TreatiseTreatise

Sack on Defamation: Libel, Slander, and Related Problems (5th Edition)

 by Hon. Robert D Sack
 
 Copyright: 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402428500
  • Page Count: 1766
  • Number of Volumes: 2
  •  

Written by a U.S. Court of Appeals judge and member of the adjunct faculty of Columbia Law School who practiced media law at the highest level for more than thirty years, Sack on Defamation offers strategic guidance for both plaintiffs’ and defense attorneys, and fully covers the basic elements of a defamation claim, including:

  • the types and amounts of damages that can be awarded
  • the sometimes confusing treatment of libel per se and slander per se
  • invasion of privacy torts
  • the causes of action for injurious falsehood, intentional infliction of emotional distress, negligent misstatement, and more, and
  • issues of jurisdiction and motion practice.

Sack on Defamation pinpoints practical legal issues vital to your clients, helping you understand when “truth” is not a defense • insults and name-calling cross the line into defamation • accurate repeating of another’s statements can be actionable • “public disclosure of private facts” becomes actionable • statements of “opinion” are not protected • and defamatory communications are privileged. It also integrates coverage of Internet and social media issues.

This treatise provides practice insight into how to:

  • persuade courts to dismiss complaints or grant summary judgments and how to resist a motion for either
  • use various kinds of evidence to prove actual malice with “convincing clarity”
  • meet burdens of proof for various claims and win appropriate damages
  • deploy the most effective defenses for different causes of action
  • advise clients on how to disseminate their views without triggering costly lawsuits.
  Table of Contents
  Preface
  Preface to the Fourth Edition
  Preface to the Third Edition
  Preface to the Second Edition
  Preface to the First Edition
  Note on Citations to Lexis and Westlaw
  Introduction
Chapter 1: Constitutional Principles
  • § 1:1 : Introduction1-2
  • § 1:2 : Rule of New York Times Co. v. Sullivan1-3
    • § 1:2.1 : Antecedents: Common-Law Fair Comment1-3
    • § 1:2.2 : Public Officials: New York Times Co. v. Sullivan1-4
    • § 1:2.3 : Invasion of Privacy: Time, Inc. v. Hill1-10
    • § 1:2.4 : Public Figures: Butts and Walker1-10
    • § 1:2.5 : Public Issues: The Short-Lived Rosenbloom Doctrine1-13
    • § 1:2.6 : Private Plaintiffs: Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc.1-17
    • § 1:2.7 : New York Times Doctrine Under Siege: The Age of Dun & Bradstreet1-20
    • § 1:2.8 : Reaffirmation of New York Times Co. v. Sullivan: The Hustler Case1-23
  • § 1:3 : “Actual Malice”1-25
    • § 1:3.1 : “Actual Malice” Defined1-25
    • § 1:3.2 : “Actual Malice” Confused1-29
    • § 1:3.3 : “Actual Malice” Applied1-30
  • § 1:4 : Public Officials1-31
    • § 1:4.1 : Public Officials Identified1-31
    • § 1:4.2 : Public Officials: Scope of Comment1-32
  • § 1:5 : Public Figures1-33
  • § 1:6 : Weight of the Burden of Proof: “Convincing Clarity”1-37
  • § 1:7 : Burden of Proof As to Truth or Falsity1-38
  • § 1:8 : Opinion1-39
  • § 1:9 : Damages1-42
  • § 1:10 : Jurisdiction1-43
  • § 1:11 : Independent Review1-46
  • § 1:12 : Invasion of Privacy1-49
Chapter 2: The Cause of Action
  • § 2:1 : Elements of the Torts2-4
    • § 2:1.1 : Falsity2-7
    • § 2:1.2 : Unprivileged Publication2-7
    • § 2:1.3 : Fault2-7
    • § 2:1.4 : Special Harm2-8
  • § 2:2 : Malice2-8
  • § 2:3 : Libel Versus Slander; Effect of the New Electronic Media2-9
  • § 2:4 : Communications As Defamatory2-13
    • § 2:4.1 : “Defamatory” Defined2-13
    • § 2:4.2 : Principles of Construction; Context2-19
      • [A] : Generally2-19
      • [B] : Importance of Context2-23
    • § 2:4.3 : Recipients of Communications: “Right-Thinking People”2-26
    • § 2:4.4 : Defamatory Meaning: Differences in Time and Place2-31
    • § 2:4.5 : Liability for Implications, Innuendo, and the Meaning of the Statement “As a Whole”2-34
    • § 2:4.6 : Headlines2-41
    • § 2:4.7 : Epithets, Insults, Name-Calling, and Hyperbole2-45
    • § 2:4.8 : Libel by Question2-54
    • § 2:4.9 : Photographs and Other Pictures2-56
    • § 2:4.10 : Gestures and Acts; Dismissal of Employees2-60
    • § 2:4.11 : Humor and “Fictionalization”2-61
    • § 2:4.12 : Inaccurate Quotation2-63
    • § 2:4.13 : Pleading Defamatory Language2-66
    • § 2:4.14 : Innocent Construction Rule2-71
    • § 2:4.15 : Single Instance Rule2-74
    • § 2:4.16 : Judge and Jury2-76
    • § 2:4.17 : Proof of Injury to Reputation2-80
    • § 2:4.18 : Inconsequential Fault, Falsity, or Harm: The Libel-Proof Plaintiff and the Incremental Harm Doctrine2-83
    • § 2:4.19 : Constitutional Dimension2-89
    • § 2:4.20 : Speech in a Religious Context2-90
  • § 2:5 : Publication2-91
    • § 2:5.1 : Publication Generally2-91
    • § 2:5.2 : Pleading Publication2-96
    • § 2:5.3 : “Compelled Self-Publication”2-96
    • § 2:5.4 : Intracompany Publication2-103
      • [A] : Division of Authority2-103
      • [B] : Relationship to Qualified Privilege2-106
  • § 2:6 : Statute of Limitations2-106
    • § 2:6.1 : Beginning of Statutory Period2-106
    • § 2:6.2 : The Discovery Rule and Fraudulent Concealment2-108
    • § 2:6.3 : Equitable Estoppel2-112
    • § 2:6.4 : Single Publication Rule2-112
    • § 2:6.5 : End of Statutory Period2-113
    • § 2:6.6 : Relation Back2-113
  • § 2:7 : Republication2-114
    • § 2:7.1 : Liability for Republication by Defendant of Statement by Another2-114
    • § 2:7.2 : Liability for Republication by Another of Statement by the Defendant2-115
  • § 2:8 : Pleading and Proof of Special Damages: Libel and Slander Per Se2-117
    • § 2:8.1 : General Principles2-118
    • § 2:8.2 : Slander2-120
    • § 2:8.3 : Libel Per Se and Per Quod2-126
      • [A] : “Inducement” and “Innuendo”2-130
      • [B] : Libel Per Se and Slander Per Se Compared2-131
      • [C] : “Defamatory Per Se”?2-132
      • [D] : “Colloquium” Compared2-134
    • § 2:8.4 : Judge and Jury2-135
    • § 2:8.5 : Pleading2-135
    • § 2:8.6 : Special Rules in Other Jurisdictions2-135
      • [A] : New Mexico2-135
      • [B] : Georgia, Virginia, Kansas, Maryland, Nebraska, Illinois, Wisconsin, North Carolina, Utah, South Carolina, Iowa, Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Texas and Connecticut2-136
      • [C] : Ambiguous Publications2-142
      • [D] : New York2-142
    • § 2:8.7 : Impact of New York Times and Gertz2-147
      • [A] : Gertz2-147
      • [B] : New York Times Co. v. Sullivan2-149
    • § 2:8.8 : Conclusion2-150
  • § 2:9 : “Of and Concerning” the Plaintiff2-150
    • § 2:9.1 : Generally2-151
    • § 2:9.2 : Proof2-157
    • § 2:9.3 : Judge and Jury2-158
    • § 2:9.4 : Groups and Group Members2-158
      • [A] : General Principles2-158
      • [B] : Constitutional Aspects2-165
    • § 2:9.5 : Vicarious Defamation2-166
    • § 2:9.6 : Accidental and Fictional Reference2-169
    • § 2:9.7 : Impact of New York Times and Gertz2-171
  • § 2:10 : Parties2-173
    • § 2:10.1 : Plaintiff2-173
    • § 2:10.2 : Defendant2-176
Chapter 3: Truth and Criminal Libel
  • § 3:1 : Introduction3-2
  • § 3:2 : Criminal Libel3-3
  • § 3:3 : Actionability of Truth and the Burden of Proof3-6
    • § 3:3.1 : Public-Official and Public-Figure Plaintiffs3-6
    • § 3:3.2 : Private Plaintiffs3-6
      • [A] : Sanctions Against “True” Speech3-6
      • [B] : Burden of Proof3-11
        • [B][1] : Public Issues and Media Defendants3-11
        • [B][2] : Burden of Proof in Other Private-Plaintiff Cases3-12
  • § 3:4 : Weight of the Burden of Proof3-15
  • § 3:5 : Independent Appellate Review3-17
  • § 3:6 : Post-Publication Discovery of Truth3-17
  • § 3:7 : Substantial Truth3-18
  • § 3:8 : Implications, Innuendo, Statement “As a Whole,” and “Tone”3-25
  • § 3:9 : Breadth of Proof3-28
  • § 3:10 : “Own Words” and “Known Truth” Defenses3-29
  • § 3:11 : Aggravation of Damages3-30
  • § 3:12 : Problems with Truth-Finding3-31
Chapter 4: Opinion
  • § 4:1 : Overview4-2
  • § 4:2 : Historical Review4-5
    • § 4:2.1 : Introduction4-5
    • § 4:2.2 : Common-Law Roots4-5
    • § 4:2.3 : Opinion in the Wake of Gertz4-7
      • [A] : Gertz and Its Aftermath4-7
      • [B] : Differentiating Fact from Opinion After Gertz4-11
    • § 4:2.4 : Milkovich and After4-13
      • [A] : Milkovich Decision4-13
      • [B] : Protection for Opinion Post-Milkovich4-15
      • [C] : Open Issues4-24
      • [D] : Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, and Washington4-26
  • § 4:3 : Analysis4-31
    • § 4:3.1 : Custom and Context4-31
      • [A] : Generally4-31
      • [B] : Political Expression4-43
      • [C] : Criticism4-44
      • [D] : The Internet4-45
      • [E] : Academic Debate4-46
    • § 4:3.2 : Relationship Between Opinion and Underlying Facts4-48
    • § 4:3.3 : Epithet and Rhetorical Hyperbole As Nonactionable4-53
    • § 4:3.4 : Expression of Opinion Not Genuinely Held4-55
    • § 4:3.5 : Statements Held to Be Nonactionable4-56
    • § 4:3.6 : Statements Held to Contain Allegations of Fact4-62
    • § 4:3.7 : Judge and Jury4-65
    • § 4:3.8 : Advertising and Commercial Speech4-67
    • § 4:3.9 : Appellate Review4-67
  • § 4:4 : Common-Law Fair-Comment Privilege4-68
    • § 4:4.1 : Generally4-68
    • § 4:4.2 : Underlying Facts, Stated and Unstated4-69
    • § 4:4.3 : Protection for Misstatement of Underlying Facts4-71
    • § 4:4.4 : Persons Subject to Fair Comment4-71
    • § 4:4.5 : Scope of Privilege4-74
    • § 4:4.6 : Defeasance of Privilege4-75
  • § 4:5 : Opinion and Other Speech Respecting Religion4-77
Chapter 5: Standard of Conduct: Public Plaintiffs
  • § 5:1 : Introduction; Pleading “Actual Malice”5-2
  • § 5:2 : Public Officials5-6
    • § 5:2.1 : Identified5-6
    • § 5:2.2 : Scope of Statements Protected5-18
  • § 5:3 : Public Figures5-20
    • § 5:3.1 : Gertz’s Criteria5-20
    • § 5:3.2 : “Pervasive” or “All-Purpose” Public Figures5-22
    • § 5:3.3 : “Vortex” or “Limited Purpose” Public Figures5-23
    • § 5:3.4 : “Pervasive” Public Figures: Examples5-29
    • § 5:3.5 : “Vortex” Public Figures: Examples5-30
    • § 5:3.6 : Nonpublic Figures: Examples5-42
    • § 5:3.7 : Corporations As Public Figures5-47
    • § 5:3.8 : Former and “Fading” Public Figures5-50
    • § 5:3.9 : Identity, Nature, and Location of the Audience5-52
    • § 5:3.10 : Applicability of the New York Times Standard to Nonmedia Defendants5-53
    • § 5:3.11 : Beyond Gertz5-57
      • [A] : Celebrities5-57
      • [B] : Public Controversy Versus Public Issue5-59
      • [C] : “Voluntariness” and “Involuntary” Public Figures5-63
      • [D] : Gertz As a Prescription of Minimum Standards5-72
  • § 5:4 : Judicial Identification of Public Officials and Public Figures5-72
    • § 5:4.1 : Role of Judge and Jury5-72
    • § 5:4.2 : Timing of the Decision5-74
  • § 5:5 : Application of the New York Times Standard5-75
    • § 5:5.1 : The Test5-75
      • [A] : “Actual Malice” and Common-Law “Malice” Compared5-77
      • [B] : Focus of Test on Subjective Factors5-79
    • § 5:5.2 : Application of the Test5-82
      • [A] : Evidence Employed to Establish “Actual Malice”5-86
      • [B] : Evidence Insufficient to Establish “Actual Malice”5-97
      • [C] : Reliance on Third Parties5-108
      • [D] : Use of Expert Witnesses5-112
      • [E] : Application of the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior5-114
      • [F] : Correction, Retraction, and Republication5-115
      • [G] : Constitutional Protection for Known “Falsehoods”: Humor and Fiction5-118
        • [G][1] : Humor5-118
        • [G][2] : Fictionalization5-123
        • [G][3] : Fictionalization and Humor Compared5-126
        • [G][4] : Defenses5-127
    • § 5:5.3 : Burden of Proof5-131
      • [A] : “Convincing Clarity” at Trial5-131
      • [B] : “Convincing Clarity” at the Summary Judgment and Directed Verdict Stages5-133
  • § 5:6 : Commercial Speech5-134
  • § 5:7 : Labor Law5-138
Chapter 6: Standard of Conduct: Private Plaintiffs
  • § 6:1 : Generally6-2
  • § 6:2 : Negligence6-3
    • § 6:2.1 : Negligence Test: Description and Rationale6-6
    • § 6:2.2 : Industry Standard or “Reasonable Person”?6-7
    • § 6:2.3 : Contributory Negligence6-10
    • § 6:2.4 : Burden of Proof6-10
  • § 6:3 : “Actual Malice”6-11
    • § 6:3.1 : Colorado6-11
    • § 6:3.2 : Indiana6-12
    • § 6:3.3 : New Jersey6-13
    • § 6:3.4 : Alaska6-14
    • § 6:3.5 : Kansas6-15
  • § 6:4 : New York’s Chapadeau Test and Other State Standards6-15
  • § 6:5 : Is Gertz Applicable to Nonmedia Defendants?6-20
    • § 6:5.1 : Gertz Applied to Nonmedia Defendants6-21
    • § 6:5.2 : Gertz Not Applied to Nonmedia Defendants6-24
  • § 6:6 : Matters of Purely Private Interest: Impact of Dun & Bradstreet6-26
Chapter 7: Republication, Rumor, Fair Report, and Neutral Reportage
  • § 7:1 : Liability for Republication7-2
  • § 7:2 : Statutes of Limitation and the Single Publication Rule7-4
    • § 7:2.1 : Generally7-4
    • § 7:2.2 : Single Publication Rule and the Internet7-8
  • § 7:3 : Limitations on and Exceptions to Liability7-10
    • § 7:3.1 : Mere Circulation or Distribution7-10
      • [A] : Vendors, Telephones, Telegraphs7-10
      • [B] : Hyperlinks or Other References to Internet-Borne Material7-11
    • § 7:3.2 : The Internet: Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act7-11
    • § 7:3.3 : Wire Service Defense7-18
    • § 7:3.4 : Printers, Sellers, Etc.7-19
    • § 7:3.5 : Protections for Reporting False Statements7-20
      • [A] : New York Times and Gertz7-21
        • [A][1] : Generally7-21
        • [A][2] : Live Republication by Broadcaster7-22
      • [B] : Fair Report,” “Record,” or “Reporter’s” Privilege7-23
        • [B][1] : Generally; Defeasance7-23
        • [B][2] : Rationale7-26
        • [B][3] : State Statutes7-29
        • [B][4] : Scope of Privilege: Reports Covered7-30
        • [B][5] : “Malice”7-41
        • [B][6] : Fairness and Accuracy7-41
        • [B][7] : Portions of Record and Sources of Information7-47
        • [B][8] : Constitutional Ramifications7-49
      • [C] : Reports of Investigations7-50
      • [D] : Neutral Reportage7-52
        • [D][1] : The Problem7-52
        • [D][2] : The Problem Illustrated7-52
        • [D][3] : Protection for Neutral Reportage7-54
        • [D][4] : Application of and Limitations on the Doctrine7-55
          • [D][4][a] : Neutral Reportage Privilege Denied7-55
          • [D][4][b] : Neutral Reportage Privilege Applied7-58
          • [D][4][c] : Neutral Reportage Extended7-61
        • [D][5] : The Hypothetical Solved7-63
        • [D][6] : Other Aspects of the Neutral Reportage Doctrine7-64
          • [D][6][a] : Neutral Reportage and the Fair Report Privilege7-64
          • [D][6][b] : Neutral Reportage Under Chapadeau and Gertz7-65
          • [D][6][c] : Rumors7-67
Chapter 8: Absolute Privilege, Immunity, and Preemption
  • § 8:1 : Privilege—An Overview8-2
  • § 8:2 : Absolute Privilege8-3
    • § 8:2.1 : Judicial Proceedings8-5
      • [A] : Requirement of Pertinence8-5
      • [B] : The Judiciary8-9
      • [C] : The Bar8-10
      • [D] : Parties, Complainants, Witnesses, and Investigators8-19
      • [E] : Jurors8-25
      • [F] : Officers of the Court8-26
    • § 8:2.2 : Legislators8-26
      • [A] : The Speech or Debate Clause8-26
      • [B] : Protection for Federal Employees Under the Federal Tort Claims and Westfall Acts8-28
      • [C] : State Legislators8-31
      • [D] : Petitions to and Testimony Before Legislatures8-33
    • § 8:2.3 : Federal Executive and Administrative Officers8-34
      • [A] : Barr v. Matteo8-34
      • [B] : The Federal Tort Claims and Westfall Acts8-36
    • § 8:2.4 : State Agencies and Proceedings8-37
      • [A] : Generally8-37
      • [B] : Immunity for Quasi-Judicial Agencies and Persons8-40
      • [C] : Subordinate Legislative Bodies8-45
    • § 8:2.5 : State Executive Officers8-46
      • [A] : Particular State Officers8-47
      • [B] : State Variations8-48
    • § 8:2.6 : Husband and Wife8-54
    • § 8:2.7 : Labor Law and Other Miscellaneous Absolute Privileges and Preemptions8-55
    • § 8:2.8 : Consent; “Invited Defamation”8-61
    • § 8:2.9 : Sovereign Immunity and Act of State Doctrine8-65
    • § 8:2.10 : “Political Question” Immunity8-68
    • § 8:2.11 : Interlocutory Appeal8-68
Chapter 9: Qualified Privilege
  • § 9:1 : Rationale and General Principles9-2
  • § 9:2 : Occasions for Conditional Privilege9-8
    • § 9:2.1 : Interest of the Speaker9-9
    • § 9:2.2 : Interest of Recipient or Third Person9-14
      • [A] : Reports on Employees and Prospective Employees9-15
      • [B] : Student Evaluations9-22
      • [C] : Credit Reports9-22
        • [C][1] : Common Law9-22
        • [C][2] : Fair Credit Reporting Act9-24
      • [D] : Reports to Consumers9-25
    • § 9:2.3 : Common Interest9-25
    • § 9:2.4 : Family Relationships9-32
    • § 9:2.5 : Public Interest9-33
    • § 9:2.6 : “Fair Report,” “Record,” or “Reporter’s” Privilege9-36
    • § 9:2.7 : Fair Comment9-37
    • § 9:2.8 : Constitutional Privilege9-37
    • § 9:2.9 : Right to Petition9-37
  • § 9:3 : Defeasance of Conditional Privilege9-38
    • § 9:3.1 : “Malice”9-41
    • § 9:3.2 : “Actual Malice”9-44
    • § 9:3.3 : Reckless Falsehood9-51
    • § 9:3.4 : Negligence9-52
      • [A] : Generally9-52
      • [B] : Interrelationship with Gertz9-53
    • § 9:3.5 : Other “Abuse” of Privileged Occasions9-54
      • [A] : Excessive Publication9-54
      • [B] : Excesses of Language9-55
      • [C] : Improper Purpose9-56
  • § 9:4 : Severability9-56
  • § 9:5 : Judge and Jury9-57
  • § 9:6 : Burden of Pleading9-58
Chapter 10: Damages and Other Remedies
  • § 10:1 : Overview10-2
  • § 10:2 : Principles of Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc.10-4
  • § 10:3 : Types of Damages10-6
    • § 10:3.1 : Nominal Damages10-6
    • § 10:3.2 : Special Damages10-8
    • § 10:3.3 : General Damages: Presumed and Actual Injury10-10
    • § 10:3.4 : Compensation for Actual Harm10-13
    • § 10:3.5 : Punitive or Exemplary Damages10-15
      • [A] : Punitive Awards Generally10-24
      • [B] : Punitive Damages Limited to Protect Expression10-30
      • [C] : Tendency Toward Punitive Damages in New York Times Cases10-31
      • [D] : Vicarious Liability; Respondeat Superior10-32
  • § 10:4 : Nonmedia Defendants10-35
  • § 10:5 : Amount of Damages and Causation10-36
    • § 10:5.1 : Criteria and Proof10-36
    • § 10:5.2 : Judicial Review of Award10-41
    • § 10:5.3 : Causation10-49
    • § 10:5.4 : Constitutional Basis for Reversal10-52
    • § 10:5.5 : Mitigation and Aggravation10-55
      • [A] : Similar Bad Acts10-55
      • [B] : Plaintiff’s Bad Reputation or Character10-56
      • [C] : Previous Settlement or Recovery10-57
      • [D] : Charges Already in Circulation10-58
      • [E] : Plaintiff’s Ability to Rebut Charges10-58
      • [F] : Defendant’s Motivation10-59
      • [G] : Retraction10-60
      • [H] : Plaintiff’s Duty to Mitigate10-60
  • § 10:6 : Other Remedies10-60
    • § 10:6.1 : Injunctions10-60
    • § 10:6.2 : Compulsory Retraction10-67
    • § 10:6.3 : Declaratory Judgment10-68
  • § 10:7 : Discharge in Bankruptcy10-70
  • § 10:8 : Workers’ Compensation10-70
  • § 10:9 : Tax Treatment of Awards10-71
  • § 10:10 : Arbitration10-72
  • § 10:11 : Countersuits and “SLAPP” Statutes10-73
    • § 10:11.1 : Sanctions for Frivolous Litigation10-73
    • § 10:11.2 : Anti-SLAPP Statutes10-74
    • § 10:11.3 : Suits Under 42 U.S.C. § 198310-77
Chapter 11: Retraction
  • § 11:1 : Common Law; “Actual Malice”11-2
  • § 11:2 : Retraction Statutes11-3
    • § 11:2.1 : Good Faith11-4
    • § 11:2.2 : Notice11-4
    • § 11:2.3 : Timing of Demand11-6
    • § 11:2.4 : Content11-8
    • § 11:2.5 : Timing of Retraction11-9
    • § 11:2.6 : Defendants Covered11-9
    • § 11:2.7 : Effect of Retraction11-12
    • § 11:2.8 : Torts Covered11-13
    • § 11:2.9 : Validity of Statutes11-13
    • § 11:2.10 : Evaluation11-14
Chapter 12: Related Tort Causes of Action: Invasion of Privacy
  • § 12:1 : Defamation-Related Tort Causes of Action Generally12-3
    • § 12:1.1 : The Causes of Action12-3
    • § 12:1.2 : Constitutional Principles Applicable to Defamation-Related Causes of Action12-4
  • § 12:2 : Invasion of Privacy: History12-6
    • § 12:2.1 : Warren, Brandeis, and the Harvard Law Review12-6
    • § 12:2.2 : Acceptance in the States12-8
  • § 12:3 : False Light12-13
    • § 12:3.1 : Elements12-16
      • [A] : Generally12-16
      • [B] : Offensiveness12-22
    • § 12:3.2 : Survival of Action12-25
    • § 12:3.3 : Vicarious Rights12-26
    • § 12:3.4 : Distinctions Between Defamation and False-Light Invasion of Privacy12-26
      • [A] : Oral and Written Invasion12-27
      • [B] : Extrinsic Facts, Privilege, Single Publication, Statutes of Limitations, and Retraction12-27
      • [C] : Judge and Jury12-30
    • § 12:3.5 : Corporate Plaintiffs12-30
    • § 12:3.6 : Constitutional Treatment12-31
      • [A] : Time, Inc. v. Hill12-31
      • [B] : Application of Time, Inc. v. Hill to Private Plaintiffs12-32
    • § 12:3.7 : Prevalence of the Tort12-35
  • § 12:4 : Public Disclosure of Private Facts12-36
    • § 12:4.1 : Private Facts Invasion of Privacy Compared with Defamation and False Light12-38
    • § 12:4.2 : Elements: Publicity12-39
    • § 12:4.3 : Elements: Identification of Plaintiff12-43
    • § 12:4.4 : Elements: Facts Disclosed Are Private12-44
      • [A] : Material in Fact Public12-45
      • [B] : Public Places12-45
      • [C] : Public Record12-47
    • § 12:4.5 : “General Interest” or “Newsworthiness”12-48
      • [A] : Public Officials and Public Figures12-50
      • [B] : Private Persons12-51
        • [B][1] : Relationship Between Newsworthy Event and the Plaintiff12-52
        • [B][2] : Private Facts Held Actionable or Protected12-56
      • [C] : “General Interest”: Matters of Public Record12-62
      • [D] : “General Interest”: Specific Protection for Republication of Court Records12-63
      • [E] : Constitutional Protection for Matters of Public Record12-64
      • [F] : Passage of Time; Rehabilitation of Criminals12-66
      • [G] : Perpetual “General Interest”12-68
    • § 12:4.6 : Elements: Offensiveness12-70
      • [A] : Generally12-70
      • [B] : Relationship Between “General Interest” and Offensiveness: The Sidis Principle12-72
    • § 12:4.7 : Negligent Invasion of Privacy12-75
    • § 12:4.8 : Waiver12-75
    • § 12:4.9 : Other Defenses and Privileges12-76
    • § 12:4.10 : Breach of Contract and Promissory Estoppel12-77
    • § 12:4.11 : Damages12-77
    • § 12:4.12 : Injunctive Relief12-78
    • § 12:4.13 : Choice of Law12-79
    • § 12:4.14 : Other Constitutional Considerations12-79
      • [A] : Cox Broadcasting Corp. v. Cohn and Its Progeny12-80
      • [B] : New York Times Co. v. Sullivan12-81
      • [C] : Judge and Jury12-81
    • § 12:4.15 : Effect of the Internet on the Tort12-82
  • § 12:5 : Appropriation; “Right of Publicity”12-85
    • § 12:5.1 : In General12-85
    • § 12:5.2 : Descendability, Statute of Limitations, Etc.12-91
    • § 12:5.3 : Video Games12-93
  • § 12:6 : Intrusion and Trespass12-94
  • § 12:7 : Right to Privacy in New York and Virginia12-102
Chapter 13: Other Related Causes of Action
  • § 13:1 : Injurious Falsehood13-2
    • § 13:1.1 : Introduction: Disparagement (Trade Libel) and Slander of Title13-2
    • § 13:1.2 : Slander of Title13-4
      • [A] : Interests Protected13-4
      • [B] : Form of Publication13-5
      • [C] : Damages13-6
      • [D] : Constitutional and Anti-SLAPP Protection13-6
    • § 13:1.3 : Disparagement (Trade Libel)13-7
    • § 13:1.4 : Elements of Injurious Falsehood13-9
      • [A] : Generally13-9
      • [B] : Comparison with Defamation13-12
      • [C] : “Of and Concerning” the Product or Service13-14
      • [D] : Falsity13-16
      • [E] : Malice13-17
      • [F] : Special Damages13-22
    • § 13:1.5 : Privilege13-25
      • [A] : Absolute Privilege13-25
      • [B] : Conditional Privilege13-26
      • [C] : Special Injurious Falsehood Privileges13-27
    • § 13:1.6 : Injunctions13-28
    • § 13:1.7 : Statutes of Limitations; Survival of Action13-29
    • § 13:1.8 : Impact of the Constitutional Cases13-29
  • § 13:2 : The Lanham Act13-31
  • § 13:3 : Securities Exchange Act13-37
  • § 13:4 : Interference with Contract and Interference with Prospective Advantage13-39
  • § 13:5 : Prima Facie Tort13-45
  • § 13:6 : Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress13-47
    • § 13:6.1 : The Tort13-47
    • § 13:6.2 : Interrelationship with Defamation13-62
  • § 13:7 : Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress13-63
  • § 13:8 : Negligent Misstatement13-66
  • § 13:9 : Conspiracy13-70
  • § 13:10 : Deprivation of Civil Rights13-71
  • § 13:11 : Misrepresentation, Breach of Contract, Promissory Estoppel, and Yet Other Causes of Action13-74
Chapter 14: Discovery; Sources, Confidentiality, and Anonymity
  • § 14:1 : Introduction14-2
    • § 14:1.1 : Generally14-2
    • § 14:1.2 : The “Press”; Motions to Dismiss14-4
  • § 14:2 : Tactics14-5
    • § 14:2.1 : Plaintiff’s and Defendant’s Discovery Compared14-5
    • § 14:2.2 : Defendant’s Use of Interrogatories14-6
  • § 14:3 : Confidential News Sources14-7
    • § 14:3.1 : The Problem14-7
      • [A] : Plaintiff’s Interest14-8
      • [B] : Defendant’s Interest14-9
      • [C] : Nonconfidential News-Gathering Information14-11
    • § 14:3.2 : The Problem’s Resolution14-12
      • [A] : The Extremes14-12
      • [B] : Toward Accommodation of Interests14-13
      • [C] : Summary Judgment14-18
        • [C][1] : Discovery Compelled14-21
    • § 14:3.3 : Statutory Protection14-22
    • § 14:3.4 : Application of Statutory Privilege to Defamation Cases in State Courts14-28
      • [A] : Qualified Protection14-28
      • [B] : Absolute Protection14-29
    • § 14:3.5 : Application of Statutory Privilege to Defamation Cases in Federal Courts14-31
    • § 14:3.6 : Conduct of the Case14-32
  • § 14:4 : Anonymous Internet and Other Authors14-35
  • § 14:5 : Journalists As Plaintiffs14-46
  • § 14:6 : Confidentiality Orders Covering Material Disclosed by Plaintiff14-47
  • § 14:7 : Court Control of Discovery in Defamation Cases14-49
Chapter 15: Jurisdiction and Choice of Law
  • § 15:1 : Personal Jurisdiction over the Defendant15-2
    • § 15:1.1 : Introduction15-2
    • § 15:1.2 : State Long-Arm Statutes15-3
      • [A] : Generally15-3
      • [B] : Print and Broadcast Defendants15-4
      • [C] : Special Rules for Defamation in Certain States15-7
      • [D] : Nonmedia Defendants15-10
      • [E] : Electronic Media15-11
    • § 15:1.3 : The Due Process Analysis15-13
      • [A] : Introduction15-13
      • [B] : General Jurisdiction15-16
      • [C] : Specific Jurisdiction15-17
        • [C][1] : Generally15-17
          • [C][1][a] : Circulation15-19
          • [C][1][b] : Foreseeability and Effects in the Forum15-26
          • [C][1][c] : News Gathering15-27
          • [C][1][d] : Solicitation of Advertising15-28
        • [C][2] : Authors, Anchors, Editors, Etc.15-29
        • [C][3] : Sources15-30
        • [C][4] : Internet Defendants15-33
        • [C][5] : Other Defendants15-42
    • § 15:1.4 : Discovery15-43
    • § 15:1.5 : Forum Non Conveniens and Motions for Change of Venue15-43
    • § 15:1.6 : Actions Against United States and Foreign Governments and Their Instrumentalities15-44
  • § 15:2 : Federal Removal Jurisdiction15-45
  • § 15:3 : Choice of Law15-49
    • § 15:3.1 : Historical Overview15-51
    • § 15:3.2 : The Second Restatement View15-53
    • § 15:3.3 : Statutes of Limitations15-63
    • § 15:3.4 : Pleading Foreign Law15-63
  • § 15:4 : Enforcement of Foreign Judgments; “Libel Tourism”15-64
    • § 15:4.1 : Legislative Response15-67
    • § 15:4.2 : Judicial Response15-68
    • § 15:4.3 : Congressional Response—The SPEECH Act15-70
    • § 15:4.4 : U.K. Response15-71
Chapter 16: Motion Practice and Appeal
  • § 16:1 : Introduction16-2
  • § 16:2 : Motion to Dismiss and Anti-SLAPP Laws16-3
    • § 16:2.1 : Generally16-3
    • § 16:2.2 : Federal Practice After Twombly and Iqbal16-6
    • § 16:2.3 : Special Motion to Strike Under Anti-SLAPP Statutes16-9
      • [A] : California16-9
        • [A][1] : “In Furtherance of [the Defendant’s] Right of Petition or Free Speech”16-11
        • [A][2] : Procedure; Applicability in Federal Court16-16
        • [A][3] : Appeal16-19
      • [B] : Texas16-20
      • [C] : Illinois16-21
      • [D] : New York16-23
      • [E] : Other States16-25
      • [F] : Availability of Anti-SLAPP Procedures in Federal Courts16-31
      • [G] : Other Remedies16-33
  • § 16:3 : Summary Judgment16-33
    • § 16:3.1 : Public-Official and Public-Figure Cases16-33
      • [A] : Summary Judgment Preferred in Theory16-37
      • [B] : Summary Judgment Preferred in Fact16-45
      • [C] : Summary Judgment Disfavored16-49
      • [D] : “Convincing Clarity”16-51
    • § 16:3.2 : Private-Figure Cases16-53
      • [A] : Interest in Freedom to Communicate16-53
      • [B] : Impact of a Negligence Standard16-54
      • [C] : Summary Judgment Where Remedy Is Theoretically Preferred16-55
      • [D] : Summary Judgment Where Remedy Is Not Theoretically Preferred16-57
      • [E] : Summary Judgment in Nonnegligence Jurisdictions16-58
    • § 16:3.3 : Summary Judgment Postponed16-59
    • § 16:3.4 : Multiple or Successive Motions for Summary Judgment16-60
  • § 16:4 : Directed Verdict and Judgment N.O.V.16-60
    • § 16:4.1 : Generally16-60
    • § 16:4.2 : Court’s Role in Evaluating Weight of Evidence16-61
  • § 16:5 : Appeal16-62
    • § 16:5.1 : Introduction16-62
    • § 16:5.2 : Public-Official and Public-Figure Cases16-63
    • § 16:5.3 : Other Cases16-71
    • § 16:5.4 : Application of Bose to Verdicts for Defendant16-73
    • § 16:5.5 : Analysis of Independent Review: Appellate Review and the Institution of the Jury16-74
      • [A] : Rationale for Independent Review16-74
      • [B] : Role of the Jury16-75
      • [C] : Independent Review: Towards a Resolution16-78
  • § 16:6 : Interlocutory Appeal16-79
    • § 16:6.1 : Constitutional Law16-79
    • § 16:6.2 : State Law16-80
Chapter 17: Insurance Policies
  • § 17:1 : Introduction17-1
  • § 17:2 : Insurance Available17-2
  • § 17:3 : The Insurance Agreement17-5
    • § 17:3.1 : Policy Triggers17-5
    • § 17:3.2 : Torts Covered17-5
    • § 17:3.3 : Giving Notice of Claims17-6
    • § 17:3.4 : Persons Covered17-7
    • § 17:3.5 : Types of Media Covered17-8
    • § 17:3.6 : Other Factors17-10
    • § 17:3.7 : Communications Between Insurer and Insured17-10
  • § 17:4 : Errors and Omissions Coverage17-10
  • § 17:5 : Policy Comparisons17-11
  Table of Cases
  Defendant-Plaintiff Table
  Index

  Please click here to view the latest update information for this title: Last Update Information  
 

Share
Email
UPKEEP SERVICE
Your purchase will also sign you up for “Upkeep Service,” whereby you will receive future automatic shipments of updates, new editions and supplements to this edition, as they become available, for a 30-day preview. Updates, new editions and supplements published within 90 days of your purchase will be issued free of charge; all other updates will be subject to an additional charge if kept beyond the preview period, invoiced at the time of delivery. This service will continue until canceled by you at any time. See here.
“Absolutely indispensable for the specialist and general practitioner alike.”
Arthur R. Miller, Harvard Law School

“It is surely the essential text on this complex subject.”
P. Cameron deVore, Davis Wright

“Judge Robert Sack is the leading expert on the Law of Defamation. His book is, or should be at the elbow of every lawyer who practices media law.”
James C. Goodale, Debevoise & Plimpton

“The standard text in the field against which all others must be judged.”
Floyd Abrams, Cahill Gordon & Reindel


  • FOLLOW PLI:
  • twitter
  • LinkedIn
  • GooglePlus
  • RSS

All Contents Copyright © 1996-2017 Practising Law Institute. Continuing Legal Education since 1933.

© 2017 PLI PRACTISING LAW INSTITUTE. All rights reserved. The PLI logo is a service mark of PLI.