TreatiseTreatise

Fragomen on Immigration Fundamentals: A Guide to Law and Practice (5th Edition)

 by Austin T Fragomen, Careen Shannon, Daniel J Montalvo
 
 Copyright: 2015-2017
 Last Updated: October 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402424878
  • Page Count: 1668
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

Offering in-depth coverage of bedrock immigration legislation, the latest USCIS rules and programs, and pivotal court decisions, Fragomen on Immigration Fundamentals: A Guide to Law and Practice gives you the legal and procedural knowledge to work more efficiently and effectively with employers, noncitizens, nonimmigrants, refugees, naturalized citizens, and government officials.

Enhanced by advisory “Practice Commentaries,” Fragomen on Immigration Fundamentals shows you how to follow all adjustment-of-status procedures for employment-based immigration, family-sponsored immigration, and diversity immigration; satisfy important legal tests, such as proving “business necessity” when hiring foreign workers or “qualifying relationships” in family-sponsored immigration cases; and protect clients’ rights, whether helping individuals fight unjust removal, nonimmigrants pursue lawful admission, or employers obtain judicial review for adverse decisions.
  Introduction
  Table of Contents
Chapter 1: The Basic Immigration Structure
  • § 1:1 : Introduction1-2
  • § 1:2 : Congressional and Executive Authority over Immigration1-3
  • § 1:3 : The Legislative Framework: Immigration and Nationality Act of 19521-6
    • § 1:3.1 : Immigration Reform and Control Act of 19861-7
    • § 1:3.2 : Immigration Act of 19901-9
      • [A] : Immigrant Selection System1-9
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Categories1-10
      • [C] : Grounds for Exclusion and Deportation1-11
      • [D] : Deportation Procedures1-11
      • [E] : Other1-11
    • § 1:3.3 : Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA)1-12
      • [A] : Three-Year/Ten-Year Bar1-12
      • [B] : “Admission” Versus “Entry”1-13
      • [C] : Penalty for Prior Exclusion or Deportation1-13
      • [D] : Removal Proceedings1-13
      • [E] : Sponsor’s Affidavit of Support1-14
    • § 1:3.4 : The USA PATRIOT Act1-15
    • § 1:3.5 : The Homeland Security Act1-16
    • § 1:3.6 : President Trump’s Immigration Agenda1-17
      • [A] : Overview1-17
      • [B] : Executive Orders Establishing Travel Ban1-19
      • [C] : Executive Order on Border Security1-22
      • [D] : Executive Order on Interior Enforcement1-24
      • [E] : Executive Order on Employment-Based Immigration1-26
  • § 1:4 : The Governmental Structure1-27
    • § 1:4.1 : Department of Homeland Security1-27
    • § 1:4.2 : Department of State1-30
    • § 1:4.3 : Department of Labor1-31
    • § 1:4.4 : Other Federal Agencies1-32
  • § 1:5 : Basic Terminology and Key Concepts1-33
    • § 1:5.1 : Aliens, Natives, Nationals, and Citizens1-33
    • § 1:5.2 : Admission and Removal1-35
      • [A] : “Admission” Versus “Entry”1-35
      • [B] : Returning Lawful Permanent Residents and the Fleuti Doctrine1-37
    • § 1:5.3 : Nonimmigrants, Temporariness, and Residence1-38
    • § 1:5.4 : Legal Permanent Resident Status1-40
  • § 1:6 : The Immigration Selection System1-41
    • § 1:6.1 : Employment-Based Immigration1-41
    • § 1:6.2 : Family-Sponsored Immigration1-44
    • § 1:6.3 : Diversity Immigration1-45
  • § 1:7 : Source Material on Immigration Law and Practice1-47
    • § 1:7.1 : Federal Statutes and Regulations1-47
    • § 1:7.2 : Agency Guidance1-48
    • § 1:7.3 : Administrative Case Reports1-49
Chapter 2: Employment-Based Immigration
  • § 2:1 : Introduction2-9
    • § 2:1.1 : The Employment-Based Preference Structure2-9
      • [A] : Preference Categories2-9
      • [B] : Annual Cap on Visas2-10
      • [C] : Family Members2-11
      • [D] : Per-Country Limits2-11
      • [E] : Priority Dates and Cut-Off Dates2-11
    • § 2:1.2 : Summary of Procedures2-12
      • [A] : Generally2-12
      • [B] : Labor Certification; PERM Process2-13
        • [B][1] : Pre-Filing Recruitment and Advertising Requirements2-13
        • [B][2] : Filing Applications2-13
        • [B][3] : Application Review; Audits2-14
      • [C] : USCIS Petition2-14
        • [C][1] : Who May Petition2-14
        • [C][2] : Required Documentation2-14
      • [D] : Immigrant Visa Application2-15
        • [D][1] : Concurrent Adjustment-of-Status Application2-15
        • [D][2] : Visa Processing2-15
  • § 2:2 : Labor Certification for the Second and Third Preferences2-16
    • § 2:2.1 : The Job Offer2-16
      • [A] : Bona Fide Job Opportunity: Criteria and Considerations2-16
        • [A][1] : Employer Actions During Recruitment Process2-17
        • [A][2] : Ownership Interest; Familial Relationship2-17
        • [A][3] : Other Problem Situations2-18
      • [B] : Employment Criteria2-19
        • [B][1] : Full-Time Employment2-19
        • [B][2] : Permanent Employment2-19
        • [B][3] : Employment Located in the United States2-21
        • [B][4] : FEIN Requirement2-21
      • [C] : Improper Payment, Incentive, or Inducement2-21
    • § 2:2.2 : Job Duties and Requirements2-22
      • [A] : Generally2-22
      • [B] : O*NET-SOC Categorization of Job2-23
      • [C] : Excessive and Unduly Restrictive Requirements2-26
        • [C][1] : Business Necessity Standard2-26
        • [C][2] : Foreign Language Requirements2-28
        • [C][3] : Live-In Requirement2-28
        • [C][4] : Requirements Not Normal to the Occupation2-29
      • [D] : Alternative Minimum Job Requirements2-29
      • [E] : Actual Minimum Requirements2-31
        • [E][1] : Generally2-31
        • [E][2] : Beneficiary’s Experience-Based Qualifications2-31
        • [E][3] : Beneficiary’s Certifications, Licensure, and Other Credentials2-32
        • [E][4] : Beneficiary’s Experience or Training with the Employer2-33
      • [F] : Other Considerations2-35
        • [F][1] : Specialized Skills, Knowledge, and Experience2-35
        • [F][2] : Travel Requirements2-36
        • [F][3] : Telecommuting2-37
    • § 2:2.3 : Wage Offer2-37
      • [A] : Generally2-37
      • [B] : Prevailing Wage Determination2-38
      • [C] : Reliance on OES Data2-40
      • [D] : ACWIA Wage2-41
      • [E] : Employer-Provided Surveys2-43
      • [F] : RFI Amendments2-44
      • [G] : Inconsistent PWDs for Similar Positions2-44
      • [H] : Validity of PWD2-45
      • [I] : Challenging a PWD2-45
    • § 2:2.4 : Standard Pre-Filing Recruitment Under PERM2-46
      • [A] : Timing of Recruitment2-46
      • [B] : Location of Recruitment2-47
      • [C] : Print Ads2-47
        • [C][1] : Generally2-47
        • [C][2] : Choice of Publication2-48
        • [C][3] : Ad Content2-48
      • [D] : Additional Recruitment for Professional Positions2-52
        • [D][1] : Generally2-52
        • [D][2] : Specific Recruitment Activities2-52
        • [D][3] : Content of Additional Recruitment Efforts2-53
        • [D][4] : Website Ads2-54
        • [D][5] : Employee Referral Program2-55
      • [E] : Notice of Filing2-55
      • [F] : The Job Order2-58
      • [G] : Consideration of Workers Recently Laid Off2-60
      • [H] : Consideration of Applicants Responding to Recruitment Efforts2-62
        • [H][1] : Generally2-62
        • [H][2] : Screening Applicants2-62
        • [H][3] : Contacting Applicants2-63
        • [H][4] : Interviews2-64
        • [H][5] : Recruitment Report2-65
        • [H][6] : Bases for Rejecting Applicants2-66
    • § 2:2.5 : PERM Application and Audit File2-69
      • [A] : Preparation of the PERM Application2-69
      • [B] : Filing the PERM Application2-70
      • [C] : The Audit File2-72
    • § 2:2.6 : DOL Processing of the PERM Application2-76
      • [A] : Initial Processing2-76
      • [B] : Issues Arising While Application Is Pending2-77
        • [B][1] : Post-Filing Modifications and Amendments2-77
        • [B][2] : Multiple Applications2-78
        • [B][3] : Withdrawal of Application2-79
      • [C] : Approval of the Application2-79
      • [D] : Perm Audits2-79
        • [D][1] : Issuance of Audit Letter2-79
        • [D][2] : Audit Criteria2-80
        • [D][3] : Responding to Audit Letters2-81
      • [E] : Supervised Recruitment2-83
        • [E][1] : Types of Cases Targeted2-83
        • [E][2] : Converted and Directed SR Cases2-83
        • [E][3] : SR Process2-84
      • [F] : PERM Denials2-85
      • [G] : Requests for Reconsideration2-86
        • [G][1] : Generally2-86
        • [G][2] : Government Error2-87
        • [G][3] : Motions to Correct Non-Material Errors or Omissions2-88
        • [G][4] : Motions Raising Due Process Concerns2-89
        • [G][5] : Submission of Evidence with Motion for Reconsideration2-90
      • [H] : BALCA Appeal2-91
      • [I] : Revocation of Approved Application2-92
    • § 2:2.7 : Post-Certification Issues2-92
      • [A] : Validity Period of Certified Application2-92
      • [B] : Issuance of Duplicate Certification2-93
      • [C] : Amendments and New Filings After Certification2-93
      • [D] : Substitution of Named Beneficiaries2-94
    • § 2:2.8 : Special Cases2-94
      • [A] : Schedule A Precertification2-94
        • [A][1] : Generally2-94
        • [A][2] : Documentation: Group I (Physical Therapists; Nurses)2-95
        • [A][3] : Documentation: Group II (Persons of Exceptional Ability in Arts and Sciences)2-96
      • [B] : Household Workers2-97
      • [C] : Special Handling Cases2-98
  • § 2:3 : The First Employment-Based Preference: Priority Workers2-100
    • § 2:3.1 : Persons with Extraordinary Ability2-101
      • [A] : Generally2-101
      • [B] : Establishing Extraordinary Ability2-102
      • [C] : Evaluating Extraordinary-Ability Petitions2-103
      • [D] : Evaluation of Specific Extraordinary-Ability Criteria2-105
    • § 2:3.2 : Outstanding Professors and Researchers2-108
      • [A] : Generally2-108
      • [B] : Establishing International Recognition As Outstanding Professor or Researcher2-108
      • [C] : Evaluating Outstanding Professor or Researcher Petitions2-109
      • [D] : Evaluation of Specific Criteria2-110
    • § 2:3.3 : Multinational Managers and Executives2-111
      • [A] : Generally2-111
      • [B] : “Managerial Capacity” and “Executive Capacity” Defined2-112
      • [C] : Employment Relationship Requirement2-113
      • [D] : One Continuous Year of Employment Abroad Requirement2-113
      • [E] : Qualifying Employers2-114
      • [F] : Procedures2-116
  • § 2:4 : Second Employment-Based Category: Advanced-Degree Professionals and Persons of Exceptional Ability2-116
    • § 2:4.1 : Advanced-Degree Professionals2-117
      • [A] : “Profession” Defined2-117
      • [B] : “Advanced Degree” Defined2-118
      • [C] : Equivalency of Foreign Medical Degrees2-119
      • [D] : “Progressive Experience”2-120
      • [E] : Required Documentation2-121
    • § 2:4.2 : Persons with Exceptional Ability2-122
      • [A] : Generally2-122
      • [B] : Establishing Exceptional Ability2-123
      • [C] : Required Documentation2-124
    • § 2:4.3 : National Interest Waivers2-124
      • [A] : NYDOT Decision2-125
      • [B] : Post-NYDOT Decisions and Meeting the NYDOT Standard2-126
        • [B][1] : Substantial Intrinsic Merit2-126
        • [B][2] : Promotion of National Goal2-127
        • [B][3] : Balancing Equities2-128
        • [B][4] : Recent Trends2-130
      • [C] : Physicians Seeking National Interest Waivers2-132
        • [C][1] : Eligibility2-132
        • [C][2] : Procedures2-135
      • [D] : NIWs for Foreign Entrepreneurs2-137
    • § 2:4.4 : Certification for Healthcare Workers2-138
      • [A] : Generally2-138
      • [B] : Immigrants Subject to Certification Requirement2-139
      • [C] : Approved Certifying Organizations2-139
      • [D] : Certification Prerequisites2-140
      • [E] : Streamlined Certification2-140
      • [F] : Procedures2-141
  • § 2:5 : Third Employment-Based Preference: Skilled Workers, Professionals, and Other Workers2-141
    • § 2:5.1 : Skilled Workers2-142
      • [A] : Eligibility2-142
      • [B] : Procedures2-143
    • § 2:5.2 : Professionals Holding Baccalaureate Degree2-143
      • [A] : Generally2-143
      • [B] : Qualifications; Documentation2-144
      • [C] : Foreign Equivalent Degrees2-145
    • § 2:5.3 : Other Workers2-147
  • § 2:6 : Issues and Procedures Common to the First Three Employment-Based Preferences2-147
    • § 2:6.1 : Common Issues2-147
      • [A] : Beneficiary’s Qualifications2-147
      • [B] : Employer’s Ability to Pay Wage2-148
      • [C] : Intent to Undertake Employment2-150
    • § 2:6.2 : Filing Procedures and Government Processing2-150
      • [A] : Preparation of USCIS Petition2-150
      • [B] : Filing USCIS Petition2-153
      • [C] : USCIS Processing2-154
        • [C][1] : Requests for Evidence2-154
        • [C][2] : Fraud Detection; Site Inspection Program2-154
        • [C][3] : Information Verification; VIBE Program2-155
        • [C][4] : Final Decisions; Appeals2-155
    • § 2:6.3 : Post-Filing Issues2-156
      • [A] : Change of Employer2-156
        • [A][1] : Procedures for Reporting Change in Ownership2-156
        • [A][2] : Successor-in-Interest Factors2-158
      • [B] : Change in Job Location2-159
      • [C] : Change in Job Duties2-159
      • [D] : No Substitution of Beneficiaries2-160
      • [E] : I-140 Portability2-160
        • [E][1] : Portability Determinations with Pending or Denied I-140 Petitions2-161
        • [E][2] : Requesting Portability Benefits2-162
        • [E][3] : Determinations of “Same or Similiar” Occupation2-163
        • [E][4] : New Employer’s Ability to Pay Wage2-164
        • [E][5] : Revocation or Withdrawal of Petition2-164
        • [E][6] : Accrual of 180 Days; Retention of Priority Date2-166
        • [E][7] : Evidence of Intent; Leaving Employment Before 180 Days2-166
        • [E][8] : Adjustment Applicants in Removal Proceedings2-167
      • [F] : Other Provisions to Ease Job Changes During Permanent Residence Process2-167
      • [G] : Age-Out Protection for Derivative Children2-169
      • [H] : Survivor Benefits for Derivative Family Members2-170
  • § 2:7 : Fourth Employment-Based Preference: Special Immigrants2-170
    • § 2:7.1 : Religious Workers2-171
      • [A] : Generally2-171
      • [B] : Requirements for Classification2-171
      • [C] : Religious Worker Petition2-173
      • [D] : Fraud Detection; Site Inspection2-175
    • § 2:7.2 : Other Special Immigrants2-175
  • § 2:8 : Fifth Employment-Based Preference: Employment Creation Entrepreneurs (Immigrant Investors)2-176
    • § 2:8.1 : Substantive Requirements2-176
      • [A] : Generally2-176
      • [B] : Qualifying Amount of Investment2-178
      • [C] : At-Risk Investment of Capital2-180
        • [C][1] : Generally2-180
        • [C][2] : Promissory Notes2-183
        • [C][3] : Escrow Accounts2-185
      • [D] : New Commercial Enterprise2-187
      • [E] : Capital Obtained Through Lawful Means2-188
      • [F] : Job-Creation Requirement2-189
        • [F][1] : Generally2-189
        • [F][2] : Investment in “Troubled Businesses”2-191
      • [G] : Investor Involvement2-191
    • § 2:8.2 : Petition Procedures2-191
      • [A] : Preparation and Filing of I-526 Petition2-191
        • [A][1] : Supporting Documentation (Generally)2-191
        • [A][2] : The Business Plan2-193
      • [B] : USCIS Processing of I-526 Petition2-194
      • [C] : Conditional Permanent Resident Status2-196
    • § 2:8.3 : Removal of Conditional Status2-196
      • [A] : Generally2-196
      • [B] : Termination of Conditional Status2-197
      • [C] : Petition to Remove Conditional Status2-197
      • [D] : Capital and Job-Creation Requirements at the I-829 Stage2-198
      • [E] : USCIS Processing of I-829 Petition2-199
      • [F] : Deference to Prior Agency Determinations; Material Changes of Fact2-200
    • § 2:8.4 : EB-5 Regional Center Program2-201
      • [A] : Program Requirements2-202
        • [A][1] : “Regional Center” Defined2-202
        • [A][2] : Geographic Limits2-202
        • [A][3] : Establishing Indirect Job Creation2-203
          • [A][3][a] : Reasonable Economic Methodologies2-203
          • [A][3][b] : Tenant-Occupancy Methodology2-205
          • [A][3][c] : Projected Visitor Spending in Projects Involving Hotel/Resort Development2-206
        • [A][4] : Holding Companies2-206
        • [A][5] : Cash Reserves2-207
        • [A][6] : Projects Involving Securities Offerings2-207
      • [B] : Regional Center Proposals2-208
        • [B][1] : Preparation of Form I-9242-208
        • [B][2] : USCIS Processing2-211
        • [B][3] : Amendments and Annual Reports2-211
      • [C] : Filing Related Petitions Under the RC Program2-213
        • [C][1] : Generally2-213
        • [C][2] : Deference to Prior Agency Determinations; Material Changes of Fact2-213
        • [C][3] : Material Changes of Fact at the I-829 Stage2-215
    • § 2:8.5 : Entrepreneur Parole Program2-217
  • § 2:9 : Revocation of Approved Visa Petitions2-218
  • § 2:10 : Application for Residence; Visa Processing or Adjustment of Status2-219
    • § 2:10.1 : Choosing Between Visa Processing and Adjustment2-220
    • § 2:10.2 : Adjustment-of-Status Requirements2-221
      • [A] : Regular Adjustment Under Section 245(a)2-221
        • [A][1] : Lawful Admission2-221
        • [A][2] : Excluded Groups2-221
        • [A][3] : No Unauthorized Employment2-223
        • [A][4] : No Periods of Unlawful Status; No Violations of Status2-224
        • [A][5] : Current Lawful Status for Employment-Based Immigrants2-225
        • [A][6] : Immigrant Visa Available or Priority Date Current for Filing2-226
        • [A][7] : Eligibility for Immigration2-227
        • [A][8] : Discretionary Factors2-228
      • [B] : Adjustment Under Section 245(i)2-228
        • [B][1] : Generally2-228
        • [B][2] : Eligibility2-229
        • [B][3] : Physical-Presence Requirement2-233
        • [B][4] : Family Members2-234
        • [B][5] : Denial Grounds Waived by Section 245(i)2-236
    • § 2:10.3 : Adjustment-of-Status Procedures2-237
      • [A] : Preparation of Adjustment Application2-237
        • [A][1] : Generally2-237
        • [A][2] : Affidavit of Support2-237
        • [A][3] : Medical Examination Requirement2-237
        • [A][4] : Waivers of Inadmissibility2-239
        • [A][5] : Other Documentation2-239
      • [B] : Filing of Adjustment Application2-240
      • [C] : Initial Processing2-241
      • [D] : Adjustment Interview and Final Processing2-243
      • [E] : Post-Filing Issues and Government Delays2-244
      • [F] : Denial of Application2-246
    • § 2:10.4 : Travel and Work During Pendency of Application2-247
      • [A] : Employment Authorization2-247
        • [A][1] : Rules on Employment While I-485 Is Pending2-247
        • [A][2] : Special Rules for Dual-Intent Applicants2-249
        • [A][3] : Applying for Employment Authorization Based on Pending I-4852-250
      • [B] : Advance Parole2-252
        • [B][1] : Persons Required to Obtain Advance Parole2-252
        • [B][2] : Application Process2-252
        • [B][3] : Relationship to the Three-/Ten-Year Bar2-253
    • § 2:10.5 : Visa Processing Procedures2-254
      • [A] : Choosing a Consular Post2-254
      • [B] : Initial Processing2-255
        • [B][1] : When Immigrant Visa Is Immediately Available2-255
        • [B][2] : When Immigrant Visa Is Not Immediately Available2-256
        • [B][3] : Review of Eligibility; Name-Checks2-256
      • [C] : The Instruction Package2-256
        • [C][1] : Generally2-256
        • [C][2] : Contents2-257
        • [C][3] : Documentation Preparation and Requirements2-257
        • [C][4] : Submission of Documentation for Prescreening2-259
      • [D] : Appointment Package and Visa Interview2-259
        • [D][1] : Generally2-259
        • [D][2] : Medical Examination2-260
        • [D][3] : Genetic Testing2-261
        • [D][4] : Waivers of Inadmissibility2-262
        • [D][5] : Immigrant Visa Interviews2-263
      • [E] : Issuance of Immigrant Visa2-263
      • [F] : Revocation of Immigrant Visa2-264
      • [G] : Denial of Immigrant Visa2-264
  • § 2:11 : Family Members of Principal Immigrants2-265
    • § 2:11.1 : Qualifying for Derivative Immigration Status2-265
      • [A] : Generally2-265
      • [B] : Same-Sex Married Couples2-265
      • [C] : Filing and Notification Procedures2-266
    • § 2:11.2 : Family Members Not Qualifying for Derivative Immigration Status2-267
  • § 2:12 : Maintaining Resident Status2-267
    • § 2:12.1 : Overview2-267
    • § 2:12.2 : Determining a Returning LPR’s Intention to Maintain Status2-268
      • [A] : Generally2-268
      • [B] : Length of Absence Abroad2-268
      • [C] : Payment of Taxes2-269
      • [D] : Maintenance of Family Ties, Economic Ties, Etc.2-269
    • § 2:12.3 : Readmission of LPR After Extended Absence2-270
      • [A] : Generally2-270
      • [B] : Reentry Permits and Other Reentry Documents2-270
        • [B][1] : Permanent Resident Cards2-270
        • [B][2] : Reentry Permits2-270
        • [B][3] : Special Immigrant Visas2-272
        • [B][4] : Waivers of Documentary Requirements2-272
      • [C] : Failure to Demonstrate Intent When Seeking Readmission2-272
Chapter 3: Family-Sponsored Immigration
  • § 3:1 : Introduction3-4
    • § 3:1.1 : Overview of the Family-Sponsored Immigration Structure3-4
      • [A] : Immediate Relatives3-4
      • [B] : Family-Sponsored Preference Categories3-7
      • [C] : Annual Caps and Allotments of Immigrant Visas3-7
        • [C][1] : Overall Cap on Family-Based Immigration3-7
        • [C][2] : Annual Numerical Allotment for Family-Sponsored Preferences3-8
      • [D] : Derivative Classification3-10
    • § 3:1.2 : Summary of Procedures3-11
      • [A] : USCIS Petition3-11
      • [B] : Adjustment of Status or Immigrant Visa Processing3-12
  • § 3:2 : Qualifying Relationships3-14
    • § 3:2.1 : Child-Parent Relationship3-14
      • [A] : Definition of “Child”3-15
      • [B] : Conferral of Immigration Benefits by Natural Parents3-15
        • [B][1] : Generally3-15
        • [B][2] : Assisted Reproductive Technology3-16
        • [B][3] : Legitimation3-17
        • [B][4] : Bona Fide Parent-Child Relationship3-17
      • [C] : Step Relationships3-18
      • [D] : Adoptees3-18
        • [D][1] : Validation of Adoptions for Immigration Purposes3-18
        • [D][2] : Adoptive Relationship Under INA Section 101(b)(1)(E)3-21
        • [D][3] : Adoption of Foreign Orphans3-23
        • [D][4] : Hague Convention Adoptions3-25
    • § 3:2.2 : Spouse3-30
      • [A] : Generally3-30
      • [B] : Validity of Marriage at Inception3-31
      • [C] : Marriage Not Entered for Immigration Purposes3-31
      • [D] : Marriage Still in Existence3-34
      • [E] : Same-Sex Marriages3-34
  • § 3:3 : Preparation of the Petition and USCIS Processing3-36
    • § 3:3.1 : Petition Package3-36
      • [A] : Generally3-36
      • [B] : Evidence of Petitioner’s U.S. Citizen or LPR Status3-38
      • [C] : Evidence Regarding Relationship3-40
        • [C][1] : Evidence of Spousal Relationship3-40
        • [C][2] : Evidence of Parent/Child Relationship3-40
        • [C][3] : Evidence of Sibling Relationship3-42
    • § 3:3.2 : Filing the Petition3-43
      • [A] : Generally3-43
      • [B] : Special Filing Situations3-43
        • [B][1] : Emergency Situations3-43
        • [B][2] : Beneficiary Eligible for Adjustment3-45
    • § 3:3.3 : USCIS Processing3-46
      • [A] : Blood and DNA Tests3-47
      • [B] : Determining Bona Fides of Marriage3-48
      • [C] : Requests for Evidence3-49
      • [D] : Rules Governing Petitioners Convicted of Certain Offenses Against Minors3-50
      • [E] : Approval of Petition3-51
      • [F] : Denial of Petition3-52
    • § 3:3.4 : Post-Filing Issues3-52
      • [A] : Age-Out Protection3-52
      • [B] : Petition Conversion3-55
      • [C] : Nonimmigrant Benefits for Family Members3-58
      • [D] : Survivor Benefits3-58
        • [D][1] : Background3-58
        • [D][2] : Survivor Benefits for Spouses of U.S. Citizens3-59
        • [D][3] : Survivor Benefits for Other Family Members3-62
          • [D][3][a] : Coverage3-63
          • [D][3][b] : Limitations3-64
          • [D][3][c] : Implementing Guidance3-64
    • § 3:3.5 : Special Procedures for Widows/Widowers3-67
      • [A] : Widow(er) Petition3-68
      • [B] : Children of Widow(er)3-69
      • [C] : Filing and USCIS Processing3-70
    • § 3:3.6 : Special Procedures for Orphans3-70
      • [A] : Application for Advance Processing3-71
      • [B] : Orphan Petition3-73
    • § 3:3.7 : Special Procedures for Convention Adoptees3-75
      • [A] : Generally3-75
      • [B] : Petitioner’s Suitability for Adoption3-76
      • [C] : Child’s Status As a Convention Adoptee3-78
      • [D] : Provisional and Final Approval of the Petition3-80
    • § 3:3.8 : Self-Petitioning by Battered Spouses, Children, and Parents3-82
      • [A] : Generally3-82
      • [B] : Eligibility for Self-Petition Benefits3-84
        • [B][1] : Establishing Relationship to U.S. Citizen/LPR3-84
        • [B][2] : Eligibility for Immigrant Classification3-87
        • [B][3] : Residency Requirements3-88
        • [B][4] : Establishing Qualifying Abuse3-88
        • [B][5] : Proving Good Moral Character3-88
        • [B][6] : Marriage Was Made in Good Faith3-89
      • [C] : Applying for Self-Petition Benefits3-89
  • § 3:4 : Application for Permanent Residence3-92
    • § 3:4.1 : Visa Processing or Adjustment of Status3-93
      • [A] : Generally3-93
      • [B] : Provisional Waivers3-94
      • [C] : Special Considerations in Family-Based Cases3-99
    • § 3:4.2 : Affidavit of Support Requirement3-99
      • [A] : Coverage and Exempted Applicants3-100
      • [B] : Eligible Sponsors3-101
        • [B][1] : Generally3-101
        • [B][2] : Domicile Requirements3-102
      • [C] : Income Requirements3-103
        • [C][1] : Determining Household Size3-104
        • [C][2] : Calculating Household Income3-105
        • [C][3] : Analyzing Compliance with Income Requirement3-106
        • [C][4] : Reliance on Significant Assets3-108
        • [C][5] : Joint Sponsors3-108
      • [D] : Sponsor’s Legal Obligations3-109
      • [E] : Procedural Considerations3-110
        • [E][1] : Required Forms3-110
        • [E][2] : Required Evidence3-112
        • [E][3] : Submission and Processing3-114
  • § 3:5 : “Conditional Permanent Resident” (CPR) Status for Certain Spouses3-115
    • § 3:5.1 : Coverage of Section 2163-115
    • § 3:5.2 : Joint Petition Requirement3-116
      • [A] : Preparing and Filing Form I-7513-116
      • [B] : Processing of Joint Petition3-118
    • § 3:5.3 : Waivers of Joint Petition Requirement3-120
      • [A] : Extreme Hardship3-120
      • [B] : Good-Faith Marriage Terminated3-121
      • [C] : Battered Spouses, Children3-122
    • § 3:5.4 : Special Situations3-122
      • [A] : Legal Separation; Pending Divorce; Annulment3-123
      • [B] : Removal Proceedings3-124
      • [C] : Multiple Filings3-124
      • [D] : Untimely Filings3-125
      • [E] : Death of Spouse3-126
Chapter 4: Other Bases for Immigration
  • § 4:1 : Introduction4-2
  • § 4:2 : Diversity Immigration4-2
    • § 4:2.1 : Overview4-2
    • § 4:2.2 : Determining Eligibility4-3
      • [A] : Participating Countries4-3
      • [B] : Participating Individuals4-4
    • § 4:2.3 : Application Process4-5
      • [A] : Designated Application Period4-6
      • [B] : Completion of Online Application4-6
      • [C] : Application Submission4-8
      • [D] : Entrant Status Check4-8
      • [E] : Process for Selected Applicants4-9
      • [F] : Fees4-12
      • [G] : DV Applicant’s Family Members4-12
  • § 4:3 : Adjustment of Status Under NACARA4-13
    • § 4:3.1 : Background4-13
    • § 4:3.2 : Eligibility4-14
    • § 4:3.3 : Filing and Submission of Application4-15
    • § 4:3.4 : Notification of Decision4-16
  • § 4:4 : Adjustment of Status Under Haitian Refugee Immigration Fairness Act of 19984-17
    • § 4:4.1 : Background4-17
    • § 4:4.2 : Eligibility4-18
    • § 4:4.3 : Filing and Submission of Application4-19
    • § 4:4.4 : Notification of Decision4-20
  • § 4:5 : Adjustment of Status of Certain Syrian Nationals4-21
  • § 4:6 : Registry Under INA Section 2494-21
Chapter 5: Nonimmigrants
  • § 5:1 : Introduction5-12
    • § 5:1.1 : General Procedures5-13
    • § 5:1.2 : Nonimmigrant Visa Issuance5-16
      • [A] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application5-16
      • [B] : Choosing a Consular Post5-19
        • [B][1] : Generally5-19
        • [B][2] : Consular Shopping Bar5-19
        • [B][3] : Exceptions to Consular Shopping Bar5-22
      • [C] : Submission of the Visa Application5-23
        • [C][1] : Generally5-23
        • [C][2] : Personal Interview5-25
        • [C][3] : Biometric Visa Program5-26
        • [C][4] : Expedited Processing5-26
        • [C][5] : Prescreening Procedures5-26
      • [D] : Final Processing of Visa Application5-27
      • [E] : Approval of Visa Application5-28
      • [F] : Validity Period of Visa5-28
      • [G] : Rejection of Visa Application5-29
      • [H] : Visa Renewal Procedures5-29
    • § 5:1.3 : Admission and Conditions of Stay in the United States5-31
      • [A] : Immigration Inspection at Port of Entry5-31
      • [B] : Withdrawal of Application5-32
      • [C] : Waiver of Nonimmigrant Visa Requirements5-33
      • [D] : I-94 Record of Entry5-33
      • [E] : Collection of Biometric Data5-35
      • [F] : Trusted Traveler Programs5-36
      • [G] : Terms and Conditions of Stay for Admitted Nonimmigrants5-37
    • § 5:1.4 : Changes of Nonimmigrant Status5-38
  • § 5:2 : A—Foreign Government Officials5-40
    • § 5:2.1 : Coverage of Category5-40
      • [A] : Generally5-40
      • [B] : Family Members5-40
    • § 5:2.2 : Procedures5-41
    • § 5:2.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Adjustment of Status5-41
      • [A] : Generally5-41
      • [B] : Family Members5-41
      • [C] : Special Provisions for Adjustment of Status5-42
    • § 5:2.4 : Practice Commentary5-43
      • [A] : Benefits of “Diplomatic” Designation5-43
  • § 5:3 : B—Visitors5-44
    • § 5:3.1 : Coverage of Category5-44
      • [A] : Generally5-44
      • [B] : Permitted Activities5-44
        • [B][1] : Business Visitors (B-1)5-44
        • [B][2] : Pleasure/Tourism Visitors (B-2)5-48
      • [C] : Visa Waiver Program5-48
      • [D] : Nonimmigrant Trade NAFTA Professional Status for Canadian and Mexican Travelers5-50
    • § 5:3.2 : Procedures5-50
      • [A] : B Nonimmigrants5-50
      • [B] : Visa Waiver Program5-52
      • [C] : Procedures for Trade NAFTA Professionals5-53
    • § 5:3.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-54
    • § 5:3.4 : Practice Commentary5-55
      • [A] : Proving Nonimmigrant Intent5-55
      • [B] : B-2 Status for Household Members of Other Nonimmigrants5-56
  • § 5:4 : C—Transit Noncitizens5-57
    • § 5:4.1 : Coverage of Category5-57
    • § 5:4.2 : Procedures5-58
    • § 5:4.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Changes of Nonimmigrant Status5-58
    • § 5:4.4 : Practice Commentary5-59
      • [A] : Grounds for Inadmissibility; Waiver of Inadmissibility5-59
      • [B] : Transit Without Visa5-59
  • § 5:5 : D—Crew Members5-60
    • § 5:5.1 : Coverage of Category5-60
      • [A] : Generally5-60
      • [B] : Family Members5-60
      • [C] : Exceptions for Certain Officers and Crew Members5-60
      • [D] : Bar on Crew Members Engaging in Longshore Work5-61
    • § 5:5.2 : Procedures5-62
    • § 5:5.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Adjustment of Status5-63
      • [A] : Generally5-63
      • [B] : Issuance of Conditional Landing Permit5-63
    • § 5:5.4 : Practice Commentary5-63
      • [A] : Removal5-63
      • [B] : Certain Labor Disputes5-64
  • § 5:6 : E—Treaty Traders and Investors5-64
    • § 5:6.1 : Coverage of Category5-64
      • [A] : Generally5-64
      • [B] : Treaty Individuals5-65
        • [B][1] : Treaty Traders (E-1)5-65
        • [B][2] : Treaty Investors (E-2)5-65
      • [C] : Family Members5-66
      • [D] : Treaty Countries5-66
    • § 5:6.2 : Procedures5-67
    • § 5:6.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-69
      • [A] : Generally5-69
      • [B] : Employment Authorization for Family Members5-71
    • § 5:6.4 : Practice Commentary5-71
      • [A] : Ownership and Nationality Requirements5-71
      • [B] : Requirements for Treaty Traders and E-1 Status5-72
      • [C] : Requirements for Treaty Investors and E-2 Status5-73
  • § 5:7 : E-3—Australian Professionals5-75
    • § 5:7.1 : Coverage of Category5-75
    • § 5:7.2 : Procedures5-76
    • § 5:7.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-77
      • [A] : Generally5-77
      • [B] : Employment Authorization for Spouses5-78
    • § 5:7.4 : Practice Commentary5-78
      • [A] : Employment Authorization Extensions (240-Day Rule)5-78
      • [B] : Grace Periods5-78
  • § 5:8 : F—Academic Students5-79
    • § 5:8.1 : Coverage of Category5-79
      • [A] : Generally5-79
      • [B] : Criteria for Academic Student Status5-79
        • [B][1] : Academic (Non-Vocational) Program5-80
        • [B][2] : Full Course Load5-80
        • [B][3] : Sufficient Funds Available5-82
        • [B][4] : Maintaining Residence Abroad; Nonimmigrant Intent5-82
      • [C] : Additional Requirements and Restrictions5-83
    • § 5:8.2 : Procedures5-84
      • [A] : Generally5-84
      • [B] : Timing Issues5-85
      • [C] : Special Procedures for Canadian Citizens5-86
      • [D] : Changes of Nonimmigrant Status5-86
    • § 5:8.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-87
      • [A] : Generally5-87
      • [B] : Transfers Between Schools; Changes of Academic Programs5-88
      • [C] : Cap-Gap Relief for Students Seeking Change to H1-B Status5-89
      • [D] : “Out-of-Status” Situations and Reinstatement5-90
      • [E] : Temporary Absences5-91
      • [F] : Family Members5-92
    • § 5:8.4 : Practice Commentary5-93
      • [A] : On-Campus Employment; Curricular Practical Training5-93
      • [B] : Off-Campus Employment5-93
      • [C] : Optional Practical Training5-95
        • [C][1] : Eligibility5-95
        • [C][2] : Procedures5-97
        • [C][3] : Cap-Gap Extension of OPT5-98
        • [C][4] : STEM OPT5-98
  • § 5:9 : G—International Organization Representatives and Employees5-101
    • § 5:9.1 : Coverage of Category5-101
      • [A] : Generally5-101
      • [B] : Family Members5-102
    • § 5:9.2 : Procedures5-102
    • § 5:9.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-102
    • § 5:9.4 : Practice Commentary5-103
      • [A] : Comparison of G Classification to A Classification5-103
  • § 5:10 : H-1B—Specialty Occupation Workers5-103
    • § 5:10.1 : Coverage of Category5-103
      • [A] : Specialty Occupation5-104
      • [B] : Worker’s Qualifications for Specialty Occupation5-107
      • [C] : Licensing Requirements5-109
      • [D] : LCA Attestation Requirements5-110
        • [D][1] : Payment of Required Wage5-112
        • [D][2] : Benefits and Working Conditions5-117
        • [D][3] : Notification Requirement5-118
      • [E] : Special Rules for Fashion Models5-119
      • [F] : Available Number Within H-1B Cap5-120
      • [G] : Employer-Employee Relationship5-123
      • [H] : Family Members5-125
    • § 5:10.2 : Procedures5-126
      • [A] : Generally5-126
      • [B] : Labor Condition Application5-126
      • [C] : USCIS Petition5-129
      • [D] : Nonimmigrant Visa and Change-of-Status Applications5-134
    • § 5:10.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-135
      • [A] : Generally5-135
      • [B] : Six-Year H-1B Limit and AC21 Extensions5-136
      • [C] : Material Changes to Terms and Conditions of Employment5-140
      • [D] : Changing H-1B Employers; Portability Benefits; Grace Periods5-143
      • [E] : Corporate Restructuring of H-1B Employer5-146
    • § 5:10.4 : Practice Commentary5-147
      • [A] : Pursuit of Permanent Residence and Nonimmigrant Intent5-147
      • [B] : Employer’s Ongoing LCA Obligations5-147
      • [C] : LCA Complaints and Investigations5-149
      • [D] : Fraud Detection; Site Inspection Program5-149
      • [E] : Information Verification; VIBE Program5-149
  • § 5:11 : H-1B1—Singaporean and Chilean Professionals5-150
    • § 5:11.1 : Coverage of Category5-150
      • [A] : Generally5-150
      • [B] : Specialty Occupation5-150
      • [C] : Nonimmigrant Intent5-151
    • § 5:11.2 : Procedures5-151
    • § 5:11.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Changes of Nonimmigrant Status5-152
    • § 5:11.4 : Practice Commentary5-153
      • [A] : The 240-Day Rule5-153
      • [B] : Portability of Workers; Grace Periods5-153
  • § 5:12 : H-1C—Nonimmigrant Nurses5-154
  • § 5:13 : H-2A—Temporary Agricultural Workers5-154
    • § 5:13.1 : Coverage of Category5-154
      • [A] : Generally5-154
      • [B] : Agricultural Nature of Services/Labor5-155
      • [C] : Seasonal/Temporary Nature of Job Opportunity5-155
      • [D] : Labor Market Test5-156
      • [E] : Designated H-2A Countries5-156
      • [F] : Prohibited Fees5-157
      • [G] : Family Members5-157
    • § 5:13.2 : Procedures5-157
      • [A] : Temporary Labor Certification5-157
      • [B] : Recruitment Efforts and Final Processing by DOL5-161
      • [C] : USCIS Petition5-162
      • [D] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application5-163
    • § 5:13.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-164
    • § 5:13.4 : Practice Commentary5-165
      • [A] : Employer Obligations5-165
      • [B] : DOL Audits5-166
  • § 5:14 : H-2B—Temporary Workers Filling Nonagricultural Positions5-166
    • § 5:14.1 : Coverage of Category5-166
      • [A] : Generally5-166
      • [B] : Temporary Nature of Employer’s Need5-167
      • [C] : Labor Market Test5-169
      • [D] : Annual Limit on H-2B Admissions5-169
      • [E] : Designated H-2B Countries5-171
      • [F] : Prohibited Fees5-171
      • [G] : Who May Petition5-172
    • § 5:14.2 : Procedures5-173
      • [A] : Temporary Labor Certification5-173
        • [A][1] : Employer Assurances and Obligations5-173
        • [A][2] : Registration and Assessment of Temporary Need5-176
        • [A][3] : Prevailing Wage Determinations5-177
        • [A][4] : The Application and Job Order5-179
        • [A][5] : Post-Filing Recruitment5-184
        • [A][6] : Final Determination5-186
        • [A][7] : Document Retention5-186
      • [B] : USCIS Petition5-188
        • [B][1] : Filing Package and Filing Location5-188
        • [B][2] : Fees5-189
        • [B][3] : Final Decisions; Appeals5-190
      • [C] : Nonimmigrant Visa or Change-of-Status Application5-190
    • § 5:14.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-191
    • § 5:14.4 : Practice Commentary5-192
      • [A] : DOL Integrity Measures and WHD Enforcement5-192
      • [B] : Family Members5-193
  • § 5:15 : H-3—Trainees5-193
    • § 5:15.1 : Coverage of Category5-193
      • [A] : Generally5-193
      • [B] : Specific Requirements for Training Programs5-194
      • [C] : Family Members5-195
    • § 5:15.2 : Procedures5-195
      • [A] : USCIS Petition5-195
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application5-196
    • § 5:15.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-197
    • § 5:15.4 : Practice Commentary5-198
      • [A] : Fraud Warning Signs5-198
      • [B] : Productive Employment and On-the-Job Training5-198
  • § 5:16 : I—Information Media Representatives5-199
    • § 5:16.1 : Coverage of Category5-199
      • [A] : Generally5-199
      • [B] : Family Members5-200
    • § 5:16.2 : Procedures5-200
    • § 5:16.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-200
  • § 5:17 : J—Exchange Visitors5-200
    • § 5:17.1 : Coverage of Category5-200
      • [A] : Generally5-200
      • [B] : Qualified Exchange Visitor Programs5-201
        • [B][1] : Recognized Program Categories5-201
        • [B][2] : Program Eligibility Requirements5-202
        • [B][3] : Program Sponsor Responsibilities5-202
        • [B][4] : Program Sponsor Application Process5-204
    • § 5:17.2 : Procedures5-205
      • [A] : Certificate of Eligibility for Exchange Visitor5-205
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application; Additional Requirements5-205
      • [C] : Changes of Nonimmigrant Status5-206
    • § 5:17.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-207
      • [A] : Generally5-207
      • [B] : Maximum Stay (by Category)5-207
      • [C] : Change of Program Category5-209
      • [D] : Violations of Program Status5-209
    • § 5:17.4 : Practice Commentary5-210
      • [A] : Special Two-Year Foreign Residence Requirement5-210
      • [B] : Waiver of Foreign Residence Requirement5-211
        • [B][1] : Request by Government Agency5-211
        • [B][2] : “Exceptional Hardship” Waiver5-212
        • [B][3] : Persecution Claims5-213
        • [B][4] : “No Objection” Waiver5-213
        • [B][5] : Waiver Application Procedure5-214
  • § 5:18 : K—Fiancé(e)s/Spouses of U.S. Citizens5-215
    • § 5:18.1 : Coverage of Category5-215
      • [A] : Generally5-215
        • [A][1] : Fiancé(e) of U.S. Citizen (K-1)5-215
        • [A][2] : Child of U.S. Citizen’s Fiancé(e) (K-2)5-217
        • [A][3] : Spouse of U.S. Citizen (K-3)5-217
        • [A][4] : Child of U.S. Citizen’s Spouse (K-4)5-217
        • [A][5] : Same-Sex Married Couples5-218
    • § 5:18.2 : Procedures5-218
      • [A] : USCIS Petition5-218
        • [A][1] : K-1 Petition Documentary Requirements5-218
        • [A][2] : K-3 Petition Documentary Requirements5-219
        • [A][3] : Validity of Approved Petition5-219
        • [A][4] : Petitioners Convicted of Specified Offense Against a Minor5-220
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application5-220
        • [B][1] : General Filing Requirements5-220
        • [B][2] : Required Documentation5-221
        • [B][3] : Waiver of Admissibility5-221
        • [B][4] : Validity of Visa5-222
      • [C] : Changes of Nonimmigrant Status5-222
    • § 5:18.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Adjustment of Status5-222
      • [A] : Fiancé(e)s (K-1)5-222
      • [B] : Minor Child of K-1 Fiancé(e) (K-2)5-223
      • [C] : Spouse of U.S. Citizen (K-3)5-223
      • [D] : Child of K-3 Spouse of U.S. Citizen (K-4)5-224
    • § 5:18.4 : Practice Commentary5-224
      • [A] : Employment Authorization5-224
      • [B] : Expiration of Status; Termination of Status5-225
      • [C] : Travel Authorization5-226
  • § 5:19 : L—Intracompany Transferees5-226
    • § 5:19.1 : Coverage of Category5-226
      • [A] : Generally5-226
      • [B] : “Qualifying Organization”5-226
      • [C] : One Year of Employment Abroad5-228
      • [D] : Work in a Qualifying Capacity5-228
        • [D][1] : “Managerial or “Executive” Capacity (L-1A)”5-229
        • [D][2] : Positions Requiring “Specialized Knowledge” (L-1B)5-230
      • [E] : Job Qualification; Licensing Requirements5-231
      • [F] : Nonimmigrant Intent5-231
      • [G] : Family Members of Intracompany Transferee (L-2)5-231
    • § 5:19.2 : Procedures5-232
      • [A] : USCIS Petition5-232
        • [A][1] : Supporting Documentation5-232
        • [A][2] : Premium Processing5-233
        • [A][3] : Fees5-234
        • [A][4] : Bundled Petitions5-234
        • [A][5] : Approval; Denial and Appeal5-234
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application or Change-of-Status Application5-234
      • [C] : Blanket Petitions5-235
    • § 5:19.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-236
      • [A] : Initial Period of Stay5-236
      • [B] : Five-/Seven-Year Limitation on Stay5-237
      • [C] : Extension Procedures5-238
      • [D] : Extensions for Blanket Petitions5-239
      • [E] : Amended Petitions5-239
      • [F] : Grace Periods5-240
    • § 5:19.4 : Practice Commentary5-240
      • [A] : AAO Determinations Interpreting Managerial and Executive Capacity5-240
      • [B] : AAO Determinations Interpreting Specialized Knowledge5-241
      • [C] : USCIS Policy Guidance on L-1B Eligibility5-243
      • [D] : Fraud Detection; Site Inspection Program5-245
  • § 5:20 : M—Vocational Students5-246
    • § 5:20.1 : Coverage of Category5-246
      • [A] : Generally5-246
      • [B] : Criteria for Vocational Student Status5-246
        • [B][1] : Vocational (Nonacademic) Program5-246
        • [B][2] : Full Course Load5-246
        • [B][3] : Additional Requirements and Restrictions5-247
      • [C] : Family Members5-247
    • § 5:20.2 : Procedures5-247
      • [A] : SEVIS Fee5-247
      • [B] : Certificate of Eligibility for M-1 Student Status5-248
      • [C] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application5-248
    • § 5:20.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-248
      • [A] : Generally5-248
      • [B] : Transfers Between Schools5-249
      • [C] : “Out-of-Status” Situations and Reinstatements5-250
    • § 5:20.4 : Practice Commentary5-251
      • [A] : Practical Training5-251
  • § 5:21 : N—Family Members of G-4 Special Immigrants5-251
    • § 5:21.1 : Coverage of Category5-251
    • § 5:21.2 : Procedures5-252
    • § 5:21.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-252
    • § 5:21.4 : Practice Commentary5-252
      • [A] : Qualifying for Special Nonimmigrant Status5-252
      • [B] : Employment Authorization5-252
  • § 5:22 : O—Extraordinary Ability Entertainers, Athletes, and Others5-253
    • § 5:22.1 : Coverage of Category5-253
      • [A] : Generally5-253
      • [B] : Individuals with Extraordinary Ability or Achievement (O-1)5-253
        • [B][1] : Sciences, Education, Business, Athletics (Not Motion Pictures/Television) (O-1A)5-253
        • [B][2] : Extraordinary Ability in the Arts (O-1B)5-254
        • [B][3] : Extraordinary Achievement in Motion Pictures/Television (0-1B)5-255
      • [C] : Individuals Accompanying and Assisting O-1 Artist/Athlete (O-2)5-255
      • [D] : Nonimmigrant Intent5-257
      • [E] : Family Members (O-3)5-257
    • § 5:22.2 : Procedures5-257
      • [A] : USCIS Petition5-257
        • [A][1] : Who May Petition5-257
        • [A][2] : Required Documentation5-257
        • [A][3] : Petitions for Multiple Beneficiaries5-258
        • [A][4] : Denial of Petition5-258
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application or Change-of-Status Application5-258
    • § 5:22.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-259
      • [A] : Generally5-259
      • [B] : Defining an “Event”5-259
      • [C] : Gaps in an Itinerary5-260
      • [D] : Grace Periods5-260
    • § 5:22.4 : Practice Commentary5-261
      • [A] : Written Advisory Opinion (Consultation Requirement)5-261
      • [B] : Special Rules for Agents5-262
      • [C] : Special Rules for Major League Sports Trades5-264
  • § 5:23 : P—Entertainers and Athletes5-264
    • § 5:23.1 : Coverage of Category5-264
      • [A] : Generally5-264
      • [B] : Requirements for Entertainment Groups (P-1)5-265
        • [B][1] : Exceptions to One-Year Membership Requirements5-265
        • [B][2] : International Recognition5-265
      • [C] : Essential Support Personnel (P-1)5-266
      • [D] : Reciprocal Exchange Program Performer/Group (P-2)5-267
      • [E] : Culturally Unique Program Artist/Entertainer (P-3)5-267
      • [F] : Nonimmigrant Intent5-268
      • [G] : Family Members (P-4)5-268
    • § 5:23.2 : Procedures5-268
      • [A] : USCIS Petition5-268
        • [A][1] : Who May File5-268
        • [A][2] : Required Documentation5-268
        • [A][3] : Petitions for Multiple Beneficiaries5-270
        • [A][4] : Denial of Petition5-271
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application or Change-of-Status Application5-271
      • [C] : Substitution of Beneficiaries5-271
    • § 5:23.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-271
      • [A] : Generally5-271
      • [B] : Defining an “Event”5-272
    • § 5:23.4 : Practice Commentary5-273
      • [A] : Written Advisory Opinion (Consultation Requirement)5-273
      • [B] : Special Rules for Agents5-273
      • [C] : Special Rules for Major League Sports Trades5-274
  • § 5:24 : Q—Cultural Exchange5-275
    • § 5:24.1 : Coverage of Category5-275
      • [A] : Generally5-275
      • [B] : Eligibility Criteria5-276
      • [C] : Family Members5-276
    • § 5:24.2 : Procedures5-276
    • § 5:24.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-277
    • § 5:24.4 : Practice Commentary5-277
      • [A] : Substitution or Replacement of Beneficiaries5-277
  • § 5:25 : R—Ministers and Religious Workers5-278
    • § 5:25.1 : Coverage of Category5-278
      • [A] : Generally5-278
      • [B] : Eligibility Criteria5-278
      • [C] : Family Members5-279
    • § 5:25.2 : Procedures5-279
      • [A] : USCIS Petition5-279
      • [B] : Nonimmigrant Visa Application5-280
    • § 5:25.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-281
      • [A] : Generally5-281
      • [B] : Recapture Benefits5-281
  • § 5:26 : S—Witnesses and Informants5-281
    • § 5:26.1 : Coverage of Category5-281
      • [A] : Generally5-281
      • [B] : Waiver of Inadmissibility5-282
      • [C] : Family Members5-282
    • § 5:26.2 : Procedures5-282
      • [A] : Application for Witness/Informant Classification5-282
      • [B] : Agency Review; Certification5-283
    • § 5:26.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Adjustment of Status5-283
    • § 5:26.4 : Practice Commentary5-284
      • [A] : Special Removal Procedures5-284
  • § 5:27 : TN—Canadian and Mexican Professionals Under NAFTA5-284
    • § 5:27.1 : Coverage of Category5-284
      • [A] : Generally5-284
      • [B] : Professional Qualifications; Licensing5-285
      • [C] : Special Rules for Healthcare Workers5-286
      • [D] : Labor Dispute Provisions5-286
      • [E] : Family Members5-286
    • § 5:27.2 : Procedures5-286
      • [A] : Canadian Applicants5-286
      • [B] : Mexican Applicants5-288
      • [C] : Changes of Nonimmigrant Status5-289
    • § 5:27.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-289
    • § 5:27.4 : Practice Commentary5-290
      • [A] : Self-Employed Canadian Professionals5-290
  • § 5:28 : T—Victims of Trafficking5-291
    • § 5:28.1 : Coverage of Category5-291
      • [A] : Generally5-291
      • [B] : Eligibility Requirements5-291
      • [C] : Family Members5-292
    • § 5:28.2 : Procedures5-292
      • [A] : Generally5-292
      • [B] : Primary Evidence; Law Enforcement Endorsements5-293
      • [C] : Secondary Evidence, Affidavits5-293
      • [D] : Family Members5-294
    • § 5:28.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Adjustment of Status5-294
    • § 5:28.4 : Practice Commentary5-295
      • [A] : Employment Authorization5-295
  • § 5:29 : U—Victims of Violence5-295
    • § 5:29.1 : Coverage of Category5-295
      • [A] : Generally5-295
      • [B] : Eligibility Criteria5-296
      • [C] : Family Members5-297
    • § 5:29.2 : Procedures5-297
      • [A] : USCIS Petition5-297
      • [B] : Fees5-298
      • [C] : Family Members5-299
    • § 5:29.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions; Adjustment of Status5-299
    • § 5:29.4 : Practice Commentary5-299
      • [A] : Employment Authorization5-299
  • § 5:30 : V—Beneficiaries of Immigrant Petitions5-299
    • § 5:30.1 : Coverage of Category5-300
    • § 5:30.2 : Procedures5-300
    • § 5:30.3 : Terms of Stay and Extensions5-300
Chapter 6: Refugee and Asylum Law and Other Humanitarian Protections
  • § 6:1 : Introduction6-4
    • § 6:1.1 : History of Refugee Law6-5
      • [A] : Refugee Act of 19806-7
      • [B] : IIRIRA Amendments6-7
      • [C] : U.N. Convention Against Torture Protection6-8
    • § 6:1.2 : Basic Structure of the System6-9
      • [A] : Refugee Admission System6-9
      • [B] : Protections for Persons in the United States6-10
  • § 6:2 : The Definition of “Refugee” and “Asylee”6-11
    • § 6:2.1 : The Refugee Act and U.N. Protocol6-11
    • § 6:2.2 : “Well-Founded Fear of Persecution”6-13
      • [A] : Nature of Persecution6-13
      • [B] : “Well-Founded Fear”6-15
      • [C] : Regulatory Standards6-17
      • [D] : Factors in Determining Reasonableness of Fear6-19
      • [E] : Past Persecution6-21
    • § 6:2.3 : Basis of Persecution6-23
      • [A] : Generally6-23
      • [B] : Evidence of Persecutor’s Motive6-24
      • [C] : Mixed-Motive Cases and Nexus Requirement6-25
      • [D] : Social Group6-32
        • [D][1] : Generally6-32
        • [D][2] : Particularity and Social Visibility6-33
        • [D][3] : Sexual Orientation6-36
        • [D][4] : Gender6-38
      • [E] : Political Opinion6-42
        • [E][1] : Generally6-42
        • [E][2] : Widespread Political Oppression6-43
        • [E][3] : Government Whistleblowing6-44
        • [E][4] : Population Control6-45
        • [E][5] : Imputed Political Opinion and Political Neutrality6-49
        • [E][6] : Mandatory Conscription6-56
      • [F] : Religion6-59
    • § 6:2.4 : Government Versus Private Source6-64
    • § 6:2.5 : Documenting an Asylum Claim6-66
      • [A] : Applicant’s Testimony and Corroborating Evidence6-66
      • [B] : Credibility Determinations6-69
      • [C] : REAL ID Act Amendments6-72
        • [C][1] : Case Law Interpreting Credibility Provision6-72
        • [C][2] : Case Law Interpreting Corroboration Rule6-82
    • § 6:2.6 : Grounds for Denial of Refugee or Asylee Status6-87
      • [A] : Statutory Bases for Denial of Refugee Status6-87
      • [B] : Travel Ban Under Executive Order 137806-88
      • [C] : Bars to Applying for Asylum6-91
        • [C][1] : Safe Third-Country Agreements6-91
        • [C][2] : Failure to File Within One Year of Arrival6-92
        • [C][3] : Denial of Asylum Benefits in the Past6-95
        • [C][4] : No Judicial Review of Determinations Regarding Bars6-95
      • [D] : Bases for Denial of Asylum6-95
        • [D][1] : Generally6-95
        • [D][2] : Prior Participation in Persecution6-96
        • [D][3] : Particularly Serious Crime6-97
        • [D][4] : Serious Nonpolitical Crime6-98
        • [D][5] : Certain Inadmissible Persons6-99
        • [D][6] : Discretionary Factors6-99
    • § 6:2.7 : Firm Resettlement Exception6-100
      • [A] : Framework for Firm Resettlement Determination6-101
  • § 6:3 : Procedures for Admitting Refugees6-103
    • § 6:3.1 : Annual Refugee Determinations6-103
    • § 6:3.2 : Application Procedures and Refugee Processing6-104
    • § 6:3.3 : Resettlement Procedures6-105
  • § 6:4 : Procedures for Granting Asylum6-106
    • § 6:4.1 : Affirmative Asylum Applications6-106
      • [A] : Jurisdiction6-106
      • [B] : Preparing Asylum Application6-108
      • [C] : Filing the Application and USCIS Processing6-110
        • [C][1] : Work Authorization6-111
        • [C][2] : Asylum Interview6-112
        • [C][3] : Preliminary Decision6-113
        • [C][4] : Final Determination6-114
    • § 6:4.2 : Defensive Asylum Applications6-115
      • [A] : Jurisdiction6-115
      • [B] : Relief Applications and Request for Parole6-115
      • [C] : Initial Processing and Interim Work Authorization6-117
      • [D] : Asylum Hearing and Decision6-118
    • § 6:4.3 : Credible Fear Process for Persons at the Border6-121
      • [A] : Generally6-121
      • [B] : Initial Assessment and Referral6-122
      • [C] : Credible Fear Interview and Review of Determination6-123
      • [D] : Detention Issues6-124
  • § 6:5 : Adjustment of Status for Refugees and Asylees6-124
    • § 6:5.1 : Adjustment for Refugees6-124
    • § 6:5.2 : Adjustment for Persons Granted Asylum6-124
    • § 6:5.3 : Adjustment Procedures6-125
  • § 6:6 : Family Members of Refugees and Asylees6-126
    • § 6:6.1 : Benefits for Certain Family Members of Refugees6-126
    • § 6:6.2 : Benefits for Certain Family Members of Asylees6-127
    • § 6:6.3 : Application for Benefits6-128
    • § 6:6.4 : Age-Out Protection6-129
  • § 6:7 : Section 241(b)(3) Relief in Removal Proceedings6-131
    • § 6:7.1 : Standards for Granting Section 241(b)(3) Relief6-131
      • [A] : Generally6-131
      • [B] : Ineligible Groups6-131
        • [B][1] : Aggravated Felonies and PSCs6-132
      • [C] : Eligibility of Inadmissible and Deportable Individuals6-134
      • [D] : Clear Probability Standard for Relief6-134
    • § 6:7.2 : Administrative Procedures6-136
  • § 6:8 : Relief Under the U.N. Convention Against Torture6-136
    • § 6:8.1 : Standard for Granting Relief6-137
      • [A] : Generally6-137
      • [B] : “More Likely Than Not” Standard6-137
      • [C] : Ineligible Groups6-138
      • [D] : Withholding of Removed and Deferral of Removal6-139
      • [E] : Involvement of Nongovernmental Entities and “Government Acquiescence”6-140
      • [F] : Case Law Addressing Meaning of Torture6-144
      • [G] : Persons Who Are a Threat to U.S. Security6-145
      • [H] : Impact of Diplomatic Assurances6-146
    • § 6:8.2 : Application Procedures6-146
  • § 6:9 : Other Humanitarian-Based Protections6-148
    • § 6:9.1 : Extended Voluntary Departure6-148
    • § 6:9.2 : Deferred Enforced Departure6-148
    • § 6:9.3 : Temporary Protected Status6-148
      • [A] : Designated Countries6-149
      • [B] : Eligibility6-150
      • [C] : Application Procedures6-151
      • [D] : USCIS Processing6-152
    • § 6:9.4 : Other Humanitarian Protections6-152
Chapter 7: Removal Grounds and Procedures
  • § 7:1 : Introduction7-6
    • § 7:1.1 : Basic Structure and Procedures7-6
      • [A] : The Concept of “Admission”7-9
      • [B] : Detection of Removable Persons7-13
    • § 7:1.2 : Grounds for Inadmissibility and Deportation: A Summary7-16
    • § 7:1.3 : Relief from Removal; Waivers of Inadmissibility: A Summary7-17
  • § 7:2 : Grounds for Inadmissibility7-18
    • § 7:2.1 : Health-Related Grounds: Section 212(a)(1)7-19
      • [A] : Communicable Diseases of Public Health Significance7-19
      • [B] : Vaccine-Preventable Diseases7-21
      • [C] : Current or Past History of Physical or Mental Disorder7-22
      • [D] : Substance Abuse or Addiction7-23
      • [E] : Inspection and Medical Examination7-23
    • § 7:2.2 : Criminal and Related Grounds: Section 212(a)(2)7-24
      • [A] : Conviction for a Crime Involving Moral Turpitude: Section 212(a)(2)(A)(i)(I)7-25
        • [A][1] : What Constitutes a “Crime”7-27
        • [A][2] : What Constitutes a “Conviction”7-28
        • [A][3] : What Constitutes a “Crime Involving Moral Turpitude”7-34
      • [B] : Multiple Criminal Convictions: Section 212(a)(2)(B)7-41
      • [C] : Violation of Laws Relating to Controlled Substances7-41
        • [C][1] : Controlled Substance Violations: Section 212(a)(2)(A)(i)(II)7-42
        • [C][2] : Controlled Substance Trafficking: Section 212(a)(2)(C)7-44
      • [D] : Prostitution and Commercialized Vice: Section 212(a)(2)(D)7-47
      • [E] : Exercising Immunity from Prosecution: Section 212(a)(2)(E)7-48
      • [F] : Violations of Religious Freedom: Section 212(a)(2)(G)7-49
      • [G] : Trafficking in Persons: Section 212(a)(2)(H)7-49
      • [H] : Money Laundering: Section 212(a)(2)(I)7-49
    • § 7:2.3 : Security and Related Grounds: Section 212(a)(3)7-50
      • [A] : Espionage, Sabotage, Technology Export, or “Any Other Unlawful Activity”: Section 212(a)(3)(A)7-51
      • [B] : Terrorist Activity: Section 212(a)(3)(B)7-53
        • [B][1] : Definition of Key Terms: “Terrorist Activity” and “Engage in Terrorist Activity”7-54
        • [B][2] : Material Support Bar7-55
        • [B][3] : “Representatives” of “Terrorist Organizations”7-57
        • [B][4] : “Membership” in a Terrorist Organization7-58
        • [B][5] : Incitement of Terrorist Activity7-58
        • [B][6] : Endorsing/Persuading Others to Support Terrorist Activity7-59
        • [B][7] : Receiving Military-Type Training7-59
        • [B][8] : Waiver of Material Support Bar and Other Terrorism-Related Inadmissibility Grounds7-59
      • [C] : Foreign Policy Considerations: Section 212(a)(3)(C)7-66
      • [D] : Immigrant’s Membership in a Totalitarian Party: Section 212(a)(3)(D)7-68
      • [E] : Nazi-Era Persecution, Genocide, Torture, Extrajudicial Killing: Section 212(a)(3)(E)7-70
      • [F] : Association with Terrorist Organization: Section 212(a)(3)(F)7-72
      • [G] : Recruitment or Use of Child Soldiers: Section 212(a)(3)(G)7-72
    • § 7:2.4 : Public Charge: Section 212(a)(4)7-72
      • [A] : Affidavit of Support Requirement Under Section 213A7-73
      • [B] : An Individual “Likely to Become” a Public Charge7-74
    • § 7:2.5 : Labor Certification and Qualification for Certain Immigrants: Section 212(a)(5)7-76
      • [A] : Labor Certification: Section 212(a)(5)(A)7-76
      • [B] : Unqualified Physicians: Section 212(a)(5)(B)7-77
      • [C] : Uncertified Healthcare Workers: Section 212(a)(5)(C)7-78
    • § 7:2.6 : Illegal Entrants and Immigration Violators: Section 212(a)(6)7-79
      • [A] : Entry Without Inspection: Section 212(a)(6)(A)7-79
      • [B] : Failure to Attend Removal Proceedings: Section 212(a)(6)(B)7-80
      • [C] : Commission of Fraud or Willful Misrepresentation in Seeking a Benefit Under the INA: Section 212(a)(6)(C)(i)7-80
      • [D] : False Claims to U.S. Citizenship: Section 212(a)(6)(C)(ii)7-83
      • [E] : Stowaways: Section 212(a)(6)(D)7-85
      • [F] : “Alien Smuggling”: Section 212(a)(6)(E)7-85
      • [G] : Document Fraud: Section 212(a)(6)(F)7-86
      • [H] : Student Visa Abusers: Section 212(a)(6)(G)7-88
    • § 7:2.7 : Documentation Grounds: Section 212(a)(7)7-89
    • § 7:2.8 : Persons Ineligible for Citizenship: Section 212(a)(8)7-91
    • § 7:2.9 : Previously Removed or Unlawfully Present7-93
      • [A] : Persons Previously Removed: Section 212(a)(9)(A)7-93
      • [B] : Periods of Unlawful Presence: Section 212(a)(9)(B)7-95
        • [B][1] : Calculating Period of Unlawful Presence7-95
        • [B][2] : Departure Requirement7-101
        • [B][3] : Waivers of Unlawful Presence7-103
      • [C] : Reentry Without Inspection After Unlawful Presence or Prior Removal: Section 212(a)(9)(C)7-105
    • § 7:2.10 : Miscellaneous Inadmissibility Grounds: Section 212(a)(10)7-108
      • [A] : Polygamy: Section 212(a)(10)(A)7-108
      • [B] : Providing Protection/Guardianship to Inadmissible Person: Section 212(a)(10)(B)7-108
      • [C] : International Child Abduction: Section 212(a)(10)(C)7-108
      • [D] : Unlawful Voting: Section 212(a)(10)(D)7-109
      • [E] : Renouncing Citizenship to Avoid Taxation:Section 212(a)(10)(E)7-109
  • § 7:3 : Grounds for Deportation7-110
    • § 7:3.1 : Persons Inadmissible at Entry, Who Are Present in Violation of Law, or Who Have Violated Status: Section 237(a)(1)7-110
      • [A] : Inadmissible at the Time of Entry or Adjustment7-110
      • [B] : Present in Violation of Law7-111
      • [C] : Violation of Nonimmigrant Status or Condition of Entry7-111
      • [D] : Termination of Conditional Permanent Residence7-112
      • [E] : “Alien Smuggling”7-112
      • [F] : Marriage Fraud7-113
    • § 7:3.2 : Specified Criminal Offenses7-113
      • [A] : Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude: Section 237(a)(2)(A)(i)7-113
      • [B] : Multiple Criminal Convictions: Section 237(a)(2)(A)(ii)7-114
      • [C] : Aggravated Felonies: Section 237(a)(2)(A)(iii)7-114
        • [C][1] : “Aggravated Felony” Defined7-114
        • [C][2] : Crime of Violence7-116
        • [C][3] : Sexual Abuse of a Minor7-120
        • [C][4] : Drug Trafficking7-121
        • [C][5] : Offenses Involving Fraud and Deceit7-123
        • [C][6] : Firearms Offenses7-124
        • [C][7] : Aggravated Felonies Contingent on Minimum Period of Imprisonment7-125
        • [C][8] : State Offenses7-126
        • [C][9] : Effective Date of Deportation Ground7-128
      • [D] : High-Speed Flight: Section 237(a)(2)(A)(iv)7-130
      • [E] : Failure to Register As a Sex Offender: Section 237(a)(2)(A)(v)7-130
      • [F] : Controlled Substances: Section 237(a)(2)(B)7-130
      • [G] : Firearms Offenses: Section 237(a)(2)(C)7-131
      • [H] : Miscellaneous Crimes: Section 237(a)(2)(D)7-132
      • [I] : Domestic Violence, Stalking, Child Abuse: Section 237(a)(2)(E)7-132
      • [J] : Human Trafficking: Section 237(a)(2)(F)7-135
    • § 7:3.3 : Failure to Register; Falsification of Documents: Section 237(a)(3)7-135
    • § 7:3.4 : Security and Related Grounds: Section 237(a)(4)7-136
    • § 7:3.5 : Public Charge: Section 237(a)(5)7-137
    • § 7:3.6 : Unlawful Voting: Section 237(a)(6)7-137
  • § 7:4 : Relief from Removal; Waivers of Inadmissibility7-137
    • § 7:4.1 : Cancellation of Removal: Section 240A7-137
      • [A] : Cancellation of Removal Under Section 240A(a)7-139
      • [B] : Cancellation of Removal Under Section 240A(b)(1)7-146
      • [C] : Cancellation of Removal Under Section 240A(b)(2)7-153
      • [D] : Procedures for Cancellation Applications7-156
    • § 7:4.2 : Section 212(d) Waivers for Nonimmigrants7-158
    • § 7:4.3 : Section 212(g) Waivers for Medical Problems7-160
      • [A] : Communicable Diseases of Public Health Significance7-160
      • [B] : Vaccine-Preventable Diseases7-161
      • [C] : Current or Past History of Physical or Mental Disorder7-161
    • § 7:4.4 : Waivers for Certain Crimes: Sections 212(h) and 237(a)(2)(A)(vi)7-162
      • [A] : Section 212(h)7-162
        • [A][1] : Marijuana Offenses7-162
        • [A][2] : Additional Statutory Tests7-164
        • [A][3] : Discretionary Factors7-166
        • [A][4] : Application Procedures7-166
      • [B] : Section 237(a)(2)(A)(vi)7-167
    • § 7:4.5 : Waivers for Fraud: Sections 212(i) and 237(a)(1)(H)7-167
    • § 7:4.6 : Voluntary Departure7-170
      • [A] : Voluntary Departure Prior to Conclusion of Removal Proceedings7-173
      • [B] : Voluntary Departure As a Form of Relief from Removal7-176
    • § 7:4.7 : DACA; Expanded DACA; DAPA7-179
      • [A] : DACA Program7-179
      • [B] : Expanded DACA and DAPA Programs7-183
    • § 7:4.8 : Prosecutorial Discretion and Administrative Closure7-184
    • § 7:4.9 : Other Forms of Relief from Removal7-187
  • § 7:5 : Removal Procedures7-188
    • § 7:5.1 : Initiation of Removal Proceedings Under Section 2407-189
      • [A] : Notice to Appear (Generally)7-189
        • [A][1] : Charges Against Respondent7-190
        • [A][2] : Securing of Counsel7-190
        • [A][3] : Respondent’s Obligation to Provide Contact Information7-190
        • [A][4] : Notification of Time/Place of Proceedings7-191
      • [B] : Service of Notice to Appear7-191
        • [B][1] : Service of NTA When Respondent Is Incompetent7-192
        • [B][2] : Departure After Proper Service of NTA7-193
      • [C] : Timing and Venue of Removal Hearing7-193
    • § 7:5.2 : Detention Pending Removal Determination7-194
      • [A] : Detention and Parole for Persons Seeking Admission7-194
      • [B] : Custody Determinations for Persons Currently in Removal Proceedings7-197
      • [C] : Mandatory Detention of Criminal Noncitizens7-199
      • [D] : Immigration Detainers for Persons Currently in State or Local Custody7-204
      • [E] : Mandatory Detention of Suspected Terrorists7-204
    • § 7:5.3 : Hearings Under INA Section 2407-205
      • [A] : Authority of Immigration Judge7-205
      • [B] : Noncitizen’s Rights in Proceeding7-206
        • [B][1] : Privilege of Representation7-206
        • [B][2] : Presentation and Examination of Evidence and Witnesses7-207
        • [B][3] : Record of Proceeding7-208
      • [C] : Burden of Proof7-208
      • [D] : Form of Proceeding7-209
        • [D][1] : In General7-209
        • [D][2] : Waiver of Presence of Parties7-209
        • [D][3] : Public Access to Hearings7-210
      • [E] : Master Calendar Hearing7-210
      • [F] : Competency Hearing7-211
      • [G] : Merits Hearing7-212
      • [H] : Applications for Relief from Removal7-213
      • [I] : Adjudication and Decision7-214
        • [I][1] : Summary Decisions7-215
        • [I][2] : Continuation; Dismissal; Administrative Closure7-215
        • [I][3] : Stipulated Order of Removal7-218
    • § 7:5.4 : In Absentia Hearings Under INA Section 2407-218
      • [A] : Burden of Proof7-219
      • [B] : Motion to Rescind7-220
      • [C] : Effect of In Absentia Order7-220
    • § 7:5.5 : Execution of Removal Orders7-221
      • [A] : Removal Period7-221
      • [B] : Removal of Individuals Imprisoned7-221
      • [C] : Country to Which Individual May Be Removed7-222
      • [D] : Detention During Removal Period7-222
      • [E] : Supervised Release After the Removal Period7-223
        • [E][1] : Criteria and Considerations7-223
        • [E][2] : Conditions of Release7-224
      • [F] : Challenging Continued Detention Based on Likelihood of Removal7-225
      • [G] : Reinstatement of Removal Orders7-227
    • § 7:5.6 : Expedited Removal of Certain Inadmissible Persons7-229
      • [A] : Classes of Individuals Subject to Expedited Removal7-229
      • [B] : Inspection Procedures Under Section 2357-230
      • [C] : Withdrawal of Application for Admission in Lieu of Expedited Removal7-231
      • [D] : Credible Fear of Persecution7-232
      • [E] : Detention and Parole of Individuals in Expedited Removal Proceedings7-235
      • [F] : Special Procedures Addressing 2014 Southwest Border Crisis7-236
      • [G] : Judicial Review of Expedited Removal Order7-240
    • § 7:5.7 : Other Special Removal Procedures7-241
      • [A] : Administrative Removal7-241
      • [B] : Judicial Removal7-242
      • [C] : Removal Court Under Title V7-243
Chapter 8: Administrative and Judicial Review
  • § 8:1 : Introduction8-2
  • § 8:2 : Board of Immigration Appeals: Authority and Procedure8-3
    • § 8:2.1 : BIA Authority8-3
    • § 8:2.2 : BIA Appeal Procedures8-6
      • [A] : Filing the Appeal8-6
      • [B] : Stay of Removal and Unlawful Removal During Appeal8-7
      • [C] : Summary Dismissal8-8
      • [D] : Standard of Review8-9
      • [E] : Rules Streamlining BIA Case Management8-11
      • [F] : Final Decision8-13
    • § 8:2.3 : Motion to Reopen or Reconsider8-13
      • [A] : Generally8-13
      • [B] : Applications for Relief8-14
      • [C] : Motions Based on Ineffective Assistance of Counsel8-15
      • [D] : Time and Numerical Limitations8-15
      • [E] : Filing Procedures and Stay of Removal Order8-17
    • § 8:2.4 : Motions to Rescind an In Absentia Order8-17
      • [A] : Generally8-17
      • [B] : Exceptional Circumstances8-18
      • [C] : Failure to Receiving Hearing Notice8-18
      • [D] : Effect of Departure8-19
  • § 8:3 : USCIS Appellate Authority and Procedure8-20
    • § 8:3.1 : Authority: Types of Cases8-20
    • § 8:3.2 : Appeal Procedure8-22
  • § 8:4 : USCIS Determinations Not Subject to Administrative Appeal8-23
  • § 8:5 : Judicial Review: Removal Orders8-25
    • § 8:5.1 : Judicial Review Prior to IIRIRA8-26
    • § 8:5.2 : Judicial Review Under INA Section 242 (Generally)8-28
    • § 8:5.3 : Standing and Exhaustion of Remedies8-30
    • § 8:5.4 : Coverage of Judicial Review: The Final Order8-31
    • § 8:5.5 : Additional Jurisdictional Limitations8-33
      • [A] : The Court-Stripping Provisions8-34
      • [B] : Availability of Habeas Review8-36
      • [C] : REAL ID Act Amendments8-38
        • [C][1] : Impact on Habeas Review8-39
        • [C][2] : Supreme Court Rulings Addressing Review of Discretionary Determinations8-41
        • [C][3] : Determinations Not Subject to Review Under Section 242(a)(2)(D)8-43
        • [C][4] : Determinations Subject to Review8-50
    • § 8:5.6 : Applicable Procedures on a Petition for Review8-62
      • [A] : Request for Stay8-62
      • [B] : Service of Petition8-63
      • [C] : Filing Deadline8-63
    • § 8:5.7 : Scope and Standard of Review8-65
      • [A] : Finding of Deportability or Removability8-66
      • [B] : Discretionary Forms of Relief8-67
      • [C] : Motions to Reopen and Reconsider8-68
  • § 8:6 : Judicial Review: Labor Certifications, Petitions, and Applications8-70
    • § 8:6.1 : Jurisdictional Basis8-70
    • § 8:6.2 : Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies8-72
    • § 8:6.3 : Standing8-73
    • § 8:6.4 : Scope and Standard of Review8-74
  • § 8:7 : Judicial Review of Citizenship and Naturalization Matters8-75
    • § 8:7.1 : Review of Citizenship Claims Under INA Section 360(a)8-75
    • § 8:7.2 : Review of Citizenship Claims in Removal Context8-77
    • § 8:7.3 : Other Forms of Judicial Review of Citizenship Claims8-78
    • § 8:7.4 : Review of Naturalization and Denaturalization Decisions8-78
  • § 8:8 : Judicial Review: Visa Issuance8-79
Chapter 9: Rights and Obligations of Noncitizens
  • § 9:1 : Scrutiny of Laws Infringing on Rights of Noncitizens: Generally9-2
  • § 9:2 : Employment9-5
    • § 9:2.1 : Government Restrictions on Access to Public Employment and State Licenses9-5
    • § 9:2.2 : Labor Protections Available to Foreign Nationals9-7
  • § 9:3 : Social Welfare and Education9-8
    • § 9:3.1 : Introduction9-8
    • § 9:3.2 : The Welfare Act9-9
      • [A] : Receipt of Public Benefits by Non-“Qualified Aliens”9-9
      • [B] : Receipt of Federal Means-Tested Benefits by “Qualified Aliens”9-10
        • [B][1] : Generally9-10
        • [B][2] : Receipt of SSI Benefits and Food Stamps by “Qualified Aliens”9-12
      • [C] : State-Administered Federal Programs9-13
      • [D] : “Deeming” Provision9-14
    • § 9:3.3 : Legal Challenges to Alienage-Based Restrictions9-15
      • [A] : Legal Challenges to Access to Public Benefits9-15
      • [B] : Legal Challenges to Access to Education9-16
  • § 9:4 : Property Ownership9-18
    • § 9:4.1 : Ownership of Real Property9-18
    • § 9:4.2 : Ownership of Intangible Personal Property9-18
    • § 9:4.3 : Other Ownership Rights9-19
  • § 9:5 : Taxation9-19
    • § 9:5.1 : Income Tax9-20
      • [A] : Taxation of “Residents”9-20
      • [B] : Taxation of Nonresidents9-23
      • [C] : “Tax Expatriates”9-24
    • § 9:5.2 : Social Security and Unemployment Compensation Taxes9-27
    • § 9:5.3 : Estate and Gift Taxes9-27
  • § 9:6 : Military Service and Registration9-28
  • § 9:7 : Political Rights9-29
  • § 9:8 : Judicial Process9-30
Chapter 10: Employment of Noncitizens
  • § 10:1 : Introduction10-3
  • § 10:2 : Employer Obligations in the Employment of Noncitizens10-6
    • § 10:2.1 : Prohibition Regarding “Knowing” Employment of Unauthorized Workers10-7
      • [A] : “Constructive Knowledge” Standard10-7
      • [B] : Constructive-Knowledge Situations10-8
        • [B][1] : Generally10-8
        • [B][2] : Notification by ICE10-9
        • [B][3] : Rehiring After Prior Termination Based on ICE Notification10-14
        • [B][4] : Suspect Documentation Presented for I-9 Purposes10-16
        • [B][5] : Failure to Conduct Verification or Reverification10-18
        • [B][6] : Reckless Conduct by Employer10-20
        • [B][7] : Labor Certification Filings10-20
        • [B][8] : SSA “No-Match” Letter10-21
    • § 10:2.2 : Good-Faith Defense10-22
    • § 10:2.3 : “Grandfathered” Employees10-24
    • § 10:2.4 : Employees with Work Authorization “Incident to Status”10-25
    • § 10:2.5 : Liability for Hiring Contractors Using Undocumented Workers10-26
  • § 10:3 : Employment Verification10-27
    • § 10:3.1 : Generally10-27
    • § 10:3.2 : Coverage of Verification Requirement10-27
      • [A] : Rehired Employees10-28
      • [B] : Individuals Deemed Continuing in Their Employment10-29
      • [C] : Volunteers and Unpaid Interns10-32
      • [D] : Independent Contractors10-33
      • [E] : Casual Hires Providing Domestic Service10-35
      • [F] : Other Exceptions to Verification Requirements10-35
    • § 10:3.3 : Procedure for Verification of Employee Work Status10-37
      • [A] : Timing of Verification10-37
      • [B] : Pre-Hire Inquiries10-38
      • [C] : Examination of Documents and Completion of Form I-910-39
        • [C][1] : Generally10-39
        • [C][2] : Initial Steps for Verification10-41
        • [C][3] : List of Acceptable Documents10-43
        • [C][4] : Rules Regarding Acceptance of Receipts10-47
        • [C][5] : Final Completion of Form I-910-48
        • [C][6] : Reverification Rules10-49
      • [D] : Retention of I-9 Forms10-50
      • [E] : Electronic I-9 Forms10-50
    • § 10:3.4 : Special Verification Rules10-53
      • [A] : F-1 Students Engaged in On-Campus Employment or Curricular Training10-53
      • [B] : J-1 Exchange Visitors10-54
      • [C] : Nonimmigrants Covered by 240-Day Rule10-54
      • [D] : H-1B Workers Changing Employers10-54
      • [E] : F-1 Students Seeking Cap-Gap Extension10-55
      • [F] : F-1 Students Seeking OPT STEM Extension10-56
      • [G] : Conditional Residents Applying for Removal of Conditions10-57
      • [H] : Refugees and Asylees10-57
      • [I] : Temporary Protected Status or Deferred Enforced Departure10-58
      • [J] : EAD Renewal Applicants10-58
      • [K] : Persons Under Age Eighteen10-59
      • [L] : Name Changes and Changes in Identity10-60
      • [M] : DACA Beneficiaries10-61
    • § 10:3.5 : E-Verify Program10-62
      • [A] : Employers Required to Participate10-63
      • [B] : E-Verify Procedures10-66
        • [B][1] : Generally10-66
        • [B][2] : Initiation of E-Verify Case10-66
        • [B][3] : Photo Matching10-68
        • [B][4] : Tentative Nonconfirmation10-69
        • [B][5] : Other Interim Responses10-70
        • [B][6] : Final Results and Closing Cases10-71
        • [B][7] : USCIS Monitoring for Compliance10-72
  • § 10:4 : Penalty Structure for Employer Violations10-73
    • § 10:4.1 : Civil Penalties10-73
      • [A] : Hiring Violations10-73
      • [B] : Paperwork Violations10-74
      • [C] : Determining Civil Penalties10-74
    • § 10:4.2 : Criminal Penalties and Sanctions10-76
    • § 10:4.3 : Debarment from Federal Contracts10-78
    • § 10:4.4 : Other Penalties Under State Law10-79
  • § 10:5 : Enforcement Procedures10-80
    • § 10:5.1 : Compliance Mechanisms and Enforcement Strategies10-80
    • § 10:5.2 : Scope and Conduct of ICE I-9 Inspections10-82
      • [A] : I-9 Notice of Inspection10-83
      • [B] : Document Production and Inspection10-85
      • [C] : ICE Determinations10-86
      • [D] : Correction of Technical or Procedural Failures10-88
      • [E] : NIF Procedure10-91
    • § 10:5.3 : Scope and Conduct of ICE Criminal Worksite Investigations10-93
      • [A] : Targeting Employers for Enforcement Action10-93
      • [B] : Initiation of Investigation10-94
      • [C] : Worksite Searches and Employee Surveys10-94
    • § 10:5.4 : OCAHO Proceedings Under IRCA10-96
      • [A] : Commencement of Proceeding10-98
      • [B] : Motions, Discovery, Hearings, and Final Order10-99
  • § 10:6 : Document Fraud10-100
  • § 10:7 : Employment Discrimination10-103
    • § 10:7.1 : Introduction10-103
    • § 10:7.2 : Coverage of the Discrimination Provision10-104
      • [A] : Entities Subject to Claims Under Section 274B10-104
      • [B] : Workers Protected by Section 274B10-104
    • § 10:7.3 : Unfair Immigration-Related Practices10-106
      • [A] : Citizenship-Based Discrimination10-106
      • [B] : Document Abuse10-108
    • § 10:7.4 : “Knowing and Intentional” Standard10-113
      • [A] : Generally10-113
      • [B] : Unlawful Rejection of Job Applicants10-114
      • [C] : Unlawful Termination10-116
      • [D] : Unlawful Retaliation10-117
      • [E] : Pattern-or-Practice Violations10-118
    • § 10:7.5 : Exemptions to the Anti-Discrimination Provisions10-119
    • § 10:7.6 : Enforcement and Administrative Procedures10-122
      • [A] : Filing Discrimination Charges10-122
      • [B] : IER Investigation10-122
      • [C] : Filing Complaint; OCAHO Proceedings10-124
  • § 10:8 : Foreign Nationals Authorized to Accept Employment in the United States10-126
Chapter 11: Naturalization
  • § 11:1 : Introduction11-2
    • § 11:1.1 : Summary of Requirements11-3
    • § 11:1.2 : Summary of Procedure11-4
  • § 11:2 : Residence Requirements11-5
    • § 11:2.1 : Lawful Permanent Residence11-5
    • § 11:2.2 : Continuous Residence for Five (or Three) Years11-6
    • § 11:2.3 : State Residence11-10
    • § 11:2.4 : Physical Presence11-10
    • § 11:2.5 : Classes Fully or Partially Exempted from Residence and Physical Presence Requirements11-11
      • [A] : Spouses of U.S. Citizens11-11
      • [B] : Children of U.S. Citizens11-15
        • [B][1] : Automatic Acquisition of Citizenship Under Section 32011-15
        • [B][2] : Derivative Naturalization Under Prior Section 32111-20
        • [B][3] : Expedited Naturalization Under Section 32211-21
      • [C] : Other Exempt Groups11-24
  • § 11:3 : “Good Moral Character” Requirement11-26
    • § 11:3.1 : Statutorily Barred Classes11-26
    • § 11:3.2 : Discretionary Bases11-29
      • [A] : Adultery11-29
      • [B] : Nonsupport11-29
      • [C] : Fornication11-29
      • [D] : Probation or Parole11-30
      • [E] : Failure to Register with Selective Service11-30
      • [F] : Indigence and Prior Immigration Violations11-31
      • [G] : Failure to File Income Taxes11-31
      • [H] : Illegal Voting; False Claims to Citizenship11-31
  • § 11:4 : Other Substantive Requirements11-32
    • § 11:4.1 : English Language Requirement11-32
      • [A] : Generally11-32
      • [B] : Medical Disability Exemption; Form N-648 Process11-33
    • § 11:4.2 : Knowledge of American History and Civics11-36
      • [A] : Exemptions; “Special Consideration”11-37
    • § 11:4.3 : Attachment to the Constitution11-38
    • § 11:4.4 : Age and Legal Competency Requirements11-39
  • § 11:5 : Persons Ineligible for Naturalization11-41
    • § 11:5.1 : Anarchists and Communists11-41
    • § 11:5.2 : Military Deserters and Draft Evaders11-42
    • § 11:5.3 : Persons in Removal Proceedings or Subject to a Final Order11-42
  • § 11:6 : The Naturalization Application and USCIS Processing11-43
    • § 11:6.1 : Generally11-43
    • § 11:6.2 : Naturalization Package and Filing11-43
    • § 11:6.3 : Initial Processing11-45
    • § 11:6.4 : Interview, English and Civics Testing, and Final Processing11-48
      • [A] : Naturalization Interview and Examination11-48
      • [B] : USCIS Determinations and Second Examinations11-50
      • [C] : Interview Rescheduling and Failure to Appear for Interview11-51
      • [D] : Denial of Application11-52
  • § 11:7 : Denaturalization: Substantive Bases11-55
    • § 11:7.1 : Lack of a Statutory Prerequisite11-55
    • § 11:7.2 : Concealment of a Material Fact or Willful Misrepresentation11-56
  • § 11:8 : Denaturalization Procedures11-57
Chapter 12: Citizenship
  • § 12:1 : Introduction12-1
  • § 12:2 : Citizenship at Birth in the United States12-3
    • § 12:2.1 : Jus Soli12-3
      • [A] : The Jurisdiction Requirement12-3
      • [B] : The Physical Limits of the United States12-4
  • § 12:3 : Citizenship by Birth Outside the United States12-5
    • § 12:3.1 : Born to Two Citizen Parents12-5
    • § 12:3.2 : Born to One Citizen Parent and One U.S. National Parent12-6
    • § 12:3.3 : Born to a Citizen Parent and a Noncitizen Parent12-7
      • [A] : Act of 193412-9
      • [B] : The 1940 Act12-9
      • [C] : Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 and Subsequent Amendments12-10
      • [D] : Relief for Failing to Meet Retention Requirements12-11
  • § 12:4 : Dual Citizenship12-12
  • § 12:5 : Expatriation12-13
    • § 12:5.1 : Expatriative Acts12-14
    • § 12:5.2 : Renunciation of Citizenship12-15
  • § 12:6 : Citizenship Documents12-15
    • § 12:6.1 : U.S. Passport12-16
    • § 12:6.2 : Certificates of Citizenship12-16
  Table of Cases
  Index

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