TreatiseTreatise

International Corporate Practice: A Practitioner's Guide to Global Success

 by Carole L. Basri
 
 Copyright: 2007-2017
 Last Updated: February 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402408793
  • Page Count: 1254
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

International Corporate Practice provides guidance on building a comprehensive global legal department, including advice on structuring, staffing, and budgeting, as well as the use of foreign legal consultants and outsourcing.

Written by some of the nation’s leading corporate attorneys, International Corporate Practice helps you to:

  • Develop compliance programs that minimize clients’ legal exposure in foreign markets
  • Commercialize intellectual property
  • Evaluate and effect successful mergers and acquisitions abroad
  • Structure effective international project financing transactions
  • Ensure clients satisfy international guidelines crucial to their global viability, including financial reporting standards, transfer pricing rules, and environmental requirements
  • Manage legal challenges facing clients overseas

International Corporate Practice also includes helpful case studies, checklists, and sample documents.

  Table of Contents
  Introduction
Chapter 1: Global Law Department Management
  • § 1:1 : Introduction1-1
  • § 1:2 : The Importance of a Shared Culture1-3
  • § 1:3 : Organizational Models1-4
    • § 1:3.1 : Reporting Lines1-4
    • § 1:3.2 : Department Structure1-6
  • § 1:4 : Staffing1-6
    • § 1:4.1 : Attorneys1-7
    • § 1:4.2 : Support Staff1-8
  • § 1:5 : Outsourcing and Legal Work1-10
  • § 1:6 : Communication and Coordination1-14
  • § 1:7 : International Attorney-Client Privilege1-14
  • § 1:8 : Law Office Management1-15
Chapter 2: International Attorney-Client Privilege
  • § 2:1 : Introduction2-2
    • § 2:1.1 : Civil Law System2-3
    • § 2:1.2 : Common Law System2-4
    • § 2:1.3 : Civil Law System Versus Common Law System2-6
  • § 2:2 : Analysis of the Principle in Selected Jurisdictions2-7
    • § 2:2.1 : United States2-7
    • § 2:2.2 : Europe2-8
      • [A] : Austria2-9
      • [B] : Germany2-10
      • [C] : Belgium2-11
      • [D] : France2-12
      • [E] : Italy2-13
      • [F] : Portugal2-14
      • [G] : Spain2-15
      • [H] : The Netherlands2-15
      • [I] : England and Wales2-15
      • [J] : Scotland2-16
      • [K] : Ireland2-17
      • [L] : Switzerland2-17
      • [M] : Turkey2-17
      • [N] : Greece2-18
      • [O] : Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway)2-19
    • § 2:2.3 : North America (Other than United States)2-21
      • [A] : Canada2-21
      • [B] : Mexico2-22
    • § 2:2.4 : South America2-22
      • [A] : Argentina2-22
      • [B] : Brazil2-23
      • [C] : Chile2-24
      • [D] : Colombia2-24
      • [E] : Peru2-26
      • [F] : Venezuela2-27
    • § 2:2.5 : Asia2-27
      • [A] : China2-27
      • [B] : Japan2-28
      • [C] : Korea2-28
      • [D] : Hong Kong2-28
      • [E] : Thailand2-28
      • [F] : India2-29
    • § 2:2.6 : Other Countries2-29
      • [A] : Australia2-29
      • [B] : Russia2-30
      • [C] : South Africa2-30
      • [D] : United Arab Emirates (UAE)2-30
      • [E] : Egypt2-31
      • [F] : Israel2-31
      • [G] : Saudi Arabia2-31
  • § 2:3 : The Threat to the Principle2-31
  • § 2:4 : Conclusion2-33
Chapter 3: International Law Firm Network; and Appendices 3A-3B
  • § 3:1 : Introduction3-2
  • § 3:2 : Law Firms As Providers of International Legal Services3-4
  • § 3:3 : Affiliations As Providers of International Legal Services3-8
  • § 3:4 : Creating an International Law Firm Network to Provide International Legal Services3-10
  • § 3:5 : Other Resources for Creating an International Law Firm Network3-13
    • § 3:5.1 : Consultants3-13
    • § 3:5.2 : Accountants3-13
    • § 3:5.3 : Bar Associations3-14
    • § 3:5.4 : Foreign Legal Consultants3-16
  • § 3:6 : Conclusion3-16
  • Appendix 3A : Checklist for Creating an International Law Firm Network (The “Special Teams” Structure)App. 3A-1
  • Appendix 3B : Maps Illustrating International Law Firm NetworksApp. 3B-1
Chapter 4: Foreign Legal Consultants; and Appendix 4A
  • § 4:1 : Introduction4-2
  • § 4:2 : Development of FLC Rules in the United States4-4
  • § 4:3 : Principal Provisions of the FLC Rules4-7
    • § 4:3.1 : General Requirements4-7
      • [A] : Admission in the Foreign Jurisdiction4-7
      • [B] : Professional Experience4-9
      • [C] : Character and Fitness4-10
      • [D] : Minimum Age4-11
      • [E] : Office in the United States4-11
    • § 4:3.2 : Scope of Practice Permitted4-13
      • [A] : Appearance Before Courts4-13
      • [B] : Property in the United States4-14
      • [C] : Family Law4-14
      • [D] : Local Law4-14
      • [E] : Title and Designation Restrictions4-16
    • § 4:3.3 : Other Provisions4-16
      • [A] : Reciprocity4-16
      • [B] : Affiliation with Other Members of the Bar4-17
  • § 4:4 : State Variations4-18
    • § 4:4.1 : Professional Experience4-18
    • § 4:4.2 : Reciprocity4-19
    • § 4:4.3 : Scope of Practice4-20
  • § 4:5 : Proposed Amendments to the Model Rule4-20
    • § 4:5.1 : Discretion of the Court4-21
    • § 4:5.2 : Professional Experience4-21
    • § 4:5.3 : Minimum Age Requirement4-22
    • § 4:5.4 : Scope of Practice4-22
    • § 4:5.5 : Reciprocity4-22
  • Appendix 4A : ABA Model Rule for the Licensing and Practice of Foreign Legal ConsultantsApp. 4A-1
Chapter 5: Outsourcing and the Use of Contract Attorneys
  • § 5:1 : Outsourcing of Legal Services5-2
    • § 5:1.1 : What Is Outsourcing?5-2
    • § 5:1.2 : The Legal Profession’s Initial Use of Outsourcing5-3
    • § 5:1.3 : Contract Attorneys5-3
    • § 5:1.4 : Growing Acceptance of Contract Attorneys5-5
    • § 5:1.5 : Legal Work Suited to Contract Attorneys5-5
    • § 5:1.6 : Effect of E-Discovery5-6
    • § 5:1.7 : Who Becomes a Contract Attorney and Why5-7
    • § 5:1.8 : Common Myths About Contract Attorneys5-7
    • § 5:1.9 : Benefits of Hiring Contract Attorneys5-8
      • [A] : Cost Savings5-8
      • [B] : Specialty Expertise5-9
      • [C] : Handling Routine Legal Work5-9
      • [D] : Meeting Deadlines5-9
      • [E] : Adding Staff Without Adding Headcount5-9
      • [F] : Filling in for Staff on Leave5-10
      • [G] : Diversifying Client Base and Increasing Profits5-10
      • [H] : Allowing Better Training for Associates and Corporate Counsel5-10
      • [I] : Trying Out Potential New Staff5-11
    • § 5:1.10 : How to Hire Contract Attorneys5-11
      • [A] : Independent Contractors5-11
      • [B] : Employees5-11
      • [C] : Contract Legal Staffing Agency5-12
    • § 5:1.11 : Rates and Billing5-13
    • § 5:1.12 : Ethical Considerations5-13
      • [A] : Applicability of Ethical Rules5-13
      • [B] : Disclosure5-13
      • [C] : Confidentiality5-13
      • [D] : Fee Splitting5-14
      • [E] : Preserving Independent Professional Judgment5-14
      • [F] : Surcharges5-14
  • § 5:2 : Outsourcing of Legal Services Overseas (“Offshoring”)5-14
    • § 5:2.1 : A Case Study of Offshoring in India5-15
    • § 5:2.2 : Document Review Offshore?5-16
  • § 5:3 : “Onshoring” or “Nearshoring” of Document Reviews5-16
  • § 5:4 : Managed Document Review5-17
  • § 5:5 : Conclusion5-17
Chapter 6: International Corporate Compliance; and Appendices 6A-6C
  • § 6:1 : Introduction6-2
  • § 6:2 : Why Implement an International Compliance Program?6-3
    • § 6:2.1 : Global Economic Incentives6-3
    • § 6:2.2 : United States Laws with Applicability to Conduct Outside the United States6-4
    • § 6:2.3 : Other Countries’ Laws Encouraging Compliance6-7
    • § 6:2.4 : Nongovernmental Organizations6-11
  • § 6:3 : How to Develop a Global Compliance Program Using the Sentencing Guidelines6-15
    • § 6:3.1 : Components of an Effective Compliance Program6-16
      • [A] : Standards and Procedures6-16
      • [B] : Responsible Individuals6-17
      • [C] : Due Diligence in Hiring and Promotions6-18
      • [D] : Communication of Standards and Procedures, Including Training6-18
      • [E] : Auditing, Monitoring, and Reporting6-19
      • [F] : Incentives and Penalties6-21
      • [G] : Response to Wrongdoing6-21
    • § 6:3.2 : Periodic Risk Assessment6-22
    • § 6:3.3 : Relevance of Size of Organization6-23
    • § 6:3.4 : Changes in the Sentencing Guidelines6-23
  • § 6:4 : Other Frameworks for a Compliance Program6-24
  • § 6:5 : Tailoring the Compliance Program to Individual Countries6-28
  • § 6:6 : Practical Steps6-29
  • Figure 6-1 : Compliance Program Rollout6-30
  • Appendix 6A : Whistleblower Hotlines and Data Protection Laws in EuropeApp. 6A-1
  • Appendix 6B : Global Codes of ConductApp. 6B-1
  • Appendix 6C : How to Implement a Cross-Border Code of Conduct or Other Human Resources PolicyApp. 6C-1
Chapter 7: Corporate Social Responsibility Standards and Monitoring Programs
  • § 7:1 : Overview7-2
    • § 7:1.1 : What Is Corporate Social Responsibility?7-2
    • § 7:1.2 : Why Should Corporations Engage in CSR?7-4
    • § 7:1.3 : Conditions for a Successful CSR Program7-6
  • § 7:2 : Key Components of CSR7-7
    • § 7:2.1 : Standards7-7
      • [A] : Topics to Be Addressed7-7
        • [A][1] : Forced Labor7-8
        • [A][2] : Child Labor7-8
        • [A][3] : Freedom of Association and Collective Bargaining7-9
        • [A][4] : Living Wage7-9
        • [A][5] : Other Topics7-10
      • [B] : Industry-Specific Codes of Conduct7-10
        • [B][1] : Electronics Industry7-11
        • [B][2] : Other Industries7-11
      • [C] : Joint CSR Efforts7-12
    • § 7:2.2 : Monitoring7-14
    • § 7:2.3 : Scope of CSR Program7-18
  • § 7:3 : Legal Issues7-20
    • § 7:3.1 : Alien Tort Statute7-20
    • § 7:3.2 : Product Safety Legislation7-36
    • § 7:3.3 : Corporations’ Susceptibility to Jurisdiction in Countries in Which Their Products Are Made7-38
    • § 7:3.4 : Selected Federal Laws That Address Issues Encompassed by CSR Standards and Monitoring Efforts7-39
      • [A] : Trade Act of 19307-39
      • [B] : Prison-Made Goods7-40
      • [C] : Fair Labor Standards Act of 19387-40
      • [D] : Occupational Safety & Health Act of 19707-42
      • [E] : Federal Sentencing Guidelines7-44
    • § 7:3.5 : Selected State Laws That Address Issues Encompassed by CSR Standards and Monitoring Efforts7-45
    • § 7:3.6 : Other Selected Legislation7-46
  • § 7:4 : Transparency and Disclosure7-48
  • § 7:5 : NGOs and Their Campaigns7-51
  • § 7:6 : Benefits to Corporations7-53
    • § 7:6.1 : Brand Protection7-53
    • § 7:6.2 : Risk Management7-53
    • § 7:6.3 : Investor Relations7-54
    • § 7:6.4 : Attracting and Retaining Employees7-55
    • § 7:6.5 : Profitability7-56
    • § 7:6.6 : Consumer Relations7-57
  • § 7:7 : Conclusion7-59
Chapter 8: International Crisis Management
  • § 8:1 : What Is Crisis Management and Why Should Corporate Counsel Care About It?8-2
  • § 8:2 : Forms of Corporate Crises8-2
  • § 8:3 : Threats Posed by Corporate Crises8-3
  • § 8:4 : Stages of a Corporate Crisis8-3
  • § 8:5 : Crisis Manager8-7
    • § 8:5.1 : Choosing the Crisis Manager8-7
    • § 8:5.2 : Grants of Authority to the Crisis Manager8-8
  • § 8:6 : Crisis Management Team8-8
    • § 8:6.1 : Team Members8-8
    • § 8:6.2 : Team Communications8-9
    • § 8:6.3 : Team Goals8-10
    • § 8:6.4 : Team Activities8-10
  • § 8:7 : Long-Term Management of the Crisis Claims8-16
  • § 8:8 : Cross-Border Crisis Management8-16
    • § 8:8.1 : Planning8-17
    • § 8:8.2 : Crisis Response Team8-18
    • § 8:8.3 : Realistic Knowledge of the Foreign Situation8-19
    • § 8:8.4 : Communications8-19
  • § 8:9 : Conclusion8-21
Chapter 9: International Internal Investigations
  • § 9:1 : Introduction9-2
  • § 9:2 : Planning the Investigation9-2
    • § 9:2.1 : Scope of the Investigation9-2
      • [A] : Developing the Investigation Plan and Time Frame9-3
      • [B] : Parts of the Company Involved9-4
      • [C] : Governments and Government Agencies9-5
    • § 9:2.2 : Role of the In-House Lawyer9-5
      • [A] : Applicable Ethical Rules9-5
      • [B] : Unauthorized Practice of Law9-6
      • [C] : Should Outside Counsel Be Retained?9-6
  • § 9:3 : Preserving, Collecting, and Transferring Data9-8
    • § 9:3.1 : Preservation of Data9-8
    • § 9:3.2 : Methods and Scope of Data Collection and Review9-8
      • [A] : Methods of Collection9-9
      • [B] : Document Review Strategies9-10
    • § 9:3.3 : Privacy Considerations and International Restraints on Transfer9-10
      • [A] : Privacy Considerations9-10
      • [B] : International Restraints on the Transfer of Data9-11
  • § 9:4 : Interviewing Witnesses9-12
    • § 9:4.1 : General Ethical Concerns9-12
    • § 9:4.2 : Employee Witnesses9-12
      • [A] : Upjohn Warnings9-13
      • [B] : Foreign Application of Upjohn Warnings9-14
    • § 9:4.3 : Blocking Statutes and Similar Laws9-14
    • § 9:4.4 : Documenting the Interview9-15
  • § 9:5 : Privilege and Work Product Concerns9-15
    • § 9:5.1 : Privilege and Work Product Generally9-15
    • § 9:5.2 : Country Examples9-16
    • § 9:5.3 : Application to U.S. Litigation9-17
    • § 9:5.4 : Waiver9-18
  • § 9:6 : Whistleblowers9-18
    • § 9:6.1 : Antiretaliatory Provisions Protecting Whistleblowers9-19
  • § 9:7 : Reporting and Disclosing Findings9-20
  • § 9:8 : Conclusion9-21
Chapter 10: International Litigation Management
  • § 10:1 : Introduction10-2
  • § 10:2 : Selecting Outside Counsel10-2
  • § 10:3 : Locating Local Counsel10-3
  • § 10:4 : Attorney-Client Privilege10-6
    • § 10:4.1 : Trend in EU Cases10-8
  • § 10:5 : Evaluating the Case10-8
    • § 10:5.1 : Where to Sue10-9
      • [A] : Personal Jurisdiction10-9
      • [B] : Forum Selection Clauses10-11
      • [C] : Forum Non Conveniens10-12
      • [D] : Choosing the Most Favorable Law10-16
        • [D][1] : New York Test10-17
        • [D][2] : Restatement Test10-19
        • [D][3] : Leflar Test10-20
        • [D][4] : California Test10-20
        • [D][5] : Proof of the Relevant Foreign Law10-20
    • § 10:5.2 : Service of Process10-21
    • § 10:5.3 : Complaint Against the Company10-23
  • § 10:6 : International Mediation10-24
  • § 10:7 : Taking Discovery Abroad10-26
    • § 10:7.1 : Federal Rules of Civil Procedure10-27
    • § 10:7.2 : Hague Evidence Convention10-28
  • § 10:8 : Conclusion10-28
Chapter 11: International Business Arbitration
  • § 11:1 : Introduction11-3
    • § 11:1.1 : Reasons for Arbitrating International Commercial Disputes11-3
      • [A] : Right to Select Venue and Decision Makers11-3
      • [B] : Finality11-4
      • [C] : Enforceability of Arbitral Awards11-4
      • [D] : Party Autonomy11-5
      • [E] : Costs11-5
      • [F] : Time11-5
  • § 11:2 : Drafting the International Arbitration Agreement11-5
    • § 11:2.1 : Essential Elements11-6
      • [A] : Express Intent by Parties to Resolve Disputes by Arbitration11-6
      • [B] : Scope of Arbitration11-6
      • [C] : Location of the Arbitration11-7
      • [D] : Institutional or Ad Hoc11-7
      • [E] : Language of the Arbitration Proceedings11-8
      • [F] : Number of Arbitrators11-8
      • [G] : Governing Law11-8
    • § 11:2.2 : Sample Clauses11-8
    • § 11:2.3 : Optional Elements11-10
      • [A] : Interim Measures11-10
      • [B] : Confidentiality11-10
      • [C] : Discovery11-11
      • [D] : E-Discovery11-11
      • [E] : Summary Disposition11-11
      • [F] : Waiver of Sovereign Immunity11-12
      • [G] : Exclusion of Punitive Damages11-12
      • [H] : Apportionment of Costs and Attorneys’ Fees11-12
      • [I] : Interest11-12
  • § 11:3 : International Arbitration Institutions11-12
    • § 11:3.1 : Major Institutions11-12
      • [A] : American Arbitration Association/International Center for Dispute Resolution11-12
      • [B] : International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce11-13
      • [C] : London Court of International Arbitration11-13
    • § 11:3.2 : Other Important Institutions11-14
      • [A] : International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes11-14
      • [B] : Permanent Court of Arbitration11-14
      • [C] : Regional Institutions11-14
  • § 11:4 : Selecting the Arbitrators11-14
    • § 11:4.1 : Independence and Impartiality11-15
    • § 11:4.2 : Criteria for Selection11-15
    • § 11:4.3 : Interviewing the Candidate11-16
    • § 11:4.4 : Appointment11-17
    • § 11:4.5 : Challenging an Arbitrator11-17
  • § 11:5 : Choosing the Location11-17
  • § 11:6 : Dealing with the Confidentiality Issue11-18
  • § 11:7 : Prehearing Procedure11-19
    • § 11:7.1 : Initiating an Arbitration11-20
    • § 11:7.2 : Jurisdictional Objections11-20
    • § 11:7.3 : Preliminary Conference11-20
    • § 11:7.4 : Discovery11-21
    • § 11:7.5 : Written Witness Statements Submitted Prior to Oral Hearing11-23
    • § 11:7.6 : Memorials (Prehearing Briefs)11-23
    • § 11:7.7 : Prehearing Dispositive Motions11-24
  • § 11:8 : Evidence11-24
    • § 11:8.1 : Documentary Evidence11-24
    • § 11:8.2 : Testimony at the Hearing11-25
    • § 11:8.3 : Admission of Evidence11-25
      • [A] : Burden of Proof11-25
      • [B] : Presumptions11-26
  • § 11:9 : Experts11-26
    • § 11:9.1 : Appointment11-26
      • [A] : By Arbitrator11-26
      • [B] : By Party11-26
    • § 11:9.2 : Qualifications11-27
    • § 11:9.3 : Nationality and Language11-27
  • § 11:10 : The Final Arbitral Award11-27
    • § 11:10.1 : Generally11-27
    • § 11:10.2 : Enforcement11-28
    • § 11:10.3 : Defenses to Enforcement11-29
  • § 11:11 : International Investment Arbitration11-30
    • § 11:11.1 : Background and History11-30
    • § 11:11.2 : Forums11-31
      • [A] : ICSID11-31
      • [B] : ICC11-32
      • [C] : UNCITRAL11-32
      • [D] : International Tribunals11-32
      • [E] : National Courts11-33
    • § 11:11.3 : Political Risk Insurance11-33
    • § 11:11.4 : Sovereign Immunity and the Enforcement of State Awards11-33
    • § 11:11.5 : Conclusion11-34
Chapter 12: Global Corporate Governance Standards; and Appendix 12A
  • § 12:1 : Why U.S. Corporations Need to Know About Corporate Governance Practices Abroad12-1
  • § 12:2 : United Kingdom—“Comply or Explain”12-3
  • § 12:3 : European Union12-5
  • § 12:4 : East Asia12-6
  • § 12:5 : Mexico12-7
  • § 12:6 : Synthesis? OECD Guidance12-7
  • § 12:7 : From Governance to Political Economy12-8
  • Appendix 12A : Sources on International Corporate GovernanceApp. 12A-1
Chapter 13: International Financial Reporting Standards
  • § 13:1 : Introduction13-3
  • § 13:2 : Trends13-6
    • § 13:2.1 : IFRS and Legal Objectives13-7
    • § 13:2.2 : Convergence of IFRS and U.S. GAAP13-8
    • § 13:2.3 : Reconciliation to U.S. GAAP13-10
  • Fig. 13-1 : Differences Between IFRS and U.S. GAAP13-11
    • § 13:2.4 : IOSCO, Regulators, and Enforcement13-12
  • § 13:3 : The IASB and the IFRS Foundation13-14
    • § 13:3.1 : History, Structure, Accountability, and Funding13-14
      • [A] : History13-14
      • [B] : Structure13-15
  • Fig. 13-2 : Organization of the IFRS Foundation13-16
    • [C] : Governance and Accountability Arrangements13-16
    • [D] : Funding13-17
  • Fig. 13-3 : Funding of the IFRS Foundation13-17
    • § 13:3.2 : Monitoring Board13-18
    • § 13:3.3 : IFRS Foundation Trustees13-18
    • § 13:3.4 : IASB Members13-21
    • § 13:3.5 : Due Process of Standard Setting13-23
  • Fig. 13-4 : Standard-Setting Process13-24
    • § 13:3.6 : IFRS Interpretations Committee13-25
    • § 13:3.7 : IFRS Advisory Council13-27
  • § 13:4 : Framework, Standards, and Interpretations of IFRS13-28
    • § 13:4.1 : Framework13-28
      • [A] : Revision of Framework13-28
      • [B] : Current Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements13-29
      • [C] : Accessing IFRS13-31
    • § 13:4.2 : Standards13-31
      • [A] : International Financial Reporting Standards13-32
        • [A][1] : IFRS 1: First-Time Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards13-32
        • [A][2] : IFRS 2: Share-Based Payment13-35
        • [A][3] : IFRS 3: Business Combinations13-38
        • [A][4] : IFRS 4: Insurance Contracts13-42
        • [A][5] : IFRS 5: Noncurrent Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations13-46
        • [A][6] : IFRS 6: Exploration for and Evaluation of Mineral Resources13-49
        • [A][7] : IFRS 7: Financial Instruments Disclosures13-51
        • [A][8] : IFRS 8: Operating Segments13-55
        • [A][9] : IFRS 9: Financial Instruments13-57
        • [A][10] : IFRS 10: Consolidated Financial Statements13-58
        • [A][11] : IFRS 11: Joint Arrangements13-61
        • [A][12] : IFRS 12: Disclosure of Interests in Other Entities13-62
        • [A][13] : IFRS 13: Fair Value Measurement13-65
        • [A][14] : IFRS 14: Regulatory Deferral Accounts13-68
        • [A][15] : IFRS 15: Revenue from Contracts with Customers13-70
        • [A][16] : IFRS 16: Leases13-73
      • [B] : International Accounting Standards13-77
        • [B][1] : IAS 1: Presentation of Financial Statements13-77
        • [B][2] : IAS 2: Inventories13-80
        • [B][3] : IAS 7: Cash Flow Statements13-83
        • [B][4] : IAS 8: Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates, and Errors13-85
        • [B][5] : IAS 10: Events After the Balance Sheet Date13-87
        • [B][6] : IAS 11: Construction Contracts13-88
        • [B][7] : IAS 12: Income Taxes13-90
        • [B][8] : IAS 16: Property, Plant, and Equipment13-93
        • [B][9] : IAS 17: Leases13-95
        • [B][10] : IAS 18: Revenue13-97
        • [B][11] : IAS 19: Employee Benefits13-100
        • [B][12] : IAS 20: Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Assistance13-104
        • [B][13] : IAS 21: Effects of Change in Foreign Exchange Rates13-106
        • [B][14] : IAS 23: Borrowing Costs13-109
        • [B][15] : IAS 24: Related Party Disclosures13-110
        • [B][16] : IAS 26: Accounting and Reporting by Retirement Benefit Plans13-112
        • [B][17] : IAS 27: Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements13-114
        • [B][18] : IAS 28: Investments in Associates13-116
        • [B][19] : IAS 29: Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies13-117
        • [B][20] : IAS 31: Interest in Joint Ventures13-120
        • [B][21] : IAS 32: Financial Instruments Presentation13-122
        • [B][22] : IAS 33: Earnings per Share13-127
        • [B][23] : IAS 34: Interim Financial Reporting13-129
        • [B][24] : IAS 36: Impairment of Assets13-132
        • [B][25] : IAS 37: Provisions, Contingent Liabilities, and Contingent Assets13-136
        • [B][26] : IAS 38: Intangible Assets13-139
        • [B][27] : IAS 39: Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement13-143
        • [B][28] : IAS 40: Investment Property13-148
        • [B][29] : IAS 41: Agriculture13-150
      • [C] : IFRS for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises13-153
    • § 13:4.3 : Interpretations of Standards13-156
  • § 13:5 : IFRS Practice Statement Management Commentary13-157
  • § 13:6 : New Presentation Formats13-160
    • § 13:6.1 : Model Financial Statements13-160
    • § 13:6.2 : New Financial Statement Presentation13-163
  • Fig. 13-5 : Presentation Formats for Financial Statements13-164
  • Fig. 13-6 : Presentation Formats for Financial Statements—with Totals and Subtotals13-165
  • § 13:7 : Glossary for IFRS13-166
  • § 13:8 : Abbreviations13-246
  • § 13:9 : Suggested References13-249
    • § 13:9.1 : Websites13-249
    • § 13:9.2 : Publications13-250
Chapter 14: Transfer Pricing
  • § 14:1 : Significance of Transfer Pricing Rules14-2
  • § 14:2 : Background14-2
  • Fig. 14-1 :14-3
  • Fig. 14-2 :14-4
  • Fig. 14-3 :14-5
  • § 14:3 : Transfer Pricing Issues Involving High-Tax Countries Versus Issues Involving “Tax Havens”14-6
    • § 14:3.1 : “Double Tax” Situations14-7
    • § 14:3.2 : Cases Involving Low-Tax Countries14-9
  • § 14:4 : Brief History of Transfer Pricing Rules in the United States and Abroad14-9
    • § 14:4.1 : Before World War II14-10
    • § 14:4.2 : Revenue Act of 1962 and the 1968 Regulations14-11
    • § 14:4.3 : Perceived Problems Under the 1968 Regulations; Transfer Pricing Wars of the 1980s and Early 1990s14-13
  • § 14:5 : Transfer Pricing Methods and Practices Today14-16
    • § 14:5.1 : The U.S. Regulations and the OECD Guidelines14-16
    • § 14:5.2 : Penalty Rules and “Contemporaneous Documentation”14-18
    • § 14:5.3 : Advance Pricing Agreements14-19
  • § 14:6 : Interaction of Transfer Pricing Rules with Other Tax and Customs Rules14-21
    • § 14:6.1 : Subpart F and Related “Anti-Deferral” Rules14-21
    • § 14:6.2 : Branch Rules14-21
    • § 14:6.3 : Customs Rules14-22
    • § 14:6.4 : State Tax Rules14-22
  • § 14:7 : Topics of Special Current Interest14-23
    • § 14:7.1 : “Principal” Structures14-23
    • § 14:7.2 : Cost Sharing14-24
    • § 14:7.3 : Role of Contracts Generally14-25
  • § 14:8 : Conclusion: Role of the Corporate Counsel14-26
Chapter 15: International Tax Aspects of Mergers and Acquisitions; and Appendix 15A
  • § 15:1 : Introduction15-2
  • § 15:2 : Asset Versus Share Acquisitions15-3
    • § 15:2.1 : Benefits of an Asset Purchase15-3
    • § 15:2.2 : Potential Obstacles to an Asset Purchase15-5
    • § 15:2.3 : U.S. Step-Up Elections—Deemed Asset Acquisitions15-6
  • Fig. 15-1 : Section 338 Election15-7
  • § 15:3 : The Tax Due Diligence Process15-9
    • § 15:3.1 : Access to Tax Personnel15-10
    • § 15:3.2 : T’s Tax Function15-11
    • § 15:3.3 : Structure15-11
  • Fig. 15-2 : U.K. Hybrid15-13
    • § 15:3.4 : Transactional History15-14
    • § 15:3.5 : Trapped Cash15-16
    • § 15:3.6 : Tax Reserves15-16
    • § 15:3.7 : Audit History15-17
    • § 15:3.8 : Tax Returns15-18
    • § 15:3.9 : Tax Attributes—Net Operating Losses15-19
    • § 15:3.10 : Tax Attributes: Foreign Tax Credits, E&P, and Credit Pools15-20
    • § 15:3.11 : Tax Basis15-22
    • § 15:3.12 : Transfer Pricing with Respect to Intercompany Transactions15-22
    • § 15:3.13 : Phantom Income Inclusions—Intercompany Transactions15-24
    • § 15:3.14 : Withholding Taxes15-25
    • § 15:3.15 : Taxable Presence/Permanent Establishment15-25
    • § 15:3.16 : Indirect and Other Taxes15-26
  • § 15:4 : Structuring the Transaction15-26
    • § 15:4.1 : Tax Haven Parented or Inverted Structure15-28
  • Fig. 15-3 : Tax Haven Parent15-29
  • Fig. 15-4 : Summary of Tax Implications of Case I Versus Case II15-32
    • § 15:4.2 : U.S.-Parented Holdco Structure15-33
  • Fig. 15-5 : Holdco Structure15-34
    • § 15:4.3 : Finco Structure and Debt Pushdown15-37
      • [A] : Debt Pushdown Process15-38
      • [B] : Example15-40
  • § 15:5 : Conclusion15-41
  • Appendix 15A : International Tax Due Diligence Request ListApp. 15A-1
Chapter 16: Project Finance; and Appendix 16A
  • § 16:1 : Introduction16-4
  • § 16:2 : Project Finance Structure and Key Participants16-6
    • § 16:2.1 : Project Parties16-7
  • Figure 16-1 : Example of a Project Finance Contract Structure16-9
    • [A] : Project Owner16-10
    • [B] : Sponsors16-10
    • [C] : Host Government16-11
    • [D] : EPC Contractor16-12
    • [E] : O&M Contractor or Operator16-12
    • [F] : Fuel/Feedstock Supplier16-12
    • [G] : Long-Term Service and Spare Parts Provider16-13
    • [H] : Insurer16-13
    • [I] : Output Purchaser16-13
    • [J] : Financing Parties16-13
    • [K] : Swap Providers16-14
  • § 16:3 : Project Structuring16-14
  • § 16:4 : Risk Allocation in Key Project Documents16-17
  • Figure 16-2 : Key Project Contractual Relationships16-18
    • § 16:4.1 : Commercial Risk16-19
      • [A] : Construction Phase Risks16-19
      • [B] : Operating Phase Risks16-20
    • § 16:4.2 : Political Risks16-20
      • [A] : Principal Political Risks16-20
      • [B] : Legal Infrastructure16-21
      • [C] : Physical Infrastructure16-22
      • [D] : Managing Political Risks16-22
  • § 16:5 : Major Project Documents16-23
    • § 16:5.1 : Implementation or Concession Agreement16-23
    • § 16:5.2 : Site Acquisition Agreement16-26
    • § 16:5.3 : Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Contracts16-27
      • [A] : Mechanisms for Allocation of Risks16-27
      • [B] : Lump-Sum Turnkey Contract; Selection of Contractor16-28
      • [C] : Scope of Work16-29
      • [D] : Performance Guarantees16-30
      • [E] : Liquidated Damages/Bonuses16-31
      • [F] : Change Orders16-32
      • [G] : Payment Terms16-34
      • [H] : Defaults and Remedies16-35
      • [I] : Dispute Resolution16-36
      • [J] : Split EPC Contracts16-36
      • [K] : Miscellaneous Considerations16-36
    • § 16:5.4 : Offtake Agreement16-37
      • [A] : Types of Offtake Agreements16-37
      • [B] : Key Provisions16-39
      • [C] : Term of Offtake Agreement16-40
      • [D] : Construction; Environmental Issues16-40
      • [E] : Testing and Commissioning16-41
      • [F] : Conditions Precedent16-42
      • [G] : Outages16-42
      • [H] : Pricing16-42
      • [I] : Operating Obligations16-45
      • [J] : Metering and Measurement16-45
    • § 16:5.5 : Fuel/Feedstock Supply Agreement16-45
      • [A] : Nature of Fuel Supply Obligations16-45
      • [B] : Commissioning and Testing of the Project16-46
      • [C] : Term of Fuel Supply Agreement16-46
      • [D] : Fuel Supply and Transportation Pricing16-47
      • [E] : Failure to Deliver16-48
      • [F] : Feedstock Supply to LNG Receiving Terminals16-49
    • § 16:5.6 : Operation and Maintenance Agreement16-50
  • § 16:6 : Project Financing Documentation16-51
    • § 16:6.1 : Commercial Bank Financing16-52
    • § 16:6.2 : Capital Markets Financing16-53
    • § 16:6.3 : Combination Commercial Bank and Capital Market Financing16-55
    • § 16:6.4 : Lease Financing16-56
    • § 16:6.5 : Local Financing16-56
    • § 16:6.6 : Multilateral and Bilateral Agencies; Export Credit Agencies16-57
    • § 16:6.7 : Subordinated Debt16-57
    • § 16:6.8 : Hedge Funds/Term B Loans16-57
  • § 16:7 : Standard Terms in Financing Documents16-58
    • § 16:7.1 : Limited Recourse16-58
    • § 16:7.2 : Representations and Warranties16-59
    • § 16:7.3 : Covenants16-60
  • § 16:8 : Security Documents16-62
    • § 16:8.1 : Personal Property16-62
    • § 16:8.2 : Real Property16-63
    • § 16:8.3 : Pledge of Deposit Accounts16-63
    • § 16:8.4 : Collateral Assignment of Project Documents16-64
  • § 16:9 : Common Concepts in All Project Finance Documents16-65
    • § 16:9.1 : Force Majeure16-65
    • § 16:9.2 : Choice of Law16-67
    • § 16:9.3 : Dispute Resolution16-69
    • § 16:9.4 : Default and Remedies16-71
  • § 16:10 : Environmental Issues16-72
    • § 16:10.1 : IFC Sustainability Policy and Performance Standards16-73
      • [A] : Environmental and Social Review Summary16-74
      • [B] : Environmental and Social Action Plans16-75
      • [C] : Environmental and Social Categorization16-75
      • [D] : Communication and Disclosure16-76
    • § 16:10.2 : World Bank Extractive Industries Review16-76
    • § 16:10.3 : OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises16-77
    • § 16:10.4 : Equator Principles16-78
  • § 16:11 : Insurance16-79
  • § 16:12 : Tax Planning and International Project Finance16-82
    • § 16:12.1 : The Project Entity16-82
    • § 16:12.2 : Contract Structuring Issues16-83
    • § 16:12.3 : Effects of Ownership Structure16-84
  • § 16:13 : Unique Risks in Projects Requiring Foreign Investment16-85
    • § 16:13.1 : Currency Risk16-86
      • [A] : Currency Inconvertibility and Transfer Risk16-86
      • [B] : Currency Devaluation Risk16-88
    • § 16:13.2 : Political Risk16-89
      • [A] : Political Violence16-89
  • Table 16-1 : Definition of Political Violence16-89
    • § 16:13.3 : Host Government Agreements and the Limits of Contractual Risk Allocation16-92
    • § 16:13.4 : Case Study: Venezuelan Heavy Oil Projects16-93
    • § 16:13.5 : Political Risk Insurance16-95
  • Figure 16-3 : Political Risk Insurance Claim Process and Timeline16-96
    • § 16:13.6 : Limitations16-97
  • § 16:14 : Export Credit Agencies; Bilateral and Multilateral Institutions16-97
    • § 16:14.1 : Reasons to Include ECAs and MLAs16-97
      • [A] : Differences Between MLAs and ECAs16-98
    • § 16:14.2 : World Bank Group and OECD Guidelines for ECAs16-98
      • [A] : World Bank Group16-99
      • [B] : OECD Consensus Guidelines16-99
  • Table 16-2 : OECD Terms and Conditions Applicable to Project Finance Transactions16-100
    • § 16:14.3 : Case Study: West African and Caspian Cross-Border Pipeline Projects16-101
      • [A] : Chad-Cameroon Pipeline16-101
      • [B] : Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan (BTC) Pipeline16-102
      • [C] : Delay16-103
    • § 16:14.4 : Conclusion16-104
  • Appendix 16A : Listing of Multilateral and Bilateral Lending AgenciesApp. 16A-1
Chapter 17: International Aspects of Mergers and Acquisitions
  • § 17:1 : Introduction17-2
  • § 17:2 : Establishing the Right Team17-2
  • § 17:3 : Communication and Exchange of Information17-3
  • § 17:4 : Critical Issues17-3
    • § 17:4.1 : Fundamental Business Objectives17-3
    • § 17:4.2 : Critical Regulatory Compliance Issues17-4
  • Fig. 17-1 :17-6
  • § 17:5 : Due Diligence17-7
    • § 17:5.1 : Initial Preparation17-7
    • § 17:5.2 : Due Diligence Report17-7
    • § 17:5.3 : Insulation of Competitive Information17-8
    • § 17:5.4 : Preparing for the Failed Transaction17-9
  • § 17:6 : Acquisition Structure17-9
  • § 17:7 : Acquisition Agreement17-10
    • § 17:7.1 : Who Is the Seller17-10
    • § 17:7.2 : Who Is the Buyer17-11
    • § 17:7.3 : Preacquisition Operation17-11
    • § 17:7.4 : Compliance with Antitrust Directives17-11
    • § 17:7.5 : Representations and Warranties17-12
    • § 17:7.6 : Applicable Law and Dispute Resolution17-13
    • § 17:7.7 : Indemnification17-13
    • § 17:7.8 : Timing of the Closing17-14
  • § 17:8 : Organization of the Closing Process17-14
  • § 17:9 : Post-Closing17-15
  • § 17:10 : Integration17-16
  • § 17:11 : Conclusion17-17
Chapter 18: International Antibribery Laws
  • § 18:1 : Introduction18-1
  • § 18:2 : Summary of the OECD Convention18-3
    • § 18:2.1 : Prohibited Conduct18-3
    • § 18:2.2 : Applicability to “Any Person”18-3
    • § 18:2.3 : Offer, Promise, or Payment, Directly or Indirectly18-3
    • § 18:2.4 : Foreign Public Official18-3
    • § 18:2.5 : Jurisdiction18-4
    • § 18:2.6 : Scope of Business Activity18-4
    • § 18:2.7 : Sanctions18-4
    • § 18:2.8 : Exception for Facilitating Payments18-5
    • § 18:2.9 : Accounting Requirements18-5
    • § 18:2.10 : Mutual Legal Assistance and Extradition18-5
    • § 18:2.11 : Monitoring and Follow-Up18-6
  • § 18:3 : Other Multilateral Efforts Against Corruption18-7
  • § 18:4 : Impact of the OECD Convention and Other Multilateral Agreements18-9
    • § 18:4.1 : United States18-10
    • § 18:4.2 : Other OECD Member Countries18-12
  • § 18:5 : Conclusion18-17
Chapter 19: Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing
  • § 19:1 : Introduction19-2
  • § 19:2 : Definition of Money Laundering19-4
  • § 19:3 : The Laundering Process19-6
    • § 19:3.1 : Introduction19-6
    • § 19:3.2 : Placement19-7
    • § 19:3.3 : Layering19-7
    • § 19:3.4 : Integration19-7
  • § 19:4 : Industries Affected19-8
    • § 19:4.1 : Financial Institutions19-8
      • [A] : Banks19-8
      • [B] : Insurance Companies19-9
      • [C] : Securities Industry19-10
      • [D] : Informal Money Remittance Systems19-13
    • § 19:4.2 : Emerging Payment System Products19-15
    • § 19:4.3 : Other Means to Launder Money19-16
  • § 19:5 : Evolution of Money Laundering and Terror Financing Legislation19-16
  • § 19:6 : USA PATRIOT Act19-23
  • § 19:7 : Gatekeeper Initiatives19-29
  • § 19:8 : Compliance Programs to Combat Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing19-32
    • § 19:8.1 : Setting Up a Program19-32
    • § 19:8.2 : Check the OFAC List and Other Lists19-34
    • § 19:8.3 : Maintaining Records19-36
    • § 19:8.4 : Areas of Focus19-36
  • § 19:9 : Dealing with an Investigation19-37
    • § 19:9.1 : Records19-37
    • § 19:9.2 : Retaining Outside Counsel19-38
    • § 19:9.3 : Onset of the Investigation19-38
    • § 19:9.4 : What the Authorities Want19-39
    • § 19:9.5 : Sentencing Guidelines Considerations19-39
  • § 19:10 : Recent Enforcement Cases19-40
  • § 19:11 : Conclusion19-41
Chapter 20: International Securities Offerings Under U.S. Securities Law; and Appendices 20A-20E
  • § 20:1 : Introduction20-2
  • § 20:2 : Overview of Federal Securities Laws20-3
  • § 20:3 : Securities Act of 193320-5
    • § 20:3.1 : Disclosure and Registration20-5
      • [A] : Registration20-6
        • [A][1] : Pre-Filing Period20-7
        • [A][2] : Post-Filing/Pre-Effectiveness Period20-8
        • [A][3] : Post-Effectiveness Period20-9
      • [B] : Exemptions from Registration20-10
    • § 20:3.2 : Antifraud Provisions20-12
      • [A] : Section 11 Liability20-13
      • [B] : Section 12 Liability20-13
      • [C] : Section 17 Liability20-13
  • § 20:4 : Securities Exchange Act of 193420-13
    • § 20:4.1 : Registration20-13
    • § 20:4.2 : Public Company Reporting20-14
    • § 20:4.3 : Antifraud Provision20-16
  • § 20:5 : U.S. Regulation of Foreign Offerings—AIM Market20-16
    • § 20:5.1 : Background20-17
    • § 20:5.2 : Regulation S Issuer Safe Harbor20-18
    • § 20:5.3 : Regulation S Resale Safe Harbor20-19
    • § 20:5.4 : Rule 14420-20
    • § 20:5.5 : AIM20-20
    • § 20:5.6 : Application of U.S. Securities Laws20-21
    • § 20:5.7 : Registration Under the Exchange Act20-24
  • Appendix 20A : Article on Capital Markets AlternativesApp. 20A-1
  • Appendix 20B : Securities Act Form Types for Foreign Private IssuersApp. 20B-1
  • Appendix 20C : Exempted Transactions Under the Securities Act of 1933App. 20C-1
  • Appendix 20D : Regulation D Exemptions: Rules 504, 505, and 506App. 20D-1
  • Appendix 20E : Resale of Securities: Rule 144App. 20E-1
Chapter 21: International Labor and Employment Law
  • § 21:1 : Overview21-3
  • § 21:2 : Extraterritoriality of U.S. Employment Laws21-6
    • § 21:2.1 : Application of Nondiscrimination Laws21-6
    • § 21:2.2 : Foreign Law Defense21-10
    • § 21:2.3 : Sarbanes-Oxley and Dodd-Frank Acts21-12
    • § 21:2.4 : State Law Claims21-16
  • § 21:3 : Liability of Foreign Companies for U.S. Employment Practices21-19
    • § 21:3.1 : The Legal Standard21-19
    • § 21:3.2 : Observations on Parent Liability21-25
    • § 21:3.3 : Recommendations21-25
    • § 21:3.4 : A Defense for Foreign Companies: The FCN Treaty21-26
      • [A] : Relationship Between the FCN Treaty and Title VII21-27
      • [B] : Parties Entitled to FCN Treaty Protection21-29
      • [C] : Elements of the FCN Treaty Defense21-31
      • [D] : Reconciling Competing Objectives of Foreign Parent and U.S. Subsidiary21-33
  • § 21:4 : Data Protection21-34
    • § 21:4.1 : Overview21-34
    • § 21:4.2 : National Implementation21-36
    • § 21:4.3 : Litigation and Penalty Assessment21-36
    • § 21:4.4 : Essential Provisions of the Directive21-37
    • § 21:4.5 : Invalidation of U.S.—EU Safe Harbor Framework21-38
    • § 21:4.6 : Personal Data Transfers to “Inadequate” Countries or U.S. Organizations Not Subscribing to Safe Harbor Framework21-40
    • § 21:4.7 : Privacy Initiatives in the United States21-42
      • [A] : Federal Laws21-42
      • [B] : State Laws21-43
    • § 21:4.8 : Data Protection Concerns Under Sarbanes-Oxley Requirements21-45
      • [A] : Limited Scope of Hotlines21-45
      • [B] : Processing of Information Collected Through Hotlines Must Be Restricted21-46
      • [C] : Collected Information Must Be Handled Within a Confidentiality Framework by Specialists Within the Company21-46
      • [D] : Due Process for the Accused21-46
    • § 21:4.9 : Recommendations for Employers21-47
      • [A] : Review Internal Procedures21-47
      • [B] : Catalog Information and Uses21-48
  • § 21:5 : International Employment Standards21-48
    • § 21:5.1 : Employment Standards21-48
    • § 21:5.2 : International Labor Standards21-49
    • § 21:5.3 : OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises21-51
    • § 21:5.4 : The United Nations Global Compact21-52
    • § 21:5.5 : United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights21-53
    • § 21:5.6 : International Framework Agreement or Global Framework Agreement21-54
    • § 21:5.7 : U.S. Model Business Principles and Fair Labor Association Guidelines21-55
    • § 21:5.8 : Alien Tort Claims Act: Liability for Human Rights Abuses21-56
    • § 21:5.9 : Discovery of Overseas Employment Practices21-60
      • [A] : Cross-Border Discovery21-60
      • [B] : Attorney-Client Privilege Across Borders21-62
    • § 21:5.10 : Enforcing Restrictive Covenants Across National Borders21-66
    • § 21:5.11 : Factors Militating Against Imposing International Labor Practices21-69
      • [A] : Potential Overseas Local Liability Where None May Exist21-69
      • [B] : Increased Likelihood of Liability Under U.S. Law21-69
  • § 21:6 : Recommendations21-70
Chapter 22: Immigration Considerations for International Assignments; and Appendix 22A
  • § 22:1 : Introduction22-2
  • § 22:2 : Global Migration Trends22-3
    • § 22:2.1 : The Changing Nature of International Assignments and New Challenges for Employers22-3
    • § 22:2.2 : The Effects of Global Economic Factors, the Influx of Refugees and Migrants, and Security Concerns22-4
    • § 22:2.3 : Intergovernmental Discussions on Labor Migration22-8
  • § 22:3 : Increasing Governmental Emphasis on Compliance22-10
  • § 22:4 : Critical Factors When Planning an International Assignment22-12
    • § 22:4.1 : Determining the Type of Assignment and Any Visa Requirements22-12
    • § 22:4.2 : Anticipating Processing Times22-13
    • § 22:4.3 : Documentary Requirements22-14
    • § 22:4.4 : Compensation Requirements22-14
    • § 22:4.5 : Family Members22-15
    • § 22:4.6 : In-Country Obligations22-15
    • § 22:4.7 : Entry Procedures and Regional Arrangements22-16
  • § 22:5 : Conclusion and Best Practices22-19
  • Appendix 22A : Basic Requirements for Business Visits and Short-Term Temporary Work Assignments in Select JurisdictionsApp. 22A-1
Chapter 23: International Intellectual Property; and Appendix 23A
  • § 23:1 : Introduction23-2
  • § 23:2 : Protecting IP in the International Marketplace23-3
    • § 23:2.1 : Patents23-3
      • [A] : Overview23-3
      • [B] : Patent Cooperation Treaty23-4
      • [C] : Paris Convention23-4
      • [D] : Direct National Filings23-4
      • [E] : Advantages of the PCT23-5
      • [F] : PCT Procedures23-5
      • [G] : Avoiding Statutory Bars in Foreign Countries23-7
      • [H] : Disclosure of the Invention23-8
      • [I] : Filing a U.S. Application Without Public Disclosure23-9
      • [J] : Filing Continuation Applications23-9
    • § 23:2.2 : Copyrights23-10
      • [A] : Overview23-10
      • [B] : International Treaties and Conventions23-10
      • [C] : Protecting an Author’s Works Abroad23-13
        • [C][1] : Compliance with Formalities23-14
        • [C][2] : Researching Foreign Law23-15
  • § 23:3 : Commercializing IP in the International Marketplace23-16
    • § 23:3.1 : International Licensing of Technology23-16
    • § 23:3.2 : Patent Licenses23-20
      • [A] : Patent Misuse23-21
      • [B] : Patent Exhaustion23-22
      • [C] : Unpatentable Subject Matter23-22
      • [D] : Implied Patent Licenses23-22
      • [E] : Working Requirements23-23
    • § 23:3.3 : Trademark Licenses23-23
    • § 23:3.4 : Copyright (i.e., Software) Licenses23-24
    • § 23:3.5 : Other Intellectual Property Licenses23-26
  • § 23:4 : E-Commerce in the International Community23-27
    • § 23:4.1 : Terms of Use23-28
      • [A] : Overview23-28
      • [B] : International Jurisdiction23-28
      • [C] : Arbitration Provisions23-30
    • § 23:4.2 : Electronic Signatures23-32
      • [A] : Overview23-32
      • [B] : International Enforceability of Electronic Signatures23-32
  • Appendix 23A : PCT Member States (As of June 11, 2009)App. 23A-1
Chapter 24: International Data Protection and Privacy Law
  • § 24:1 : International Corporate Practice and Data Privacy Law24-3
  • § 24:2 : Data Privacy Regulation Outside the United States: A Clash of Jurisprudential Perspectives24-4
  • § 24:3 : The European Union Data Privacy Directive24-6
    • § 24:3.1 : What the EU Data Directive Does24-7
    • § 24:3.2 : Social and Legal Context Underlying the EU Data Directive24-8
    • § 24:3.3 : Terminology24-10
    • § 24:3.4 : Data Processing Rules Domestically Within Europe24-11
      • [A] : Complying with Data Quality Principles and Rules24-11
    • § 24:3.5 : Disclosing to Data Subjects24-14
    • § 24:3.6 : Reporting to State Agencies24-15
    • § 24:3.7 : EU Draft Legislation Package24-17
  • § 24:4 : Transfers of Data to Countries Outside Europe24-20
    • § 24:4.1 : Data Transfers Allowed to “Third Countries”—and Companies Abroad24-21
    • § 24:4.2 : Safe Harbor24-24
    • § 24:4.3 : The Seven Safe Harbor Principles24-27
      • [A] : Notice24-28
      • [B] : Choice24-29
      • [C] : Onward Transfer24-29
      • [D] : Security24-30
      • [E] : Data Integrity24-30
      • [F] : Access24-30
      • [G] : Enforcement24-31
    • § 24:4.4 : Self-Certification Process24-32
    • § 24:4.5 : Criticisms of Safe Harbor24-34
    • § 24:4.6 : Binding/Standard Contractual Clauses24-37
    • § 24:4.7 : Obligations of the Data Exporter and Data Importer24-39
    • § 24:4.8 : Liability24-40
    • § 24:4.9 : Binding Corporate Rules24-41
  • § 24:5 : “Transposition” (Adoption) of the Directive in European Union Member States24-45
    • § 24:5.1 : Denmark24-46
    • § 24:5.2 : England24-47
    • § 24:5.3 : France24-47
    • § 24:5.4 : Germany24-48
    • § 24:5.5 : Italy24-50
    • § 24:5.6 : Netherlands24-50
    • § 24:5.7 : Spain24-51
  • § 24:6 : Data Privacy Laws Beyond the European Union24-52
    • § 24:6.1 : Argentina24-53
    • § 24:6.2 : Australia24-54
    • § 24:6.3 : Brazil24-56
    • § 24:6.4 : Canada24-58
    • § 24:6.5 : China24-61
    • § 24:6.6 : Colombia24-63
    • § 24:6.7 : Costa Rica24-64
    • § 24:6.8 : Dubai24-65
    • § 24:6.9 : Hong Kong24-66
    • § 24:6.10 : India24-68
    • § 24:6.11 : Israel24-69
    • § 24:6.12 : Japan24-70
    • § 24:6.13 : Malaysia24-71
    • § 24:6.14 : Mexico24-71
    • § 24:6.15 : Russia24-73
    • § 24:6.16 : Singapore24-76
    • § 24:6.17 : South Korea24-78
    • § 24:6.18 : Switzerland24-79
    • § 24:6.19 : Taiwan24-80
    • § 24:6.20 : Thailand24-81
    • § 24:6.21 : Ukraine24-82
    • § 24:6.22 : Uruguay24-82
Chapter 25: Overview of U.S. Export Control Laws; and Appendices 25A-25B
  • § 25:1 : Introduction25-3
  • § 25:2 : Scope of Penalties25-3
  • § 25:3 : Export Administration Regulations25-5
    • § 25:3.1 : Introduction25-5
    • § 25:3.2 : Commerce Control List25-5
    • § 25:3.3 : Dual-Use Items25-5
    • § 25:3.4 : End-Use-Based Controls25-6
    • § 25:3.5 : Reexports25-7
    • § 25:3.6 : Software and Technology25-7
    • § 25:3.7 : Regulatory Requirements for All Exports25-7
    • § 25:3.8 : Penalties25-8
    • § 25:3.9 : Export Control Reform25-8
  • § 25:4 : U.S. Sanctions Programs25-10
    • § 25:4.1 : Introduction25-10
    • § 25:4.2 : Countries Covered25-10
    • § 25:4.3 : Comprehensive Sanctions25-10
    • § 25:4.4 : Limited Sanctions25-11
    • § 25:4.5 : Extraterritorial Application25-11
    • § 25:4.6 : Entity-Based Sanctions25-11
    • § 25:4.7 : Penalties25-12
  • § 25:5 : Arms Export Control Act (International Traffic in Arms Regulations)25-12
    • § 25:5.1 : Introduction25-12
    • § 25:5.2 : Regulation of Defense Articles25-12
    • § 25:5.3 : U.S. Munitions List25-13
    • § 25:5.4 : Technical Data, Including Software25-13
    • § 25:5.5 : Defense Services25-13
    • § 25:5.6 : Overlap with Export Administration Regulations25-14
    • § 25:5.7 : Registration As a Munitions Manufacturer25-14
    • § 25:5.8 : Registration As a Munitions Broker25-14
    • § 25:5.9 : License Certifications25-14
    • § 25:5.10 : Penalties25-14
    • § 25:5.11 : Export Control Reform25-14
  • § 25:6 : Other Export Statutes25-15
  • § 25:7 : U.S. Antiboycott Laws25-15
    • § 25:7.1 : Overview25-15
    • § 25:7.2 : Prohibited Activities25-15
    • § 25:7.3 : Exceptions to Prohibitions25-16
      • [A] : Import Requirements of a Boycotting Country25-16
      • [B] : Shipment of Goods to a Foreign Country25-17
      • [C] : Import and Shipping Document Requirements25-17
      • [D] : Compliance with Unilateral Selection25-17
      • [E] : Shipment and Transshipment of Exports Pursuant to a Boycotting Country’s Requirements25-17
      • [F] : Immigration, Passport, Visa, or Employment Requirements of Boycotting Country25-18
      • [G] : Compliance with Local Law25-18
      • [H] : Activities Exclusively Within a Foreign Country25-18
      • [I] : Compliance with Local Import Law25-18
    • § 25:7.4 : Reporting Requirements25-18
    • § 25:7.5 : Evasion25-19
    • § 25:7.6 : Antiboycott Tax Laws25-19
    • § 25:7.7 : Sanctions25-19
  • § 25:8 : Export Compliance Programs25-19
    • § 25:8.1 : Benefits25-19
    • § 25:8.2 : Substantive Laws Covered25-20
    • § 25:8.3 : Other Relevant Legal Standards25-21
    • § 25:8.4 : Parties Covered25-21
    • § 25:8.5 : Elements of the Program25-22
      • [A] : Adoption at Senior Company Level25-22
      • [B] : Compliance Official25-22
      • [C] : Written Materials25-22
      • [D] : Education25-22
      • [E] : Update Function25-22
      • [F] : Periodic Audit25-23
      • [G] : Mechanism for Dealing with Suspected Violations25-23
      • [H] : Enforcement25-23
      • [I] : Record Keeping25-23
  • § 25:9 : Steps to Take If an Export Violation Is Discovered25-23
  • Appendix 25A : U.S. Export Control Laws25A-1
  • Appendix 25B : Steps in Implementing an Export Compliance Program25B-1
Chapter 26: Competition and Antitrust Law; and Appendices 26A-26B
  • § 26:1 : Introduction26-5
  • § 26:2 : U.S. Federal Antitrust Law26-6
    • § 26:2.1 : Introduction26-6
    • § 26:2.2 : Statutory Framework26-7
    • § 26:2.3 : Discerning Competitive and Harmful Practices26-11
      • [A] : “Ancillary” and “Naked”26-11
      • [B] : “Per Se” Versus “Rule of Reason”26-12
        • [B][1] : “Horizontal” Versus “Vertical”26-12
        • [B][2] : Per Se Practices26-14
        • [B][3] : “Pro-Competitive” and “Anticompetitive”26-15
        • [B][4] : Market Analysis Under the Rule of Reason26-16
          • [B][4][a] : Market Definition26-17
          • [B][4][b] : Market Players26-19
          • [B][4][c] : Market Shares26-19
          • [B][4][d] : Barriers to Entry26-20
          • [B][4][e] : Competitive Effect26-20
    • § 26:2.4 : Concerted Action Under Section 1 of the Sherman Act26-21
      • [A] : The Single-Entity Doctrine26-21
      • [B] : Awareness of Consequences of Actions26-24
      • [C] : Conscious Parallelism26-25
      • [D] : Facilitating Practices26-26
      • [E] : Coercion26-27
      • [F] : Dealer Termination Based on Complaints26-27
    • § 26:2.5 : Restraint of Trade26-28
      • [A] : Price and Output Restraints26-28
        • [A][1] : Horizontal Price and Output Restraints26-28
        • [A][2] : Vertical Price and Output Restraints26-30
        • [A][3] : Market Allocation26-33
          • [A][3][a] : Horizontal Market Allocation26-33
          • [A][3][b] : Vertical Market Allocation26-34
      • [B] : Tying Arrangements26-34
      • [C] : Group Boycotts26-36
      • [D] : Distribution Agreements26-37
      • [E] : Most-Favored-Nation Clauses26-39
      • [F] : Covenants Not to Compete26-41
      • [G] : Collaborations Among Competitors26-41
      • [H] : Exchanging Information26-43
    • § 26:2.6 : Section 2 Liability26-45
      • [A] : Refusal to Deal26-47
      • [B] : Tying Arrangements26-50
      • [C] : Other Exclusionary Practices26-50
    • § 26:2.7 : The Robinson-Patman Price Discrimination Act26-55
      • [A] : Liability Under Section 2(a) of the Act26-55
        • [A][1] : Primary-Line and Secondary-Line Injury26-56
        • [A][2] : Affirmative Defenses26-57
          • [A][2][a] : Functional Availability26-57
          • [A][2][b] : Meeting Competition26-57
          • [A][2][c] : Cost Justification26-58
          • [A][2][d] : Changing Conditions26-59
      • [B] : Liability Under Sections 2(d) and 2(e) of the Act26-59
    • § 26:2.8 : Mergers26-59
    • § 26:2.9 : Antitrust and Intellectual Property26-66
      • [A] : Patent Monopoly26-66
      • [B] : Conduct Exceeding the Patent Monopoly26-67
      • [C] : Patent Litigation Settlement Agreements26-68
      • [D] : Licensing Agreements26-73
    • § 26:2.10 : Right to Sue and Enforce26-76
      • [A] : Government Enforcement of U.S. Antitrust Laws26-76
      • [B] : Private Enforcement of U.S. Antitrust Laws26-77
        • [B][1] : Antitrust Injury and Standing26-79
        • [B][2] : Proving Antitrust Damages26-79
      • [C] : Pleading Antitrust Claims26-80
      • [D] : Class Actions26-81
    • § 26:2.11 : Exemptions from the Sherman Act26-86
      • [A] : State Action Doctrine26-86
      • [B] : Petitioning the Government: Noerr-Pennington Doctrine26-88
      • [C] : Implied Immunity Doctrine26-88
      • [D] : Other Immunities26-89
  • § 26:3 : EU Competition Law26-91
    • § 26:3.1 : Overview26-91
    • § 26:3.2 : Statutory Framework—Introduction to Articles 101 and 10226-96
      • [A] : Market Definition26-97
        • [A][1] : Definition of Relevant Product Market and Relevant Geographic Market26-98
        • [A][2] : Demand Substitution26-98
        • [A][3] : Supply Substitution26-100
        • [A][4] : Potential Competition26-100
        • [A][5] : Evidence Gathering26-101
    • § 26:3.3 : Article 10126-101
      • [A] : Article 101(1)26-102
        • [A][1] : Undertakings26-102
        • [A][2] : Agreements, Decisions by Associations of Undertakings, and Concerted Practices26-103
        • [A][3] : Unilateral Conduct and Article 10126-106
        • [A][4] : Horizontal and Vertical Agreements26-108
        • [A][5] : Single Economic Entity Doctrine26-109
        • [A][6] : Object/Effect Distinction26-111
          • [A][6][a] : Object26-111
          • [A][6][b] : Effect26-113
        • [A][7] : Effect on Trade26-114
        • [A][8] : Appreciability and the De Minimis Doctrine26-118
      • [B] : Article 101(2)26-120
      • [C] : Article 101(3)26-120
        • [C][1] : Exemption Criteria26-120
        • [C][2] : The Effect of Modernization and the Introduction of Self-Assessment26-122
        • [C][3] : Block Exemptions—General26-122
        • [C][4] : Vertical Agreements Block Exemption26-124
        • [C][5] : Technology Transfer Block Exemption26-129
      • [D] : Article 101 and Non-Full-Function Joint Ventures26-131
  • Table 26-1 : List of Major Commission Decisions on Article 101 Cases Between January 1, 2000, and July 11, 201426-133
    • § 26:3:4 : Fines, Leniency, and Settlement26-149
    • § 26:3:5 : Article 10226-157
      • [A] : Introduction and Overview26-157
      • [B] : Dominance26-158
        • [B][1] : Market Share26-159
        • [B][2] : Other Factors26-160
      • [C] : Substantial Part of the Common Market and Effect Trade26-162
        • [C][1] : Substantial Part of the Common Market26-162
        • [C][2] : Effect on Trade26-163
      • [D] : Abuse26-164
        • [D][1] : General Principles26-164
        • [D][2] : Commission’s Guidance on Exclusionary Conduct26-167
        • [D][3] : Predatory Pricing26-170
        • [D][4] : Excessive Pricing26-177
        • [D][5] : Discriminatory Pricing26-180
        • [D][6] : Margin Squeeze26-185
        • [D][7] : Exclusivity and Related Exclusionary Conduct26-189
        • [D][8] : Tying, Bundling, and Portfolio Effects26-194
        • [D][9] : Refusal to Supply and the “Essential Facilities Doctrine”26-198
          • [D][9][a] : Refusal to Supply Goods or Services26-198
          • [D][9][b] : Essential Facilities Doctrine26-199
  • Table 26-2 : List of Major Commission Decisions on Article 102 Cases Between January 1, 2000, and July 11, 201426-202
    • § 26:3:6 : Competition/Intellectual Property (IP) Interface26-208
      • [A] : Parallel Importation and Articles 101 and 10226-208
      • [B] : Refusal to License Intellectual Property Rights26-211
      • [C] : From Magill to Microsoft26-212
        • [C][1] : RTE v. Commission ( Magill )26-212
        • [C][2] : IMS Health26-213
        • [C][3] : Microsoft26-215
      • [D] : “Exceptional Circumstances” Versus “Totality of the Circumstances”26-221
      • [E] : EU/U.S. Contrast26-222
      • [F] : Common Themes in Refusal to Supply/Refusal to License IPRs Case Law26-224
    • § 26:3:7 : Merger Control—General26-226
      • [A] : Concentrations26-227
      • [B] : Community Dimension26-230
      • [C] : Substantive Test26-232
        • [C][1] : SIEC Test26-232
        • [C][2] : Commission’s Substantive Analysis26-233
      • [D] : Full-Function Joint Ventures26-237
      • [E] : Procedure26-239
        • [E][1] : Notification26-239
        • [E][2] : Referral of Cases to and from the Commission26-241
        • [E][3] : Suspension26-241
        • [E][4] : Timetable and Outcome26-242
    • § 26:3:8 : Right to Sue and Enforce—Private Actions for Damages26-244
    • § 26:3:9 : Commission’s Investigative Powers26-251
      • [A] : Dawn Raids26-252
        • [A][1] : Scope and Relevance26-256
        • [A][2] : Legal Privilege26-256
        • [A][3] : Rule Against Self-Incrimination26-257
        • [A][4] : Sensitive and Confidential Information26-257
    • § 26:3:10 : State Aid26-258
      • [A] : Situations in Which State Aid Is Unlikely to Arise26-261
      • [B] : Block Exemptions26-263
      • [C] : Economic Assessment26-263
      • [D] : State Aid for Rescuing and Restructuring Firms in Difficulty26-264
      • [E] : Procedure and Consequences of Unlawful State Aid26-269
    • § 26:3:11 : Extraterritorial Effect of EU Competition Law26-270
  • Appendix 26A : Group TurnoverApp. 26A-1
  • Appendix 26B : Joint Venture TurnoverApp. 26B-1
Chapter 27: International Environmental Law
  • § 27:1 : Introduction27-3
  • § 27:2 : Global Treaties27-3
    • § 27:2.1 : Greenhouse Gases (Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement)27-3
    • § 27:2.2 : Persistent Organic Pollutants (Stockholm Convention)27-7
    • § 27:2.3 : Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol)27-9
    • § 27:2.4 : Ozone-Depleting Substances (Montreal Protocol)27-9
    • § 27:2.5 : Law of the Sea27-10
  • § 27:3 : EU Law27-13
    • § 27:3.1 : Carbon Dioxide Emissions Trading27-13
    • § 27:3.2 : Integrated Facility Permits: Directive on Industrial Emissions27-14
    • § 27:3.3 : Major Accident Prevention and Response (Seveso III)27-16
    • § 27:3.4 : Chemical Safety (REACH)27-19
      • [A] : Registration27-20
      • [B] : Evaluation27-20
      • [C] : Authorization27-21
    • § 27:3.5 : Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE/RoHS)27-21
    • § 27:3.6 : Public Access to Information27-24
    • § 27:3.7 : Asbestos-Containing Materials27-25
    • § 27:3.8 : Environmental Liability Directive27-26
  • § 27:4 : Hazardous Site Cleanup27-28
    • § 27:4.1 : England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland27-29
      • [A] : Overview27-29
      • [B] : Cost Recovery and Voluntary Cleanup Agreements27-32
      • [C] : Liability of Appropriate Persons27-33
      • [D] : Liability Exemptions and Exclusions27-33
      • [E] : Implementation27-34
    • § 27:4.2 : Argentina27-36
    • § 27:4.3 : Australia27-36
    • § 27:4.4 : Austria27-37
    • § 27:4.5 : Belgium27-39
      • [A] : Soil and Groundwater Legislation27-39
      • [B] : Flemish Region27-40
      • [C] : Walloon Region27-40
      • [D] : Brussels-Capital Region27-41
    • § 27:4.6 : Brazil27-42
    • § 27:4.7 : Canada27-44
    • § 27:4.8 : China27-46
    • § 27:4.9 : Czech Republic27-50
    • § 27:4.10 : Denmark27-51
    • § 27:4.11 : Finland27-51
    • § 27:4.12 : France27-52
    • § 27:4.13 : Germany27-53
    • § 27:4.14 : Hong Kong27-55
    • § 27:4.15 : Hungary27-55
    • § 27:4.16 : India27-56
    • § 27:4.17 : Indonesia27-56
    • § 27:4.18 : Ireland27-57
    • § 27:4.19 : Italy27-58
    • § 27:4.20 : Japan27-60
    • § 27:4.21 : Malaysia27-60
    • § 27:4.22 : Mexico27-61
    • § 27:4.23 : Netherlands27-61
    • § 27:4.24 : New Zealand27-62
    • § 27:4.25 : Norway27-63
    • § 27:4.26 : Peru27-64
    • § 27:4.27 : Portugal27-64
    • § 27:4.28 : Slovakia27-64
    • § 27:4.29 : Slovenia27-66
    • § 27:4.30 : Spain27-66
    • § 27:4.31 : Sweden27-67
    • § 27:4.32 : Switzerland27-68
  • § 27:5 : Sample Due Diligence Request27-70
Chapter 28: Purchasing Insurance in the International Market; and Appendix 28A
  • § 28:1 : Introduction28-2
  • § 28:2 : Placing the Coverage28-3
    • § 28:2.1 : Clauses That Should Be Included in Policies Purchased from Foreign Insurers28-3
    • § 28:2.2 : Alternative Risk Management Techniques Also Bring Policyholders into Contact with the Foreign Insurance Market28-7
    • § 28:2.3 : Policyholders Should Pay Attention to Dispute Resolution Provisions in Policies Sold by Foreign Insurers28-12
      • [A] : Choice of Law28-13
      • [B] : Choice of Forum28-16
      • [C] : Service of Suit28-21
  • § 28:3 : Whether or Not the Policyholder Should Agree to Arbitrate28-22
    • § 28:3.1 : Applicable Laws28-23
    • § 28:3.2 : Other Factors to Consider28-25
      • [A] : Speed28-25
      • [B] : Economy28-26
      • [C] : Limited Discovery28-26
      • [D] : Confidentiality28-26
      • [E] : Parties Are Limited28-27
      • [F] : Issues May Be Limited28-27
      • [G] : No Rush to the Courthouse28-27
      • [H] : Focus on Business Custom and Practice Rather Than on the Law28-28
      • [I] : No Jury Trial28-28
      • [J] : Enforceability28-28
      • [K] : No Appellate Review28-29
      • [L] : Award of Attorneys’ Fees28-29
      • [M] : Arbitration Is Mandatory28-29
  • Appendix 28A : Arbitration EndorsementApp. 28A-1
Chapter 29: International Insolvency and Bankruptcy
  • § 29:1 : Introduction29-3
  • § 29:2 : Jurisdiction and Choice of Law29-4
    • § 29:2.1 : United States29-5
    • § 29:2.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-5
      • [A] : Japan29-5
      • [B] : European Countries29-6
  • § 29:3 : Form of Proceeding29-8
    • § 29:3.1 : United States29-9
    • § 29:3.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-10
      • [A] : England29-10
      • [B] : Korea29-12
      • [C] : Mexico29-13
      • [D] : Canada29-14
      • [E] : Italy29-17
  • § 29:4 : Control and Management of Debtor29-20
    • § 29:4.1 : United States29-21
    • § 29:4.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-22
      • [A] : Canada29-22
      • [B] : England29-23
      • [C] : Mexico29-23
      • [D] : Korea29-23
      • [E] : Italy29-24
  • § 29:5 : Participation in Proceedings29-24
    • § 29:5.1 : United States29-25
    • § 29:5.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-27
      • [A] : Mexico29-28
      • [B] : Korea29-28
      • [C] : Canada29-29
      • [D] : Italy29-30
  • § 29:6 : Rights of Secured Creditors29-31
    • § 29:6.1 : United States29-32
    • § 29:6.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-34
      • [A] : Japan29-34
      • [B] : Germany29-34
      • [C] : Italy29-35
  • § 29:7 : Priority Schemes29-36
    • § 29:7.1 : United States29-37
    • § 29:7.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-38
      • [A] : Japan29-38
      • [B] : Germany29-39
      • [C] : Canada29-40
  • § 29:8 : Status of Contractual Obligations29-41
    • § 29:8.1 : United States29-41
    • § 29:8.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-42
      • [A] : Korea29-42
      • [B] : Mexico29-43
      • [C] : Italy29-44
  • § 29:9 : Financing of Company Undergoing Restructuring29-45
    • § 29:9.1 : United States29-45
    • § 29:9.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-46
      • [A] : Japan29-46
      • [B] : Germany29-46
      • [C] : Canada29-47
      • [D] : Italy29-47
  • § 29:10 : Avoidance Actions29-47
    • § 29:10.1 : United States29-48
      • [A] : Preferences29-48
      • [B] : Fraudulent Conveyances29-49
    • § 29:10.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-50
      • [A] : England29-50
      • [B] : Korea29-51
      • [C] : Italy29-52
  • § 29:11 : Liability for Directors and Officers29-53
    • § 29:11.1 : United States29-53
    • § 29:11.2 : Examples from Other Jurisdictions29-55
      • [A] : England29-55
      • [B] : Canada29-57
      • [C] : Italy29-58
  • § 29:12 : Ancillary Proceedings and International Insolvency Treaties29-58
    • § 29:12.1 : The Model Law and Chapter 1529-59
    • § 29:12.2 : The EU Regulation29-64
  • § 29:13 : Conclusion29-67
Chapter 30: Strategic Globalization of Pro Bono Service
  • § 30:1 : Conceptualizing Pro Bono Service30-2
  • § 30:2 : Factors That Affect Development of Pro Bono Cultures30-7
    • § 30:2.1 : Regulatory Regimes30-7
    • § 30:2.2 : Cultural Norms30-8
    • § 30:2.3 : Market Forces30-10
  • § 30:3 : Legal and Ethical Considerations30-11
    • § 30:3.1 : Conflicts of Interest30-11
    • § 30:3.2 : Unauthorized Practice of Law30-12
    • § 30:3.3 : Competency30-14
  • § 30:4 : Vetting Considerations30-15
  • § 30:5 : Engagement with Global Emerging and Other Markets30-18
  • § 30:6 : Strategic Approaches30-19
    • § 30:6.1 : Developing a Global Practice30-19
    • § 30:6.2 : Assessing the Impact of Global Projects30-20
    • § 30:6.3 : Engaging in Strategic Collaborations30-23
    • § 30:6.4 : Aligning and Leveraging with Other Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives30-27
  • § 30:7 : Conclusion30-29
  Index

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