TreatiseAnswer Book

Intellectual Property Law Answer Book (2018 Edition)

 by Cravath Swaine & Moore LLP
 
 Copyright: 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402429828
  • Page Count: 876
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

Intellectual Property Law Answer Book is an easy-to-use resource for practitioners facing a patent, trademark, or copyright issue. Written in a Q&A format, this book answers practical questions, helping readers to understand and address intellectual property issues that may arise in a transaction or litigation.

Intellectual Property Law Answer Book contains a wealth of information and provides an up-to-date overview of intellectual property law, using recent, noteworthy cases as examples and covering timely issues such as the Supreme Court’s 2017 patent law rulings on venue, laches, and patent exhaustion, its determination that barring “disparaging” trademarks is unconstitutional, and the dimensions of trademark protection for smells.
  Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Patent Basics
  • : Constitutional, Statutory, and Administrative Foundation1-2
  • Q 1.1 : What is a patent?1-2
  • : Figure 1-1 Patent Grant1-3
  • Q 1.2 : Where can I find U.S. patent law?1-4
    • Q 1.2.1 : What is the review process within the PTO?1-5
    • Q 1.2.2 : How are PTO decisions appealed?1-5
    • Q 1.2.3 : What is the standard of review for PTO decisions?1-6
  • : Purpose of Patents1-6
  • Q 1.3 : What is the purpose of granting patents?1-6
  • Q 1.4 : What are the advantages of obtaining a patent?1-7
  • : Types of Patents1-7
  • Q 1.5 : What are the types of patents?1-7
    • Q 1.5.1 : What is a utility patent?1-7
    • Q 1.5.2 : What is a design patent?1-8
    • Q 1.5.3 : What is a plant patent?1-8
  • : Duration of Patent Rights1-8
  • Q 1.6 : How long does a patent last?1-8
  • Q 1.7 : Can the term of a patent be extended or adjusted?1-8
    • Q 1.7.1 : What is a Hatch-Waxman extension?1-10
  • Q 1.8 : Can the term of a patent be reduced?1-10
  • : Patentable Subject Matter1-11
  • Q 1.9 : What kinds of inventions are considered patentable?1-11
    • Q 1.9.1 : What is a process?1-11
    • Q 1.9.2 : What is a machine?1-12
    • Q 1.9.3 : What is a manufacture?1-12
    • Q 1.9.4 : What is a composition of matter?1-12
  • Q 1.10 : What are the limits of the kinds of inventions that can be patented?1-12
    • Q 1.10.1 : Can products of nature be patented?1-12
    • Q 1.10.2 : Can natural processes or ideas be patented?1-17
    • Q 1.10.3 : Can business methods be patented?1-20
    • Q 1.10.4 : Can software be patented?1-23
    • Q 1.10.5 : Can tax strategies be patented?1-26
    • Q 1.10.6 : Are the requirements for plant patents different from those of utility patents?1-26
    • Q 1.10.7 : Are the requirements for design patents different from those of utility patents?1-27
Chapter 2: The Parts of a Patent
  • : Cover Page, Abstract, and Specification2-2
  • Q 2.1 : What information is contained on the cover page?2-2
  • : Figure 2-1 Cover Page of a Patent2-3
  • Q 2.2 : What is an abstract?2-4
  • Q 2.3 : What is a specification?2-4
  • : Claims2-5
  • Q 2.4 : What is a claim?2-5
    • Q 2.4.1 : What are “apparatus” and “method” claims?2-5
    • Q 2.4.2 : What is a means-plus-function claim?2-6
    • Q 2.4.3 : What is a Beauregard claim?2-6
    • Q 2.4.4 : What is a Jepson claim?2-6
    • Q 2.4.5 : What is a Markush claim?2-7
    • Q 2.4.6 : What is a product-by-process claim?2-7
    • Q 2.4.7 : What are the elements of a claim?2-7
    • Q 2.4.8 : What is a claim limitation?2-8
    • Q 2.4.9 : What are “independent” and “dependent” claims?2-9
  • : Drawings, Models, and Computer Programs2-11
  • Q 2.5 : What drawings and other demonstratives are included in a patent?2-11
    • Q 2.5.1 : Must drawings be done professionally?2-11
  • Q 2.6 : Can computer programs be included?2-11
  • : Incorporation by Reference2-12
  • Q 2.7 : What does “incorporate by reference” mean?2-12
Chapter 3: Relations Among Patents
  • : Patent Families3-2
  • Q 3.1 : What is a “patent family”?3-2
  • Q 3.2 : How are patent families formed?3-2
  • : Figure 3-1 Example of a Patent Family3-3
  • : Priority Date and Claiming Priority3-4
  • Q 3.3 : What is the significance of the “priority date”?3-4
    • Q 3.3.1 : What is an “effective filing date”?3-4
  • Q 3.4 : How is the priority date determined?3-4
    • Q 3.4.1 : How can an applicant establish a priority date earlier than the filing date?3-5
    • Q 3.4.2 : What is the benefit of establishing a priority date earlier than the filing date?3-6
  • Q 3.5 : In what situations can an applicant claim priority to another patent application or patent?3-7
  • : Continuation and Continuation-in-Part Applications3-8
  • Q 3.6 : What is a continuation patent application?3-8
    • Q 3.6.1 : Why file a continuation patent application?3-8
    • Q 3.6.2 : What are the requirements for a continuation patent application?3-9
  • Q 3.7 : What is a continuation-in-part patent application?3-10
  • : Divisional Applications3-10
  • Q 3.8 : What is a divisional patent application?3-10
    • Q 3.8.1 : What are the requirements for a divisional patent application?3-11
  • : Effect on Term of Patent3-11
  • Q 3.9 : Do patent relations affect the term of the patent?3-11
Chapter 4: Patent Applications
  • : Preliminary Considerations4-2
  • Q 4.1 : What is required, with respect to the invention, prior to filing a patent application?4-2
    • Q 4.1.1 : Do I have to build or create my invention prior to filing a patent application?4-2
  • Q 4.2 : What is patent prosecution?4-2
    • Q 4.2.1 : Who may prosecute a patent application?4-3
  • Q 4.3 : How long does it typically take to obtain a patent?4-3
  • : Inventors and Other Applicants4-3
  • Q 4.4 : Who may apply for a patent?4-3
  • Q 4.5 : Who is considered an inventor?4-4
  • : Types of Applications4-6
  • Q 4.6 : What types of patent applications can be filed?4-6
    • Q 4.6.1 : What is a nonprovisional application?4-6
    • Q 4.6.2 : What is a provisional application?4-8
  • : Prior Art Searches4-9
  • Q 4.7 : What is “prior art”?4-9
  • Q 4.8 : What is a prior art search?4-9
    • Q 4.8.1 : Do I have to perform a prior art search before filing a patent application?4-10
    • Q 4.8.2 : Why would a person search for prior art?4-10
    • Q 4.8.3 : How do I search for patents?4-10
    • Q 4.8.4 : How do I search for documents other than patents?4-11
    • Q 4.8.5 : How does a patent examiner find relevant prior art?4-11
  • : Time Limits4-12
  • Q 4.9 : What are the time limits for filing a patent application?4-12
    • Q 4.9.1 : If an invention is put into use, offered for sale, or sold prior to filing a patent application, can I still attempt to obtain a patent?4-13
  • : Submitting the Application4-13
  • Q 4.10 : Can one file a patent application electronically?4-13
  • Q 4.11 : What information must be submitted when filing a patent application?4-14
  • Q 4.12 : How is the filing date set by the PTO?4-14
Chapter 5: The PTO’s Review of the Application
  • : Overview of the Process5-2
  • Q 5.1 : What happens when a patent application is filed?5-2
  • Q 5.2 : What are the duties of the patent examiner?5-2
  • Q 5.3 : How do the applicant and the examiner interact?5-3
  • Q 5.4 : How can third parties participate in the examination?5-3
    • Q 5.4.1 : What are the requirements for a pre-issuance submission?5-4
  • Q 5.5 : What recourse does the applicant have if the examiner issues a “final” rejection?5-4
  • : Office Actions and Responses5-5
  • Q 5.6 : What is an office action?5-5
    • Q 5.6.1 : What is a nonfinal office action?5-5
    • Q 5.6.2 : What is a “file history”?5-5
  • Q 5.7 : How may the applicant respond to the examiner’s office actions?5-6
  • Q 5.8 : Can the applicant make changes to the content of a patent application after filing?5-6
  • Q 5.9 : What are “restriction requirements” and an “election” of an invention?5-7
  • Q 5.10 : What is an “examiner interview” and when is it applicable?5-7
  • : Rejections5-8
  • Q 5.11 : What is an examiner “rejection” or “objection”?5-8
  • Q 5.12 : What are the possible bases for rejection?5-8
    • Q 5.12.1 : What is a double patenting rejection?5-8
    • Q 5.12.2 : What is a terminal disclaimer?5-9
  • : Responding to Final Office Actions5-9
  • Q 5.13 : What is a final office action?5-9
  • Q 5.14 : How may the applicant respond to a final office action?5-10
    • Q 5.14.1 : What is a reconsideration request?5-10
    • Q 5.14.2 : What is a request for continued examination?5-10
    • Q 5.14.3 : Can the applicant appeal a final office action?5-10
  • : Publication5-11
  • Q 5.15 : When is a patent application published?5-11
  • : Invention Secrecy5-11
  • Q 5.16 : What is the Invention Secrecy Act?5-11
  • : Information Disclosure Obligations5-12
  • Q 5.17 : What is the duty to disclose information during prosecution of a patent application?5-12
    • Q 5.17.1 : What is the scope of the duty of candor and good faith?5-13
    • Q 5.17.2 : To whom does the duty to disclose apply?5-13
    • Q 5.17.3 : How long does the duty to disclose last?5-16
    • Q 5.17.4 : What is an Information Disclosure Statement (IDS)?5-16
    • Q 5.17.5 : When is an IDS required?5-16
  • : Notice from the PTO5-17
  • Q 5.18 : What happens when a patent application is allowed?5-17
Chapter 6: Maintaining and Modifying Patents; Ownership; Marking
  • : Maintenance Fees6-2
  • Q 6.1 : What are maintenance fees?6-2
    • Q 6.1.1 : Can late payment affect patent rights?6-3
  • : Certificates of Correction6-3
  • Q 6.2 : What is a certificate of correction?6-3
  • : Reexaminations6-3
  • Q 6.3 : What is a reexamination?6-3
    • Q 6.3.1 : Who can request a reexamination?6-4
    • Q 6.3.2 : What is an ex parte reexamination?6-4
    • Q 6.3.3 : What is an inter partes reexamination?6-5
    • Q 6.3.4 : When can a reexamination be requested?6-5
    • Q 6.3.5 : What are the requirements for initiating a reexamination?6-5
  • : Supplemental Examinations6-6
  • Q 6.4 : What is a supplemental examination?6-6
    • Q 6.4.1 : When can a supplemental examination be requested?6-7
    • Q 6.4.2 : What are the requirements for initiating a supplemental examination?6-7
  • : Inter Partes Reviews6-7
  • Q 6.5 : What is an inter partes review?6-7
    • Q 6.5.1 : When can an inter partes review be requested?6-8
    • Q 6.5.2 : What are the requirements for initiating an inter partes review?6-9
    • Q 6.5.3 : When can the patentee amend or substitute challenged claims?6-9
    • Q 6.5.4 : Which claims must be addressed by the PTAB in its written decision after an inter partes review has been instituted?6-9
    • Q 6.5.5 : What is the interplay between a district court action and an inter partes review?6-10
    • Q 6.5.6 : May the decision to initiate an inter partes review be appealed?6-10
    • Q 6.5.7 : What is the scope of estoppel that attaches in an inter partes review proceeding?6-10
  • : Covered Business Method Patent Reviews6-11
  • Q 6.6 : What is the transitional program for covered business method (CBM) patents?6-11
    • Q 6.6.1 : When can a covered business method review be requested?6-11
    • Q 6.6.2 : What are the requirements for initiating a covered business method review?6-12
    • Q 6.6.3 : What is the potential effect of initiation of a covered business method review?6-12
  • : Post-Grant Reviews6-12
  • Q 6.7 : What is a post-grant review?6-12
    • Q 6.7.1 : When can a post-grant review be requested?6-13
    • Q 6.7.2 : What are the requirements for initiating a post-grant review?6-13
  • : Reissues6-14
  • Q 6.8 : What is a reissue?6-14
    • Q 6.8.1 : When can a reissue be requested?6-14
    • Q 6.8.2 : What are the requirements for initiating a reissue?6-15
  • : Intervening Rights6-15
  • Q 6.9 : What are intervening rights?6-15
    • Q 6.9.1 : What are absolute intervening rights?6-16
    • Q 6.9.2 : What are equitable intervening rights?6-16
  • : Abandonment6-17
  • Q 6.10 : Can an application or a patent be abandoned?6-17
  • : Ownership6-18
  • Q 6.11 : Who is the owner of a patent?6-18
  • Q 6.12 : Can patents be assigned?6-18
  • Q 6.13 : If an invention is created during employment, who owns the patent application and subsequent patent?6-18
  • Q 6.14 : What are the rights of joint owners?6-19
  • : Notice and Patent Marking6-19
  • Q 6.15 : How can the patent owner give notice of its rights?6-19
  • Q 6.16 : What is patent “marking”?6-20
    • Q 6.16.1 : What does “patent pending” mean?6-20
  • Q 6.17 : What constitutes “false marking” and what penalty may be imposed?6-20
Chapter 7: Inventorship
  • : Priority of Inventorship7-2
  • Q 7.1 : What is priority of inventorship?7-2
  • Q 7.2 : How is priority of inventorship established?7-2
    • Q 7.2.1 : Is the first-to-invent system used in other countries?7-3
  • : Conception, Reduction to Practice, and Diligence7-3
  • Q 7.3 : What is conception?7-3
  • Q 7.4 : What is reduction to practice?7-4
  • Q 7.5 : What is diligence between conception and reduction to practice?7-4
  • : Completion7-5
  • Q 7.6 : What is “swearing behind” or “swearing back before” a reference?7-5
  • Q 7.7 : How does location of invention affect patentability?7-6
  • : Interference7-6
  • Q 7.8 : What is an interference?7-6
    • Q 7.8.1 : Who can initiate an interference?7-6
    • Q 7.8.2 : Who are the “senior party” and the “junior party” in an interference?7-7
  • : The First-to-File System7-7
  • Q 7.9 : What is a first-to-file system?7-7
    • Q 7.9.1 : When did this system take effect?7-7
    • Q 7.9.2 : What is the effect on interference proceedings?7-8
  • Q 7.10 : What is a derivation proceeding?7-8
    • Q 7.10.1 : When may a petition for a derivation proceeding be filed?7-9
    • Q 7.10.2 : Who determines whether there will be a derivation proceeding?7-9
    • Q 7.10.3 : How can a derivation proceeding end?7-9
    • Q 7.10.4 : Can derivation claims be made in court rather than in the PTO?7-10
Chapter 8: Requirements for Patentability
  • : Novelty8-2
  • Q 8.1 : What is “novelty”?8-2
    • Q 8.1.1 : What makes an invention “novel” for patent applications subject to the first-to-invent system?8-2
    • Q 8.1.2 : What makes an invention “novel” for patent applications subject to the first-to-file system?8-3
  • : Utility8-4
  • Q 8.2 : What is “utility” or “usefulness”?8-4
  • : Nonobviousness8-4
  • Q 8.3 : What is “nonobviousness”?8-4
    • Q 8.3.1 : What makes an invention “obvious”?8-5
    • Q 8.3.2 : How does the PTO determine if an invention is obvious?8-5
    • Q 8.3.3 : What is “motivation to combine”?8-6
    • Q 8.3.4 : What is the concept of “teaching away” and how does it relate to obviousness?8-7
  • Q 8.4 : What is patentable subject matter?8-7
  • : Adequate Description8-7
  • Q 8.5 : What constitutes an “adequate description”?8-7
  • : Statutory Bars8-10
  • Q 8.6 : What are the statutory bars?8-10
    • Q 8.6.1 : What statutory bars are in effect for patent applications subject to the first-to-invent system?8-11
    • Q 8.6.2 : What statutory bars are in effect for patent applications subject to the first-to-file system?8-11
  • : Disclosure-Dedication Rule8-12
  • Q 8.7 : What is the “disclosure-dedication” rule?8-12
Chapter 9: Territorial Reach of U.S. Patent Law
  • : Protection Under the Patent Act9-2
  • Q 9.1 : What is the territorial scope of U.S. patent protection?9-2
    • Q 9.1.1 : Does the Patent Act reach import and export transactions?9-3
  • Q 9.2 : What infringers are beyond the reach of the Patent Act?9-3
  • : Protection Under the Tariff Act9-4
  • Q 9.3 : Does the Tariff Act protect patent holders?9-4
    • Q 9.3.1 : Does the Tariff Act offer patentees any advantages over the Patent Act?9-4
  • : Enforcing Patent Rights in the U.S. International Trade Commission9-5
  • Q 9.4 : How can patentees enforce their rights where there is importation of infringing goods?9-5
  • Q 9.5 : What is the United States International Trade Commission?9-5
    • Q 9.5.1 : How does a patentee seek relief from the ITC?9-5
    • Q 9.5.2 : What happens in an ITC proceeding?9-5
    • Q 9.5.3 : What happens when the ITC has made a final determination?9-7
    • Q 9.5.4 : What remedies are available in an ITC action?9-7
Chapter 10: Patent Infringement
  • : Types of Infringement10-2
  • Q 10.1 : What is patent infringement?10-2
  • Q 10.2 : What are the types of patent infringement?10-2
    • Q 10.2.1 : What is direct infringement?10-2
    • Q 10.2.2 : What is indirect infringement?10-3
  • Q 10.3 : What is inducement of patent infringement?10-3
  • Q 10.4 : What is contributory patent infringement?10-4
  • Q 10.5 : What is the “single infringer” rule?10-5
  • Q 10.6 : What is “willful” infringement?10-10
  • : Litigating the Infringement Claim10-10
  • Q 10.7 : If infringement occurs, how may a patent owner proceed to enforce his rights?10-10
  • Q 10.8 : Where is the proper venue for a patent case?10-11
  • Q 10.9 : Who has standing to enforce a patent?10-11
  • Q 10.10 : What are the rights of a co-owner of a patent?10-12
  • Q 10.11 : What is a “nonpracticing entity,” “patent assertion entity,” or “patent troll”?10-12
    • Q 10.11.1 : What legislation is being considered with respect to litigation by NPEs?10-13
  • Q 10.12 : Who has the burden of proof to show patent infringement?10-16
  • Q 10.13 : What is the standard under which an assessment of infringement is performed?10-16
  • Q 10.14 : What are the basic elements of a patent case?10-16
  • : Claim Construction10-17
  • Q 10.15 : What is “claim construction”?10-17
    • Q 10.15.1 : How does a judge construe claim language?10-20
    • Q 10.15.2 : What is a “Markman hearing”?10-20
    • Q 10.15.3 : What is the standard of review of a claim construction?10-21
  • : Doctrine of Equivalents10-24
  • Q 10.16 : What is the doctrine of equivalents?10-24
    • Q 10.16.1 : What tests are used to determine whether something is an “equivalent” for infringement purposes?10-26
    • Q 10.16.2 : What is the “insubstantial differences” test?10-26
    • Q 10.16.3 : What is the “function-way-result” test?10-26
  • Q 10.17 : What is prosecution history estoppel?10-27
Chapter 11: Defenses and Counterclaims in a Patent Infringement Action
  • : Noninfringement11-2
  • Q 11.1 : What is the noninfringement defense?11-2
  • : Invalidity11-3
  • Q 11.2 : What is the invalidity defense?11-3
    • Q 11.2.1 : Who has the burden of proof to show that a patent is invalid?11-3
    • Q 11.2.2 : What is the burden of proof of invalidity?11-4
    • Q 11.2.3 : What are the bases for invalidity?11-4
  • Q 11.3 : What is the “anticipation” defense?11-5
  • Q 11.4 : What is the “obviousness” defense?11-5
    • Q 11.4.1 : How can the patent owner rebut a defense of obviousness?11-9
  • Q 11.5 : What is the “indefiniteness” defense?11-9
  • : Unenforceability11-11
  • Q 11.6 : What is the unenforceability defense?11-11
    • Q 11.6.1 : Who has the burden of proof to show that a patent is unenforceable?11-12
    • Q 11.6.2 : What is the standard by which an unenforceability argument is assessed?11-12
  • Q 11.7 : What is inequitable conduct?11-12
    • Q 11.7.1 : Who determines if inequitable conduct has been committed?11-12
    • Q 11.7.2 : What is required to prove inequitable conduct?11-13
    • Q 11.7.3 : What is “infectious unenforceability”?11-16
    • Q 11.7.4 : How did the America Invents Act affect a defense of inequitable conduct?11-16
  • Q 11.8 : What is patent misuse?11-17
  • Q 11.9 : What is “prosecution history laches”?11-17
  • Q 11.10 : What is a “laches” defense?11-17
  • : Effects of Proving Defenses11-18
  • Q 11.11 : What is the effect of a successful defense to a patent assertion?11-18
  • : Counterclaims11-19
  • Q 11.12 : May counterclaims be raised in patent infringement suits?11-19
    • Q 11.12.1 : What is a “Walker Process” claim?11-19
Chapter 12: Remedies for Patent Infringement
  • : Injunctions12-2
  • Q 12.1 : What are the requirements to obtain permanent injunctive relief?12-2
  • Q 12.2 : Are preliminary injunctions available in patent cases?12-4
  • : Damages12-4
  • Q 12.3 : What are the primary theories for money damages?12-4
  • Q 12.4 : What are lost profits?12-4
  • Q 12.5 : What is a reasonable royalty?12-5
    • Q 12.5.1 : How are reasonable royalties proved?12-7
    • Q 12.5.2 : What are RAND or FRAND royalty obligations?12-8
  • Q 12.6 : What provisional rights are available upon publication of a patent application?12-9
  • Q 12.7 : What is the “entire market value” rule?12-9
  • Q 12.8 : What is the “smallest salable unit”?12-10
  • Q 12.9 : When can a patent owner recover enhanced damages?12-10
  • : Attorney Fees and Fee Shifting12-12
  • Q 12.10 : When can a patent owner recover attorney fees?12-12
  • : Limits on Recovery12-15
  • Q 12.11 : Are there time limitations to recovery in a patent suit?12-15
Chapter 13: Patent Licensing
  • : Types of Licenses13-2
  • Q 13.1 : What is a patent license?13-2
  • Q 13.2 : What is an express license?13-2
    • Q 13.2.1 : What is an exclusive license?13-2
    • Q 13.2.2 : What is a nonexclusive license?13-3
  • Q 13.3 : What is an implied license?13-3
    • Q 13.3.1 : What is “patent exhaustion”?13-4
  • : Grant of Rights13-4
  • Q 13.4 : Who may grant a license to a patent?13-4
  • Q 13.5 : What are the rights that can be conveyed in a patent license?13-5
    • Q 13.5.1 : Can the right to sublicense be granted?13-5
  • Q 13.6 : What is the duration of rights conveyed in a patent license?13-5
  • : Impact of Infringement13-6
  • Q 13.7 : What duties, if any, does the licensor have to the licensee if the licensed patents are infringed?13-6
  • Q 13.8 : What duties, if any, does the licensee have to the licensor if the licensed patents are infringed?13-6
  • Q 13.9 : Does a licensee have standing to prosecute an infringement case?13-6
  • Q 13.10 : Does a licensee have standing to sue a licensor for noninfringement and/or invalidity of a licensed patent?13-7
  • : Royalties13-7
  • Q 13.11 : What is a “royalty”?13-7
    • Q 13.11.1 : Can a minimum royalty be set?13-7
    • Q 13.11.2 : Are provisions specifying post-expiration royalties enforceable?13-7
  • : Covenants Not to Sue13-8
  • Q 13.12 : What is a covenant not to sue?13-8
    • Q 13.12.1 : Is a covenant not to sue always distinct from a license?13-8
Chapter 14: Patents in Foreign Countries
  • : Foreign Filing Licenses14-2
  • Q 14.1 : What is a foreign filing license?14-2
    • Q 14.1.1 : How is a foreign filing license obtained?14-2
  • : World Trade Organization14-3
  • Q 14.2 : What is the WTO’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights?14-3
  • : Paris Convention and European Patent Convention14-4
  • Q 14.3 : What is the Paris Convention?14-4
  • Q 14.4 : What is the European Patent Convention?14-4
    • Q 14.4.1 : How are European patents issued?14-4
    • Q 14.4.2 : What rights does a European patent confer?14-5
  • : Patent Cooperation Treaty14-6
  • Q 14.5 : What is the Patent Cooperation Treaty?14-6
    • Q 14.5.1 : What is an international patent application (PCT patent application)?14-6
    • Q 14.5.2 : What procedure must be followed to file a PCT application?14-6
    • Q 14.5.3 : What happens in the international phase of prosecution?14-7
    • Q 14.5.4 : What happens in the national phase of prosecution?14-7
    • Q 14.5.5 : What is an international search report?14-7
    • Q 14.5.6 : What is an international preliminary examination report?14-7
  • : Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act14-8
  • Q 14.6 : What is the Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act?14-8
  • : Hague Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Industrial Designs14-8
  • Q 14.7 : What is the Hague Agreement?14-8
  • : Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods14-9
  • Q 14.8 : What is the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods?14-9
    • Q 14.8.1 : Can a remedy be sought under the CISG for goods purchased overseas that violate the patent rights of third parties?14-9
  • : The IP5 Organization14-9
  • Q 14.9 : What is the IP5 organization?14-9
  • : Investor-State Dispute Settlement (ISDS) Provisions14-10
  • Q 14.10 : What is an ISDS provision and where is it found?14-10
    • Q 14.10.1 : How is ISDS being applied in the patent context?14-10
Chapter 15: Alternatives to Patenting
  • : Patents Compared to Trade Secrets15-2
  • Q 15.1 : What is trade secret protection?15-2
  • Q 15.2 : How does a trade secret differ from a patent?15-3
  • : Patents Compared to Trademarks and Copyrights15-3
  • Q 15.3 : How does a trademark or servicemark differ from a patent?15-3
  • Q 15.4 : How does a copyright differ from a patent?15-4
  • : Dedicating Inventions to the Public15-4
  • Q 15.5 : What is a statutory invention registration (SIR)?15-4
  • Q 15.6 : What is a research disclosure?15-4
  • Q 15.7 : Can I simply publish my invention?15-5
Chapter 16: Trademark Basics
  • : Constitutional, Statutory, and Public Policy Foundations16-2
  • Q 16.1 : What is a trademark?16-2
    • Q 16.1.1 : What different types of marks are protected by trademark law?16-3
  • Q 16.2 : What is the constitutional basis for trademark law?16-3
  • Q 16.3 : What statutes govern trademarks?16-3
  • Q 16.4 : What is the public policy behind protecting trademark rights?16-4
  • Q 16.5 : How does trademark protection differ from patent and copyright protection?16-5
  • Q 16.6 : Does a mark need to be registered to be protected?16-5
  • Q 16.7 : What does it mean for a mark to be used to distinguish goods?16-7
  • Q 16.8 : Does a trademark need to be unique?16-7
  • Q 16.9 : Does a trademark need to identify the name of the source of the product?16-9
  • : Marks Categorized by Distinctiveness16-9
  • Q 16.10 : How are marks categorized by their distinctiveness?16-9
    • : Figure 16-1 The Five Categories of Marks16-10
    • Q 16.10.1 : What is a “fanciful” mark?16-10
    • Q 16.10.2 : What is an “arbitrary” mark?16-10
    • Q 16.10.3 : What is a “suggestive” mark?16-11
    • Q 16.10.4 : What is “inherently distinctive”?16-11
    • Q 16.10.5 : What is a “descriptive” mark?16-11
    • Q 16.10.6 : What is “secondary meaning”?16-12
    • Q 16.10.7 : What is a “generic” mark?16-13
  • : Some Limitations on Potential Trademarks16-14
  • Q 16.11 : What does it mean for a trademark to “disparage”?16-14
  • Q 16.12 : What does it mean for a trademark to be “geographically misdescriptive”?16-16
  • Q 16.13 : Can a surname be protected as a trademark?16-18
  • : Colors as Trademarks16-18
  • Q 16.14 : Can a color or a combination of colors be protected?16-18
    • Q 16.14.1 : Can a color be inherently distinctive?16-18
    • Q 16.14.2 : What is the scope of trademark protection for school colors?16-19
    • Q 16.14.3 : Is a color functional?16-20
  • : Smells As Trademarks16-22
  • Q 16.15 : Can a smell be protected?16-22
  • Q 16.16 : Is a smell functional?16-22
  • : Service Marks16-23
  • Q 16.17 : What is entitled to protection as a service mark?16-23
    • Q 16.17.1 : Can a sound be protected as a service mark?16-23
  • : Collective and Certification Marks16-24
  • Q 16.18 : What are collective and certification marks?16-24
    • Q 16.18.1 : How are certification marks used to signify environmentally relevant characteristics of goods?16-25
  • : Trade Dress16-25
  • Q 16.19 : What is trade dress?16-25
    • Q 16.19.1 : What does it mean for trade dress to be “distinctive”?16-26
    • Q 16.19.2 : What does it mean for trade dress to be “nonfunctional”?16-27
  • : Trademarks in Domain Names16-28
  • Q 16.20 : When can an entity’s trademark be used in someone else’s domain name?16-28
    • Q 16.20.1 : What is the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy?16-28
    • Q 16.20.2 : What is the Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act?16-29
    • Q 16.20.3 : What is a generic top-level domain?16-31
  • : Ownership, Sale, Licensing16-33
  • Q 16.21 : Who owns a trademark?16-33
  • Q 16.22 : What are the limits on selling a trademark?16-33
  • Q 16.23 : What are the limits on licensing a trademark?16-34
    • Q 16.23.1 : What happens if quality control is not maintained?16-34
    • Q 16.23.2 : How much control is enough?16-34
Chapter 17: Trademark Registration
  • : Prerequisites for Registration17-2
  • Q 17.1 : What is the Principal Register?17-2
  • Q 17.2 : How does an applicant know if it can register its trademark?17-2
  • Q 17.3 : What is the Supplemental Register?17-3
  • Q 17.4 : Does the applicant need to use the mark before it can be registered?17-4
    • Q 17.4.1 : How does the applicant establish its “bona fide intention” to use its mark?17-4
  • : Trademark Searches17-5
  • Q 17.5 : Why conduct a trademark search?17-5
  • Q 17.6 : What are the PTO’s online resources for a search?17-5
  • Q 17.7 : Does the PTO permit in-person searching?17-6
  • Q 17.8 : How should the applicant search for unregistered trademarks?17-6
  • Q 17.9 : Are trademark searches important for anyone other than an applicant?17-7
  • : Registration Process17-7
  • Q 17.10 : How long does it take to register a trademark?17-7
    • : Table 17-1 Stages of the Registration Process17-7
    • Q 17.10.1 : What happens in the filing stage?17-8
    • Q 17.10.2 : What happens in the examination stage?17-8
    • Q 17.10.3 : What happens in the publication stage?17-9
    • Q 17.10.4 : What happens in the notice of allowance stage?17-10
  • Q 17.11 : Where can the application form be found?17-10
  • Q 17.12 : What are the minimum filing requirements for an application?17-11
    • Q 17.12.1 : What satisfies the clear drawing requirement?17-11
    • Q 17.12.2 : What satisfies the requirement for a listing of recognizable goods or services?17-11
    • Q 17.12.3 : What are the filing fees?17-12
  • Q 17.13 : What are the filing requirements for a complete application?17-12
    • Q 17.13.1 : What satisfies the requirement of a “basis for filing”?17-13
    • Q 17.13.2 : What satisfies the verified statement requirement?17-13
  • : Table 17-2 Verified Statement Requirement17-13
  • : Benefits17-14
  • Q 17.14 : What are the effects of registering a trademark?17-14
  • : Duration and Renewal17-16
  • Q 17.15 : How long does a trademark registration last?17-16
    • Q 17.15.1 : Does the owner have to do anything during the ten-year period?17-16
  • Q 17.16 : Can a trademark registration be renewed?17-16
  • Q 17.17 : What else must be done to protect a trademark after it is registered?17-17
  • : Cancellation17-19
  • Q 17.18 : Can a trademark be canceled?17-19
  • Q 17.19 : What are the grounds for cancellation?17-19
    • Q 17.19.1 : What does it mean for a trademark to become generic?17-20
    • Q 17.19.2 : What is abandonment for nonuse?17-21
    • Q 17.19.3 : What does it mean for a trademark to be fraudulently obtained?17-22
  • : Tacking17-23
  • Q 17.20 : What is tacking?17-23
  • Q 17.21 : Who determines whether two marks may be tacked?17-23
  • : International Registration17-24
  • Q 17.22 : Can a trademark be registered internationally?17-24
Chapter 18: Trademark Infringement
  • : Elements of the Plaintiff’s Case18-2
  • Q 18.1 : What are the statutory bases for an action for trademark infringement?18-2
  • Q 18.2 : What are the elements of an action for trademark infringement?18-3
  • Q 18.3 : Which party bears the burden of proof?18-3
  • : Types of Consumer Confusion18-4
  • Q 18.4 : What type of confusion is actionable?18-4
    • Q 18.4.1 : What is passing off?18-4
    • Q 18.4.2 : What is reverse confusion?18-5
    • Q 18.4.3 : What is initial interest confusion?18-5
    • Q 18.4.4 : What is post-sale confusion?18-6
  • : Proof of Use in Commerce18-7
  • Q 18.5 : How is “use in commerce” proven?18-7
  • : Proof of Likelihood of Confusion18-9
  • Q 18.6 : How is likelihood of confusion proven?18-9
    • Q 18.6.1 : How do the federal circuits interpret the multifactor test for likelihood of confusion?18-9
    • : FIGURE 18-1 Likelihood of Confusion Factors in the Federal Circuits18-11
    • Q 18.6.2 : How does a court analyze similarity of the marks?18-12
    • Q 18.6.3 : How does a court analyze proximity or relatedness of the goods?18-14
    • Q 18.6.4 : How does a court analyze the possibility of bridging the gap?18-15
    • Q 18.6.5 : How does a court analyze strength of the trademarks?18-16
    • Q 18.6.6 : How does a court analyze evidence of actual confusion?18-17
    • Q 18.6.7 : How does a court analyze the defendant’s good faith?18-18
    • Q 18.6.8 : How does a court analyze the quality of the defendant’s product?18-19
    • Q 18.6.9 : How does a court analyze the sophistication of the buyers?18-19
    • Q 18.6.10 : How does a court weigh the various factors within the likelihood of confusion test?18-20
  • : Parties18-21
  • Q 18.7 : Who can bring an infringement action?18-21
    • Q 18.7.1 : What is the effect of a plaintiff’s having an unregistered mark?18-21
  • Q 18.8 : Against whom can an infringement action be brought?18-22
    • Q 18.8.1 : Can a claim be brought against an entity who aids in a third party’s infringement?18-22
    • Q 18.8.2 : Can a claim be brought against a foreign defendant?18-24
  • : Forums18-25
  • Q 18.9 : What are the possible forums for trademark infringement actions?18-25
  • : Counterfeiting18-26
  • Q 18.10 : What is counterfeiting?18-26
    • Q 18.10.1 : What are the elements of civil counterfeiting?18-27
    • Q 18.10.2 : What are the elements of criminal counterfeiting?18-27
Chapter 19: Defenses in a Trademark Infringement Action
  • : Invalidity of Plaintiff’s Mark; Permissible Uses Under the Statute19-2
  • Q 19.1 : How may a defendant challenge the validity of the plaintiff’s trademark?19-2
  • Q 19.2 : What other defenses for infringement actions involving incontestable trademarks are listed in the Lanham Act?19-2
  • : Equitable Defenses19-3
  • Q 19.3 : What equitable defenses are available to a defendant charged with trademark infringement?19-3
  • Q 19.4 : What is the defense of laches?19-4
    • Q 19.4.1 : What is an “unreasonable delay”?19-4
    • Q 19.4.2 : How does a defendant show prejudice?19-5
    • Q 19.4.3 : Is the laches defense the same as a statute of limitations defense?19-7
  • Q 19.5 : What is the defense of acquiescence?19-7
  • Q 19.6 : What is the defense of unclean hands?19-9
    • Q 19.6.1 : Does plaintiff’s violation of antitrust laws create unclean hands?19-9
  • : Fair Use19-10
  • Q 19.7 : What is the defense of fair use?19-10
    • Q 19.7.1 : What is statutory fair use?19-10
    • Q 19.7.2 : What is nominative fair use?19-11
  • Q 19.8 : Is comparative advertising fair use?19-12
  • Q 19.9 : Is compatibility advertising fair use?19-12
  • Q 19.10 : Is parody fair use?19-14
Chapter 20: Remedies for Trademark Infringement
  • : Injunctive Relief20-2
  • Q 20.1 : When is injunctive relief available?20-2
  • Q 20.2 : What is the scope of injunctive relief a court may award?20-3
  • Q 20.3 : When is a preliminary injunction available?20-5
  • Q 20.4 : What happens if a defendant violates the terms of an injunction?20-7
  • : Monetary Relief20-8
  • Q 20.5 : What is the availability of monetary relief generally?20-8
  • Q 20.6 : When may the plaintiff recover the infringer’s profits?20-9
    • Q 20.6.1 : Is proof of scienter required for an award of profits?20-9
    • Q 20.6.2 : Does reliance on the advice of counsel negate a finding of willful infringement?20-9
    • Q 20.6.3 : Who bears the burden of proof in showing the amount of the infringer’s profits?20-10
    • Q 20.6.4 : Who determines the amount of profits to be disgorged?20-11
  • Q 20.7 : When are actual damages available?20-11
    • Q 20.7.1 : Who bears the burden of proof in showing the amount of the plaintiff’s actual damages?20-12
    • Q 20.7.2 : What is corrective advertising?20-12
  • Q 20.8 : Can the plaintiff recover both the infringer’s profits and its actual damages?20-13
  • Q 20.9 : Are treble damages available?20-13
  • Q 20.10 : Are punitive damages available?20-13
  • : Attorney Fees and Costs20-14
  • Q 20.11 : May attorney fees be recovered?20-14
  • Q 20.12 : May court costs be awarded?20-15
  • : Remedies in Counterfeiting Cases20-15
  • Q 20.13 : What are the penalties for criminal counterfeiting?20-15
  • Q 20.14 : What special remedies are available for civil counterfeiting?20-15
Chapter 21: Trademark Dilution
  • : Definitions and Statutory Basis21-2
  • Q 21.1 : What is trademark dilution generally?21-2
    • Q 21.1.1 : What is dilution by blurring?21-3
    • Q 21.1.2 : What is dilution by tarnishment?21-3
  • Q 21.2 : Are trademark infringement and trademark dilution mutually exclusive?21-3
  • Q 21.3 : What is the statutory basis for an action for trademark dilution?21-4
  • : Proving Dilution Generally21-5
  • Q 21.4 : What are the elements of an action for trademark dilution?21-5
  • Q 21.5 : Which party bears the burden of proof?21-6
  • Q 21.6 : How does a plaintiff prove that its mark is famous?21-6
    • Q 21.6.1 : How does the court analyze “advertising and publicity”?21-8
    • Q 21.6.2 : How does the court analyze “sales and revenue”?21-9
    • Q 21.6.3 : How does the court analyze “actual recognition”?21-9
    • Q 21.6.4 : How does the court analyze “federal registration”?21-10
  • Q 21.7 : How does a plaintiff prove “use in commerce”?21-11
  • : Proving Dilution by Blurring21-11
  • Q 21.8 : How does a plaintiff prove dilution by blurring?21-11
    • Q 21.8.1 : How does the court analyze “similarity”?21-12
    • Q 21.8.2 : How does the court analyze “distinctiveness”?21-12
    • Q 21.8.3 : How does the court analyze “substantially exclusive use”?21-13
    • Q 21.8.4 : How does the court analyze “recognition”?21-13
    • Q 21.8.5 : How does the court analyze “intent”?21-14
    • Q 21.8.6 : How does the court analyze “actual association”?21-14
    • Q 21.8.7 : How does a court weigh the various factors?21-15
  • : Proving Dilution by Tarnishment21-15
  • Q 21.9 : How does a plaintiff prove dilution by tarnishment?21-15
  • : Parties21-17
  • Q 21.10 : Who can bring a dilution action?21-17
    • Q 21.10.1 : What if the potential plaintiff has an unregistered mark?21-17
  • Q 21.11 : Against whom can a dilution action be brought?21-18
    • Q 21.11.1 : Can a claim for dilution by blurring be brought against a defendant selling a competing product?21-18
    • Q 21.11.2 : Can a dilution claim be brought against an entity that aids in a third party’s dilution?21-19
  • : Defenses21-19
  • Q 21.12 : What defenses may be raised in a dilution action?21-19
    • Q 21.12.1 : What statutory defenses are available in a dilution action?21-19
    • Q 21.12.2 : How does the registration of a mark protect a defendant from claims of dilution?21-20
    • Q 21.12.3 : What will the court protect as “fair use”?21-20
    • Q 21.12.4 : What will the court protect as “comparative advertising”?21-21
    • Q 21.12.5 : What will the court protect as “parody”?21-22
    • Q 21.12.6 : How does a defendant prove “noncommercial” use as a defense?21-22
  • Q 21.13 : What equitable defenses are available to a defendant charged with trademark dilution?21-23
  • : Remedies21-24
  • Q 21.14 : What remedies can a court award for dilution?21-24
  • Q 21.15 : What is the availability of injunctive relief?21-24
    • Q 21.15.1 : When will the court grant a permanent injunction?21-24
    • Q 21.15.2 : When will the court grant a preliminary injunction?21-24
    • Q 21.15.3 : What will the scope of the injunction be?21-25
  • Q 21.16 : What is the availability of monetary relief?21-26
    • Q 21.16.1 : How will a court treat actions for damages brought before October 6, 2006?21-26
    • Q 21.16.2 : How will a court analyze willfulness?21-26
Chapter 22: State Trademark Laws
  • : Relation of State and Federal Trademark Laws22-2
  • Q 22.1 : What is the relation between state trademark laws and the Lanham Act?22-2
  • : Registration22-2
  • Q 22.2 : Can a mark be registered in a state?22-2
    • Q 22.2.1 : What marks can be registered on a state’s register?22-3
    • Q 22.2.2 : What is the effect of a state registration?22-3
  • : Enforcing Rights22-4
  • Q 22.3 : How does a plaintiff prove infringement under state law?22-4
  • Q 22.4 : How does a plaintiff prove dilution under state law?22-5
  • Q 22.5 : What remedies are available in a trademark action under state law?22-7
    • Q 22.5.1 : Can a state court award punitive damages for trademark infringement?22-7
Chapter 23: Practical Aspects of Trademark Litigation
  • : Cease-and-Desist Letters23-2
  • Q 23.1 : When should a cease-and-desist letter be sent?23-2
  • Q 23.2 : What is the value of a cease-and-desist letter?23-2
  • Q 23.3 : What should a cease-and-desist letter say?23-3
  • Q 23.4 : What risk factors should be considered before sending a cease-and-desist letter?23-4
    • Q 23.4.1 : Should a cease-and-desist letter be sent to a “fan site”?23-4
    • Q 23.4.2 : Is there a risk of bad publicity for the sender of a cease-and-desist letter?23-5
    • Q 23.4.3 : Is there a risk that the recipient of a cease-and-desist letter will sue the sender?23-6
  • : Planning Trademark Litigation23-6
  • Q 23.5 : Before bringing suit, what should a trademark owner consider with respect to the nature of its mark?23-6
  • Q 23.6 : What should the trademark owner consider with respect to the infringing use?23-7
  • Q 23.7 : Is it important to have a strong case before filing suit?23-8
  • Q 23.8 : What should a trademark owner consider with respect to the type of relief it is seeking?23-9
  • Q 23.9 : Should the trademark owner try to assert claims beyond its Lanham Act claims?23-10
  • Q 23.10 : Should the trademark owner sue in state court or in federal court?23-10
    • Q 23.10.1 : How should venue be chosen?23-10
  • Q 23.11 : What administrative relief is available?23-11
  • Q 23.12 : What are some practical considerations for pre-litigation and settlement negotiations?23-11
    • Q 23.12.1 : How can a covenant not to sue impact ongoing trademark litigation?23-12
  • Q 23.13 : What are some practical considerations for a defendant responding to a complaint?23-12
  • : Discovery23-13
  • Q 23.14 : What types of discovery are useful in a trademark case?23-13
    • Q 23.14.1 : How should plaintiff target its discovery?23-13
    • Q 23.14.2 : How should defendant target its discovery?23-13
  • Q 23.15 : What are some practical pointers regarding depositions?23-14
    • Q 23.15.1 : Whom should the plaintiff depose?23-14
    • Q 23.15.2 : Whom should the defendant depose?23-15
  • Q 23.16 : What are some practical pointers regarding document requests?23-15
  • Q 23.17 : What are some practical pointers regarding interrogatories?23-16
  • Q 23.18 : What are some practical pointers regarding requests for admission?23-16
  • Q 23.19 : How can a litigant use the Internet as a discovery tool?23-17
  • : Expert Witnesses, Surveys, and Public Perception Evidence23-17
  • Q 23.20 : What role can experts play in a trademark case?23-17
    • Q 23.20.1 : What are the standards applied to trademark experts?23-17
  • Q 23.21 : What is the role of survey evidence in a trademark case?23-18
    • Q 23.21.1 : Can surveys establish genericness?23-20
    • Q 23.21.2 : Can surveys establish secondary meaning?23-20
  • Q 23.22 : What is the role of third-party and public perception evidence?23-20
    • Q 23.22.1 : Is public perception evidence inadmissible as hearsay?23-21
  • : Motion Practice23-22
  • Q 23.23 : When is a motion for a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction useful?23-22
  • Q 23.24 : What discovery motions should be considered?23-24
  • Q 23.25 : When is a motion in limine useful?23-24
  • Q 23.26 : Should a party seek bifurcation of the trial?23-25
  • Q 23.27 : Can a trademark case be resolved on a motion to dismiss for failure to state a claim?23-25
  • Q 23.28 : Can a trademark case be resolved on a motion for summary judgment?23-25
    • Q 23.28.1 : Can the court’s summary judgment ruling be appealed?23-27
  • : Trial23-27
  • Q 23.29 : When should a jury be requested?23-27
    • Q 23.29.1 : How does a party request a jury?23-28
    • Q 23.29.2 : If the defendant requests a jury, does the plaintiff have any choice?23-28
  • Q 23.30 : How is the burden of proof divided with respect to damages?23-28
  • Q 23.31 : How can a party make its case more persuasive?23-29
Chapter 24: Copyright Basics
  • : Statutory Foundations24-2
  • Q 24.1 : What is a copyright?24-2
  • Q 24.2 : How long do copyrights last?24-3
  • Q 24.3 : What is the purpose of copyright?24-3
  • Q 24.4 : What is the constitutional and statutory basis for the copyright laws of the United States?24-3
  • Q 24.5 : Who is an “author”?24-3
  • : Works for Hire24-4
  • Q 24.6 : What is the significance of categorizing a work as a work for hire?24-4
  • Q 24.7 : How is a work for hire defined?24-4
    • Q 24.7.1 : What distinguishes employees from independent contractors?24-5
    • Q 24.7.2 : What is a “commissioned work”?24-5
  • Q 24.8 : Can photographs be works for hire?24-6
  • Q 24.9 : Can choreography be a work for hire?24-6
  • Q 24.10 : Can the works of a creative or artistic genius be works for hire?24-6
  • : Protected Subject Matter24-6
  • Q 24.11 : What subject matter is within the scope of a copyright?24-6
  • Q 24.12 : What constitutes an “original work of authorship”?24-7
    • Q 24.12.1 : What kinds of things are typically not original enough to be protected?24-8
  • Q 24.13 : What constitutes a “tangible medium of expression”?24-8
    • Q 24.13.1 : What is the significance of the phrase “now known or later developed”?24-9
  • Q 24.14 : What does it mean to be capable of being “perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated”?24-9
  • : Idea Versus Expression24-10
  • Q 24.15 : What is the difference between a copyrightable expression and an uncopyrightable idea, concept, process, or system?24-10
  • : Derivative Works, Compilations, and Other Key Categories24-11
  • Q 24.16 : What is a derivative work?24-11
  • Q 24.17 : What is a compilation?24-11
  • Q 24.18 : Does the Copyright Statute protect both published and unpublished works?24-12
    • Q 24.18.1 : What is the definition of a “published work”?24-12
    • Q 24.18.2 : What is the definition of an “unpublished work”?24-13
  • Q 24.19 : What is a “restored work”?24-13
  • Q 24.20 : Are works of the U.S. government protected by copyright?24-13
  • Q 24.21 : Can the U.S. government hold copyrights?24-14
  • Q 24.22 : Are works of state governments protected by copyright?24-14
Chapter 25: Exclusive Rights and Fair Use
  • : Rights Under the Copyright Statute25-2
  • Q 25.1 : What are “exclusive rights” in copyrighted works?25-2
    • Q 25.1.1 : Are the exclusive rights divisible?25-2
    • Q 25.1.2 : Do the exclusive rights protect against noncommercial uses?25-3
  • Q 25.2 : What does it mean “to reproduce” a copyrighted work?25-3
    • Q 25.2.1 : Does a copy have to be perfect to constitute a reproduction?25-4
    • Q 25.2.2 : Are there exceptions to the reproduction right?25-4
    • Q 25.2.3 : Does a human being need to be involved in the copying for there to be a reproduction?25-4
  • Q 25.3 : What constitutes a derivative work?25-5
    • Q 25.3.1 : Can a derivative work be copyrighted?25-6
  • Q 25.4 : What constitutes a “distribution”?25-7
  • Q 25.5 : What constitutes a “public performance”?25-7
  • Q 25.6 : What is a “display” right?25-8
  • Q 25.7 : What is a public performance by digital audio transmission?25-9
    • Q 25.7.1 : Are there exceptions to the digital audio transmission right?25-9
  • : Other Rights25-10
  • Q 25.8 : What right does an author have to attribution?25-10
    • Q 25.8.1 : Can an author sue for plagiarism?25-10
  • Q 25.9 : What right does an author have to the integrity of a work?25-10
  • : Fair Use25-11
  • Q 25.10 : What is “fair use”?25-11
  • Q 25.11 : What are the statutory factors considered in asserting fair use?25-11
  • Q 25.12 : What factors are relevant in defining “the purpose and character of a use”?25-12
    • Q 25.12.1 : What is a parody?25-13
    • Q 25.12.2 : Can thumbnail images be transformative?25-13
  • Q 25.13 : How is the “nature of the work” defined?25-14
  • Q 25.14 : How is “amount and substantiality” measured?25-14
    • Q 25.14.1 : Can music “samples” be fair use?25-15
  • Q 25.15 : How is the effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, a use measured?25-16
Chapter 26: Special Applications of Copyright Law
  • : Libraries and Archives (Section 108)26-2
  • Q 26.1 : Are libraries and archives exempt from copyright law?26-2
  • Q 26.2 : How do libraries and/or archives qualify for an exemption under section 108?26-2
  • Q 26.3 : What types of works are excluded from section 108?26-4
  • Q 26.4 : What are the limitations on copies made by libraries and archives?26-4
    • Q 26.4.1 : How many reproductions can a library make?26-5
    • Q 26.4.2 : Can a library make copies or phonorecords of unpublished works for archival purposes?26-5
    • Q 26.4.3 : Can a library make copies or phonorecords of published works in order to replace damaged or lost works?26-6
    • Q 26.4.4 : Can a library make a reproduction or distribution in response to a user’s request or another library’s request pursuant to an interlibrary loan?26-6
  • Q 26.5 : May a library or archive exchange copies with other libraries?26-7
  • Q 26.6 : Is a library liable for copyright infringement for the unsupervised use of copying machines located on its premises?26-8
  • Q 26.7 : What special rights do libraries have during the last twenty years of any term of copyright of a published work?26-8
  • : Rights in a Physical Copy Versus Copyrights26-9
  • Q 26.8 : Is there a difference between rights in a physical copy and the copyright in the underlying work?26-9
    • Q 26.8.1 : What is the “first sale” doctrine?26-9
    • Q 26.8.2 : Can an acquirer of a copyrighted work display for others the acquired copy?26-10
  • : Educational Performances (Section 110)26-11
  • Q 26.9 : Are educational or instructional performances exempt from infringement actions?26-11
  • : Secondary Transmissions (Section 111)26-11
  • Q 26.10 : What is a secondary transmission?26-11
    • Q 26.10.1 : What is a primary transmission?26-12
  • Q 26.11 : What types of secondary transmissions are exempt from infringement actions?26-12
  • Q 26.12 : How are secondary transmissions by cable systems treated?26-15
    • Q 26.12.1 : What cable systems are eligible for the exemption?26-15
    • Q 26.12.2 : What factors may preclude the exemption?26-15
    • Q 26.12.3 : What is a statutory (or compulsory) license for cable systems?26-16
    • Q 26.12.4 : What formality is required for a compulsory license?26-16
    • Q 26.12.5 : How are royalties calculated for a compulsory license?26-17
  • : Ephemeral Recordings (Section 112)26-17
  • Q 26.13 : What is an “ephemeral recording”?26-17
  • Q 26.14 : Are ephemeral recordings exempt from infringement actions?26-18
  • Q 26.15 : How are digital transmissions of sound recordings treated?26-20
  • : Sound Recordings26-21
  • Q 26.16 : What is the scope of exclusive rights in sound recordings?26-21
  • Q 26.17 : Does the author of a sound recording have an exclusive right in the public performance of that recording?26-24
  • Q 26.18 : What is statutory licensing for sound recordings?26-26
  • Q 26.19 : How are rates for statutory licenses computed?26-30
  • : Compulsory Music Licenses (Section 115)26-33
  • Q 26.20 : What is a compulsory music license?26-33
  • Q 26.21 : How are rates for the compulsory license determined?26-37
  • : Computer Programs (Section 117)26-38
  • Q 26.22 : Are there limitations on exclusive rights relating to computer programs?26-38
  • : Noncommercial Broadcasting (Section 118)26-43
  • Q 26.23 : Are there limitations relating to the use of certain works in connection with noncommercial broadcasting?26-43
  • Q 26.24 : How are rates set for compulsory licenses of works for use in noncommercial broadcasting?26-44
  • : Architectural Works26-44
  • Q 26.25 : Are there particular rules with respect to architectural works?26-44
  • : Copies for Persons with Disabilities (Section 121)26-48
  • Q 26.26 : Are there exemptions from infringement actions for copies reproduced or distributed for the blind or persons with disabilities?26-48
Chapter 27: Copyright Ownership, Transfer, and Duration
  • : Ownership27-2
  • Q 27.1 : Who owns a copyright?27-2
    • Q 27.1.1 : Is someone who directs the work of others an “author”?27-2
  • Q 27.2 : What is the nature of joint ownership?27-3
    • Q 27.2.1 : How is joint authorship established?27-4
    • Q 27.2.2 : Can joint authors transfer their interest?27-5
  • Q 27.3 : Who owns a work for hire?27-5
  • Q 27.4 : Who owns a collective work?27-6
  • : Transfer27-6
  • Q 27.5 : How are copyrights transferred?27-6
  • Q 27.6 : What formalities are necessary to transfer a copyright?27-7
  • Q 27.7 : How are transfers terminated?27-8
    • Q 27.7.1 : What notice is required for exercising the termination right?27-9
    • Q 27.7.2 : Who may exercise the right to terminate a transfer?27-9
    • Q 27.7.3 : What is the result of an exercise of the termination right?27-10
  • Q 27.8 : Is the ownership of the copyright different from the ownership of the material object?27-10
  • : Duration27-11
  • Q 27.9 : What is the duration of a copyright for works created on or after January 1, 1978?27-11
  • Q 27.10 : What is the duration of a copyright for works that were copyrighted before January 1, 1978?27-11
  • Q 27.11 : What is the duration of a copyright for works created—but not published or copyrighted—before January 1, 1978?27-12
  • Q 27.12 : Is duration affected by a transfer of the copyright?27-12
  • : Public Domain; Orphan Works27-12
  • Q 27.13 : What is the public domain?27-12
  • Q 27.14 : What is Creative Commons licensing?27-13
  • Q 27.15 : What is an “orphan work”?27-13
  • Q 27.16 : What problems do orphan works create?27-14
Chapter 28: Copyright Notice and Registration
  • : Notice28-2
  • Q 28.1 : Are notices of copyright required?28-2
  • Q 28.2 : What benefits does notice provide?28-2
  • Q 28.3 : What form should the notice take?28-2
  • Q 28.4 : Is a single notice of copyright effective for a collective work?28-3
  • Q 28.5 : What is the effect of an omitted notice of copyright?28-3
  • Q 28.6 : What is the effect of a notice with the wrong name or date?28-4
  • : Registration28-5
  • Q 28.7 : What benefits does registration provide?28-5
  • Q 28.8 : How are copyrights registered?28-5
  • Q 28.9 : What type of copy must be deposited with the Library of Congress?28-5
  • Q 28.10 : Where are forms available to register a copyright?28-6
  • Q 28.11 : Are lawyers needed to register copyrights?28-6
Chapter 29: Copyright Infringement Actions
  • : Defendants29-2
  • Q 29.1 : Who is liable for infringement of a copyright?29-2
  • Q 29.2 : What is secondary liability for copyright infringement?29-3
    • Q 29.2.1 : Who is liable for contributory infringement?29-3
    • Q 29.2.2 : Who is liable for inducing infringement?29-4
    • Q 29.2.3 : Who is liable for vicarious infringement?29-5
  • Q 29.3 : Must certain defendants be joined in an infringement action?29-5
  • : Plaintiffs29-5
  • Q 29.4 : Who can bring an infringement action?29-5
    • Q 29.4.1 : Can a licensee sue for infringement?29-6
    • Q 29.4.2 : May assignors and assignees sue for infringement?29-6
  • Q 29.5 : Does a plaintiff need to register a copyright before bringing suit for its infringement?29-7
  • Q 29.6 : Who may intervene in an infringement action?29-7
  • Q 29.7 : Are there special rules for infringement suits by television broadcast stations?29-7
  • Q 29.8 : What parties must be joined as plaintiffs in an infringement action?29-8
  • : Injunctions29-8
  • Q 29.9 : Can a copyright owner obtain an injunction for an infringement?29-8
    • Q 29.9.1 : What are the requirements for a preliminary injunction?29-9
    • Q 29.9.2 : What are the requirements for a permanent injunction?29-9
  • : Impoundment29-11
  • Q 29.10 : Can infringing articles be impounded?29-11
  • : Damages29-12
  • Q 29.11 : What damages are available in a successful infringement action?29-12
    • Q 29.11.1 : How are actual damages and profits calculated?29-12
    • Q 29.11.2 : What are statutory damages?29-16
    • Q 29.11.3 : How are statutory damages calculated?29-16
    • Q 29.11.4 : Is a copyright owner entitled to statutory damages for each copy made?29-18
  • : Costs and Attorneys’ Fees29-19
  • Q 29.12 : Are costs and attorneys’ fees available for successful infringement actions?29-19
    • Q 29.12.1 : Who counts as a “prevailing party”?29-20
    • Q 29.12.2 : What factors does the court consider in deciding whether to award attorneys’ fees to a prevailing party?29-21
    • Q 29.12.3 : How is the amount of attorneys’ fees calculated?29-22
  • Q 29.13 : Can defendants limit their exposure to attorneys’ fees and costs?29-23
  • : Criminal Violations29-24
  • Q 29.14 : Is copyright infringement a criminal offense?29-24
  • Q 29.15 : Are there criminal copyright violations apart from infringement?29-26
  • Q 29.16 : What are the penalties for copyright crimes?29-26
Chapter 30: The Digital Millennium Copyright Act
  • : Scope of the Statute30-2
  • Q 30.1 : What is the DMCA?30-2
  • Q 30.2 : What is the purpose of the OCILLA?30-3
  • Q 30.3 : What limitations on service provider liability are created by OCILLA?30-3
    • Q 30.3.1 : Is the DMCA a limitation on liability or a safe harbor?30-4
  • Q 30.4 : How is a “service provider” defined under the DMCA?30-5
  • : Limitations on Liability30-5
  • Q 30.5 : What threshold conditions must a service provider meet in order to receive the protections of the DMCA?30-5
  • Q 30.6 : What activities are referred to as “transitory digital network communications”?30-6
  • Q 30.7 : What activities constitute “system caching”?30-7
  • Q 30.8 : What activities result in information residing on the network “at the direction of users”?30-8
    • Q 30.8.1 : When does a service provider lose its protection because of knowledge of the infringement?30-9
    • Q 30.8.2 : When does a service provider lose its protection because of financial benefit from the infringement?30-10
    • Q 30.8.3 : What is a DMCA “takedown notice”?30-10
    • Q 30.8.4 : What is a “counter-notification”?30-12
    • Q 30.8.5 : What mechanisms are in place to prevent abusive use of takedown notices and counter-notifications?30-12
  • Q 30.9 : What constitutes an information location tool?30-13
  • : Identifying Alleged Infringers30-14
  • Q 30.10 : Can a copyright owner request that a service provider identify an alleged infringer?30-14
  • : Injunctions30-15
  • Q 30.11 : What type of injunctive relief is available?30-15
Chapter 31: Digital Audio Recording Devices and Media
  • : Purpose of the AHRA31-2
  • Q 31.1 : What is a “digital audio recording device”?31-2
  • Q 31.2 : Are copy controls required?31-2
  • Q 31.3 : What if an end user tries to circumvent the copy controls?31-3
  • : Royalties31-3
  • Q 31.4 : What are the obligations to make royalty payments?31-3
    • Q 31.4.1 : How is the royalty calculated?31-3
    • Q 31.4.2 : Does the royalty obligation continue through each step in the distribution chain?31-5
    • Q 31.4.3 : Where are royalty payments deposited?31-5
  • Q 31.5 : Who is entitled to royalty payments?31-5
  • : Remedies31-6
  • Q 31.6 : What remedies are available for circumvention of a copyright protection system?31-6
Chapter 32: Practical Aspects of Copyright Litigation
  • : Bringing an Action32-2
  • Q 32.1 : What factors should be considered before bringing a copyright claim?32-2
  • Q 32.2 : What ownership issues arise in connection with actions?32-3
  • Q 32.3 : Can an action be brought before a copyright is registered?32-4
  • : Damages32-5
  • Q 32.4 : What are the considerations in choosing between statutory and actual damages?32-5
  • : Experts32-5
  • Q 32.5 : What role can experts play in copyright cases?32-5
    • Q 32.5.1 : Are technical experts useful?32-6
  • : Discovery32-6
  • Q 32.6 : What type of discovery is useful in copyright cases?32-6
    • Q 32.6.1 : Is discovery of “things” useful?32-7
  • Q 32.7 : How can a litigant use the Internet as a discovery tool?32-8
  • : Summary Judgment32-8
  • Q 32.8 : Can copyright cases be resolved on summary judgment?32-8
  • : Injunctions32-10
  • Q 32.9 : What practical issues arise in connection with seeking preliminary injunctive relief?32-10
  Index

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