C] : Have an “Open by Default” Policy for Open Source Components11-20
      • [D] : Understand That Using Open Source Isn’t Always a Yes or No Decision11-21
    • § 11:4.3 : Best Practices for “Outbound” Open Source11-21
      • [A] : Keep Up with the Paperwork11-22
      • [B] : Review Outbound Open Source for Other Intellectual Property11-23
      • [C] : Don’t Write Your Own Open Source License11-23
      • [D] : Nurture the Community11-24
Chapter 12: The Internet and Domain Name System
  • § 12:1 : Introduction12-1
  • § 12:2 : The Internet: What It Is and Where It Started12-2
  • § 12:3 : The Domain Name System12-3
    • § 12:3.1 : Creation12-3
    • § 12:3.2 : Governance12-3
      • [A] : Before 1998 (Pre-ICANN)12-3
      • [B] : The ICANN Era12-5
      • [C] : Future Outlook12-7
    • § 12:3.3 : Structure and Hierarchy12-8
    • § 12:3.4 : Operation12-9
      • [A] : Registrants12-9
      • [B] : Registrars12-9
      • [C] : Registries12-10
Chapter 13: Digital Millennium Copyright Act
  • § 13:1 : Introduction13-2
  • § 13:2 : Overview of the DMCA13-3
    • § 13:2.1 : Title I—WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 199813-3
    • § 13:2.2 : Title II—Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act13-3
    • § 13:2.3 : Title III—Computer Maintenance or Repair13-3
    • § 13:2.4 : Title IV—Miscellaneous Provisions13-4
    • § 13:2.5 : Title V—Protection of Certain Original Designs13-4
  • § 13:3 : Service Provider Safe Harbor Eligibility Requirements13-4
    • § 13:3.1 : Qualifying As a “Service Provider”13-4
    • § 13:3.2 : Policy for Repeat Infringers; Technical Copyright Protection Measures13-4
    • § 13:3.3 : No Direct Financial Benefit13-5
    • § 13:3.4 : No Actual Knowledge of Infringement13-5
    • § 13:3.5 : Expeditious Removal of Infringing Content13-5
    • § 13:3.6 : Additional Conditions for System Caching13-6
  • § 13:4 : Takedown Notification Requirements and Procedures13-7
    • § 13:4.1 : Designated Agent13-7
    • § 13:4.2 : The Takedown Notice13-8
      • [A] : Required Elements13-8
      • [B] : How to Respond to a Takedown Notice13-9
    • § 13:4.3 : Counter Notice to Restore Original Content13-10
      • [A] : Required Elements13-10
      • [B] : How to Respond to a Counter Notice13-10
    • § 13:4.4 : Service Provider Liability for Removing Content13-11
    • § 13:4.5 : Penalties for Misrepresentations in Notices13-11
    • § 13:4.6 : Recent Takedown Disputes13-11
  • § 13:5 : Subpoena to a Service Provider13-12
  • § 13:6 : Available Relief for Copyright Owners13-13
  • § 13:7 : Anti-Circumvention Provisions13-13
    • § 13:7.1 : Generally13-13
    • § 13:7.2 : Responding to Violations13-14
      • [A] : Civil Remedies13-14
      • [B] : Criminal Penalties13-14
Chapter 14: Cybersecurity and Privacy: An Overview
  • § 14:1 : Introduction14-2
  • § 14:2 : Fundamental Concepts14-2
    • § 14:2.1 : Data Security Versus Data Privacy14-2
    • § 14:2.2 : “Privacy by Design”14-4
      • [A] : Business Case for a New Approach to Privacy and Security14-4
      • [B] : Principles of Privacy by Design Framework14-5
      • [C] : Review and Certification Processes14-6
    • § 14:2.3 : Personally Identifiable Information14-8
  • § 14:3 : Cybersecurity and Privacy Within Organizations14-13
    • § 14:3.1 : Designing and Implementing Internal Controls14-13
      • [A] : Key Drivers14-13
      • [B] : Operational Considerations14-14
    • § 14:3.2 : Internal Data Privacy Programs: Personal Information from Cradle to Grave14-15
  • § Figure 14-1 : Comprehensive Data Privacy Program14-15
  • [A] : Data Element Inventory; Data Map14-16
  • [B] : Determining Applicable Laws and Standards14-17
  • [C] : Compliance with Applicable Standards14-20
  • [D] : Compliance Roadmap14-21
  • § § 14:4 : Data Security Breaches—The “Liability” Factor14-22
    • § § 14:4.1 : Federal Agency Enforcement14-22
      • [A] : Federal Trade Commission14-22
  • § Figure 14-2 : FTC’s Ten Practical Privacy and Data Security Lessons for Businesses14-23
    • [B] : Consumer Financial Protection Bureau14-24
    • [C] : Securities and Exchange Commission14-24
    • § § 14:4.2 : Proposed Federal Data Security Breach Laws14-25
    • § § 14:4.3 : State Data Security Breach Notification Laws14-25
    • § § 14:4.4 : Trends in Data Breach Litigation14-27
    • § § 14:4.5 : Designing and Implementing a Response Plan14-28
    • § § 14:4.6 : Cyber Liability Insurance Litigation14-30
  • § § 14:5 : Big Data—The “Asset” Factor14-31
    • § § 14:5.1 : Defining “Big Data”14-31
    • § § 14:5.2 : Next-Generation Data Issues and Legal Compliance14-32
    • § § 14:5.3 : Data Ownership and Provenance14-32
  • § § 14:6 : Practice Tips14-33
    • § § 14:6.1 : Product Design and Privacy by Design14-33
    • § § 14:6.2 : Defining Data Ownership and Rights of Use14-34
    • § § 14:6.3 : Assuring the Provenance of Third-Party Data Contractually14-34
    • § § 14:6.4 : Data Security Breaches: Liability, Indemnification, and Remedies14-35
Chapter 15: Privacy: International Data Transfers
  • § 15:1 : Introduction15-2
  • § 15:2 : International Privacy Laws15-2
    • § 15:2.1 : U.S. Privacy Framework15-2
    • § 15:2.2 : European Economic Area Privacy Model15-3
      • [A] : EU Directive15-3
      • [B] : The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)15-4
  • § 15:3 : Transfers of Data15-4
    • § 15:3.1 : Examples of Transfers to a Third Country15-4
    • § 15:3.2 : Compliant Transfers15-5
      • [A] : Consent of the Data Subject15-5
      • [B] : Adequate Protection Under Third Country’s Local Law15-6
      • [C] : Privacy Shield or Similar Arrangements15-6
      • [D] : Standard Contractual Clauses15-7
      • [E] : Binding Corporate Rules15-8
      • [F] : Exempted Transfers15-8
    • § 15:3.3 : Onward Transfers15-9
    • § 15:3.4 : Transfers of Encrypted Data15-10
  • § 15:4 : Consequences of Failure to Comply with International Data Transfer Law15-10
  • § 15:5 : Compliance15-11
    • § 15:5.1 : What to Do If Noncompliant Transfers Are Already Happening15-11
    • § 15:5.2 : Getting Management on Board15-11
    • § 15:5.3 : How to Start or Maintain a Compliance Program15-12
      • [A] : Identify Data Flows15-12
      • [B] : Develop a Compliance Plan for Each Data Flow15-13
      • [C] : Put the Compliance Filings and Contracts in Place15-13
      • [D] : Monitor15-14
  • § 15:6 : The General Data Protection Regulation15-14
    • § 15:6.1 : Background15-14
    • § 15:6.2 : Adoption/Enforcement Timeline15-14
    • § 15:6.3 : Provisions; Compliance Considerations15-14
      • [A] : Privacy by Design and by Default15-15
      • [B] : Binding Corporate Rules15-15
      • [C] : Cloud Computing15-15
      • [D] : Vendor Contracts15-16
      • [E] : Data Processing Officer15-17
      • [F] : Data Breach Notification15-17
Chapter 16: Privacy: HIPAA and Business Associate Agreements
  • § 16:1 : Introduction16-1
  • § 16:2 : HIPAA Jurisdiction, Applicability, and Enforcement16-2
    • § 16:2.1 : Preemption and “Reverse Preemption”16-2
    • § 16:2.2 : Who Must Comply with HIPAA?16-3
      • [A] : Covered Entities16-3
      • [B] : Business Associates16-4
    • § 16:2.3 : Enforcement16-4
  • § 16:3 : HIPAA Privacy and Security Requirements16-5
    • § 16:3.1 : Privacy Standards16-5
      • [A] : Permitted Uses and Disclosures16-5
      • [B] : Individual Rights16-6
      • [C] : Administrative Requirements16-6
    • § 16:3.2 : Security Standards16-6
      • [A] : Administrative Safeguards16-6
      • [B] : Physical Safeguards16-8
      • [C] : Technical Safeguards16-9
      • [D] : Policies and Procedures and Documentation Requirements16-10
  • § 16:4 : Business Associate Agreements16-10
  • § 16:5 : Breach Notification16-12
Chapter 17: Privacy: Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act
  • § 17:1 : Introduction17-2
  • § 17:2 : Overview of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act17-2
    • § 17:2.1 : Legislative History and Structure17-2
    • § 17:2.2 : Select Definitions17-3
      • [A] : Consumers and Customers17-3
      • [B] : Financial Institutions17-3
      • [C] : Nonpublic Personal Information17-4
      • [D] : Personally Identifiable Financial Information17-4
  • § 17:3 : The Privacy Rule17-5
    • § 17:3.1 : Purpose and Overview17-5
    • § 17:3.2 : Required Privacy Notices and Opt-Out Rights17-5
    • § 17:3.3 : Sections 14 and 15 Exceptions to the Notice and Opt-Out Requirements17-5
    • § 17:3.4 : Section 13 Exceptions to the Opt-Out Requirements17-6
    • § 17:3.5 : Limits on the Reuse and Redisclosure of NPI17-7
      • [A] : Restrictions on Reuse and Redisclosure If NPI Is Received Under the Section 14 or 15 Exceptions17-7
      • [B] : Restrictions on Reuse and Redisclosure If NPI Is Not Received Under the Section 14 or 15 Exceptions17-7
    • § 17:3.6 : Applicability to Colleges and Universities17-7
  • § 17:4 : The Safeguards Rule17-8
    • § 17:4.1 : Overview17-8
    • § 17:4.2 : Required Elements for Information Security Program17-8
Chapter 18: Privacy: Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act
  • § 18:1 : Introduction18-2
  • § 18:2 : Overview of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act18-2
    • § 18:2.1 : Purpose; FTC Rules18-2
    • § 18:2.2 : General Requirements18-2
    • § 18:2.3 : Who Must Comply with COPPA?18-3
    • § 18:2.4 : Covered Online Services18-4
    • § 18:2.5 : Key Definitions18-5
      • [A] : “Personal Information”18-5
      • [B] : “Directed to Children”18-6
      • [C] : “Actual Knowledge”18-6
      • [D] : “Collection”18-7
      • [E] : “Disclosure”18-7
      • [F] : “Operator”18-7
  • § 18:3 : Notice18-8
    • § 18:3.1 : Website Privacy Notice18-8
    • § 18:3.2 : Direct Notice to Parent18-9
  • § 18:4 : Verifiable Parental Consent18-9
    • § 18:4.1 : Requirements18-9
    • § 18:4.2 : Methods18-9
    • § 18:4.3 : Exceptions18-10
  • § 18:5 : Confidentiality, Security, and Integrity Procedures18-10
  • § 18:6 : Enforcement18-11
    • § 18:6.1 : Jurisdiction18-11
    • § 18:6.2 : Penalties for Violations18-11
    • § 18:6.3 : Safe Harbor Provision18-11
Chapter 19: State Transaction Taxes; and Appendices 19A-19F
  • § 19:1 : Overview19-2
    • § 19:1.1 : Sales Tax Versus Use Tax19-3
    • § 19:1.2 : Goods and Services Subject to State Sales Tax19-3
      • [A] : Tangible Personal Property: Hardware and Software19-3
      • [B] : Specifically Enumerated Services19-4
      • [C] : Mixed Transactions19-5
    • § 19:1.3 : Streamlined Sales Tax Project19-6
  • § 19:2 : Software19-6
    • § 19:2.1 : Licenses19-7
    • § 19:2.2 : Digital Downloads19-7
    • § 19:2.3 : Canned Software Versus Custom Software19-7
    • § 19:2.4 : Electronic and Digital Products19-8
  • § 19:3 : Services Relating to Software19-8
    • § 19:3.1 : Consulting and Training Services19-9
    • § 19:3.2 : Installation and Configuration of Software19-9
    • § 19:3.3 : Maintenance Services19-9
    • § 19:3.4 : Software Modification Services19-9
    • § 19:3.5 : Services Provided by Software Vendor19-10
      • [A] : Services Integral to Sale of Software19-10
      • [B] : Services Separately Identifiable and Bargained For19-10
    • § 19:3.6 : Services Provided by Third Party19-11
  • § 19:4 : Cloud Computing and Software as a Service19-11
    • § 19:4.1 : Overview of State Sales Tax Implications19-12
    • § 19:4.2 : Software, Service, or Software as a Service19-13
      • [A] : Service19-13
      • [B] : Software License—Tangible Personal Property19-14
    • § 19:4.3 : Situs and Sourcing19-14
  • § 19:5 : Nexus and Multistate Considerations19-15
    • § 19:5.1 : Nexus Standards19-15
    • § 19:5.2 : Software Licenses and Service Agreements—Situs and Sourcing19-17
      • [A] : User Licenses19-17
      • [B] : Master License—Unlimited Users19-18
      • [C] : Delivery Location19-18
      • [D] : Installation Location19-18
      • [E] : Use Location19-18
      • [F] : Benefit Location19-19
      • [G] : Agreement and Other Records19-19
  • § 19:6 : Considerations for Specific Industries and Businesses19-20
    • § 19:6.1 : Software Developers19-21
      • [A] : Generally19-21
      • [B] : Custom Programming19-21
    • § 19:6.2 : Manufacturers19-22
    • § 19:6.3 : Software Resellers and Sellers19-22
    • § 19:6.4 : Service Providers19-23
  • Appendix 19A : Streamlined Sales Tax Project MembershipApp.19A-1
  • Appendix 19B : Sales Tax Base–Installation ChargesApp.19A-1
  • Appendix 19C : Sales Tax Treatment of Certain Technology ItemsApp.19A-1
  • Appendix 19D : Establishment of NexusApp.19A-1
  • Appendix 19E : Sourcing TreatmentApp.19A-1
  • Appendix 19F : Sales and Use Tax Credits and Incentives for Technology InvestmentsApp.19A-1
  Index

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