TreatiseTreatise

Employment Law Yearbook 2017

 by Timothy J Long
 
 Copyright: 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402428432
  • Page Count: 1170
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

The 2017 edition of Employment Law Yearbook covers the most important issues facing today’s employers and employment law practitioners. In this tight employment market and amid the rapidly changing global economy, it is imperative that employers and employment law practitioners understand the legal implications of a wide range of workplace actions. Authored by Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP’s Employment Law Practice Group, a nationally recognized leader in this field, Employment Law Yearbook 2017 substantially revises the 2016 edition and provides a review of current developments in the law, including case decisions, statutes, and other events of interest to employers in the past year, as well as practical steps employers can take to minimize their risks and comply with the law.

Revised annually, Employment Law Yearbook 2017 is an essential reference for in-house and outside corporate attorneys and human resource professionals, as well as attorneys representing plaintiffs and defendants in employment-related litigation.
  Introduction
  Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Wage-and-Hour Issues
  • § 1:1 : Introduction1-4
  • § 1:2 : The Legal Framework of Wage-and-Hour Laws1-5
    • § 1:2.1 : Minimum Wage1-7
      • [A] : FLSA1-7
      • [B] : California1-8
      • [C] : New York1-9
    • § 1:2.2 : Overtime Exemptions1-10
      • [A] : FLSA1-10
        • [A][1] : Federal White Collar Overtime Regulations1-11
          • [A][1][a] : Minimum Salary Requirement1-11
          • [A][1][b] : Rules for “Highly Compensated” Employees1-12
          • [A][1][c] : Salary Basis Requirement1-13
            • [A][1][c][i] : Permissible Deductions1-13
            • [A][1][c][ii] : Consequences of Improper Deductions1-15
            • [A][1][c][iii] : Safe Harbor1-16
          • [A][1][d] : White Collar Exemption1-16
            • [A][1][d][i] : Executive Exemption1-16
            • [A][1][d][ii] : Administrative Exemption1-19
            • [A][1][d][iii] : Professional Exemption1-20
            • [A][1][d][iv] : Computer Employee Exemption1-21
            • [A][1][d][v] : Outside Sales Exemption1-21
        • [A][2] : Commission Sales Exemption1-23
        • [A][3] : Motor Carrier Act Exemption1-24
        • [A][4] : Companionship Exemption1-24
        • [A][5] : The BeloPlan1-25
      • [B] : “White Collar” (New York) Exemptions1-26
      • [C] : California Exemptions1-27
        • [C][1] : Executive Exemption1-27
        • [C][2] : Administrative Exemption1-27
        • [C][3] : Professional Exemption1-28
        • [C][4] : Outside Sales Exemption1-30
        • [C][5] : Other Exemptions1-30
          • [C][5][a] : Computer Professionals1-30
          • [C][5][b] : Certain Medical Professionals1-32
          • [C][5][c] : Commissioned Employees1-33
        • [C][6] : Salary Basis Test1-34
        • [C][7] : Extraterritorial Application of the Labor Code—The Sullivan v. Oracle Decision1-35
    • § 1:2.3 : Independent Contractors and Temporary Workers1-36
      • [A] : Independent Contractors1-38
      • [B] : Temporary Workers and Joint Employment1-41
        • [B][1] : Determining Employer Status1-41
        • [B][2] : Wage-and-Hour Issues1-43
    • § 1:2.4 : Interns1-44
    • § 1:2.5 : Tip Pooling and California Labor Code Section 3511-47
    • § 1:2.6 : Reimbursement of Expenses1-49
      • [A] : California1-49
      • [B] : New York1-51
    • § 1:2.7 : Wage Deductions (New York)1-51
    • § 1:2.8 : Hours Worked1-54
      • [A] : “Hours Worked” Defined1-54
      • [B] : Meal Breaks1-56
        • [B][1] : FLSA1-56
        • [B][2] : California1-56
        • [B][3] : New York1-59
      • [C] : On-Call and Waiting Time Under the FLSA1-59
      • [D] : “De Minimis” Activities1-60
      • [E] : Travel Time1-62
    • § 1:2.9 : Calculating Overtime Premiums: Determining the Regular Rate1-63
      • [A] : Premium Pay1-64
      • [B] : Per Diem1-64
      • [C] : Sick Leave Buy-Backs1-65
      • [D] : “Blended” Pay Rates1-65
      • [E] : California Regular Rate1-65
    • § 1:2.10 : Implementing “Flextime” Schedules1-66
    • § 1:2.11 : Workweek Designation1-67
    • § 1:2.12 : Employee Notice1-68
      • [A] : California1-68
      • [B] : New York1-69
    • § 1:2.13 : Fluctuating Workweeks1-71
      • [A] : The FWW Method of Calculating Overtime1-71
      • [B] : Preconditions on Using the FWW Method1-72
      • [C] : Using the FWW Method to Calculate Damages in Misclassification Cases1-73
    • § 1:2.14 : Commissions/Bonuses/Incentive Compensation Plans1-75
      • [A] : California1-75
      • [B] : New York1-76
    • § 1:2.15 : Individual Liability1-77
      • [A] : FLSA1-77
      • [B] : California1-79
    • § 1:2.16 : Spread-of-Hours Pay (New York)1-79
    • § 1:2.17 : Equal Pay (California)1-80
    • § 1:2.18 : Leave Laws (California)1-81
    • § 1:2.19 : Payment of Final Wages1-82
      • [A] : New York1-82
      • [B] : California1-82
  • § 1:3 : Wage-and-Hour Collective Class Action Process and Procedures1-84
    • § 1:3.1 : Collective Actions Under the FLSA1-84
      • [A] : Potential Members Must Expressly “Opt In” to the Class1-85
      • [B] : Applicability of Requirements of Rule 23 to FLSA Collective Actions1-85
      • [C] : Class Certification Under the FLSA1-87
        • [C][1] : Overview1-87
        • [C][2] : The Notice Stage: Plaintiffs Request Class Certification/Authorization to Send Notice to Putative Class Members; Courts Authorize Notice When Putative Members Are “Similarly Situated”1-88
        • [C][3] : Stage Two—Defendant’s Motion to Decertify1-90
      • [D] : FLSA Statute of Limitations1-91
      • [E] : Waiver of FLSA Claims1-92
      • [F] : Litigation Issues1-93
        • [F][1] : Burdens of Proof1-93
        • [F][2] : Interaction of State and Federal Actions—Hybrid Actions1-95
      • [G] : Rule 68—Offers of Judgment1-95
    • § 1:3.2 : California Class Actions1-96
      • [A] : Governing Authority1-97
      • [B] : Requirements for Establishment of California Class Actions1-97
      • [C] : California Wage-and-Hour Class Actions1-98
      • [D] : Procedural Issues in Class Action Lawsuits1-100
        • [D][1] : Opt-Out Requirement1-100
        • [D][2] : Class Certification’s Preclusive Effects1-100
        • [D][3] : Statute of Limitations1-101
        • [D][4] : Settlement of California Class Actions1-101
    • § 1:3.3 : Representative Actions Under Business and Professions Code Section 172001-102
      • [A] : Applicability to Wage-and-Hour Law1-102
      • [B] : Equitable Relief Versus Damages1-103
      • [C] : Statute of Limitations1-104
    • § 1:3.4 : California Labor Code Private Attorneys General Act1-105
    • § 1:3.5 : Shady Grove: Federal Preemption of State Law Limits on Certification1-108
Chapter 2: OFCCP Developments
  • § 2:1 : Introduction2-2
  • § 2:2 : Overview of OFCCP2-3
    • § 2:2.1 : Organizational Responsibilities, Structure, and Jurisdiction2-3
    • § 2:2.2 : Enforcement2-4
  • § 2:3 : Covered Government Contractors and Subcontractors2-6
  • § 2:4 : Recent Developments2-7
    • § 2:4.1 : Tackling Equal Pay2-7
    • § 2:4.2 : Regulatory Initiatives2-12
      • [A] : Executive Orders and Related Rules2-12
        • [A][1] : Non-Discrimination Protection for Disclosing Compensation Information2-12
        • [A][2] : Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity As Protected Classes2-13
        • [A][3] : Final Sex Discrimination Rule2-14
      • [B] : DOL-Related Executive Orders Affecting Government Contractors2-16
        • [B][1] : Disclosure of Recent Labor Violation and Dispute Transparency2-16
        • [B][2] : Paid Sick Leave2-18
        • [B][3] : Minimum Wage2-19
      • [C] : Final Rules Regarding Hiring Veterans and Individuals with Disabilities2-19
      • [D] : Directive 2014-01: TRICARE Subcontractor Enforcement Activities2-21
    • § 2:4.3 : Compliance Initiatives2-21
      • [A] : Compliance Review Scheduling Letter2-21
      • [B] : Interviews of Compensation and Other H.R. Professionals2-23
    • § 2:4.4 : Recent Case Law2-23
      • [A] : Accessing Data2-23
      • [B] : Jurisdiction2-24
      • [C] : Merits Determination2-26
    • § 2:4.5 : Settlements2-28
      • [A] : Discriminatory Hiring Procedures2-28
      • [B] : Steering and Testing2-29
      • [C] : Stereotyping2-30
      • [D] : Pay Disparities2-30
Chapter 3: Gender and Sexual Orientation Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
  • § 3:1 : Introduction3-3
  • § 3:2 : Discrimination Based on Gender and Related Characteristics3-3
    • § 3:2.1 : Gender Discrimination3-4
      • [A] : Class Action Certification3-4
      • [B] : Evidence3-10
      • [C] : Mixed-Motive Discrimination3-10
      • [D] : Reverse Bias Sex Discrimination3-12
      • [E] : Consensual Relationships in the Workplace3-14
      • [F] : Damages Limitation3-16
    • § 3:2.2 : Sexual Orientation and Gender Stereotyping3-16
    • § 3:2.3 : Benefits for Same-Sex Partners3-21
    • § 3:2.4 : Benefits for Gender Transition3-23
    • § 3:2.5 : Pregnancy Discrimination and Nursing Mother Laws3-24
      • [A] : Pregnancy Discrimination Act3-24
      • [B] : Protections for Nursing Mothers3-31
    • § 3:2.6 : Physical and Testing Requirements3-35
    • § 3:2.7 : Health Plan Coverage Issues3-38
      • [A] : Prescription Contraceptive Coverage3-38
  • § 3:3 : Equal Pay Act3-40
    • § 3:3.1 : Establishing a Prima Facie Case3-41
    • § 3:3.2 : Employer Defenses3-43
    • § 3:3.3 : Statute of Limitations3-44
    • § 3:3.4 : EEOC Guidance3-46
    • § 3:3.5 : Legislation and Administrative Developments3-46
  • § 3:4 : Sexual Harassment3-48
    • § 3:4.1 : Discrimination Because of Sex3-48
    • § 3:4.2 : Explicit Alteration of Fundamental Conditions of Employment: Tangible Employment Action3-51
      • [A] : Case Law Defining “Tangible Employment Action”3-51
      • [B] : EEOC Enforcement Guidance on “Tangible Employment Action”3-53
    • § 3:4.3 : Constructive Alteration of Conditions of Employment or a Hostile Work Environment3-53
      • [A] : Welcomeness3-54
      • [B] : Cases Finding Severe or Pervasive Requirement Met3-55
      • [C] : Cases Finding Severe or Pervasive Requirement Not Met3-56
    • § 3:4.4 : Affirmative Defenses3-59
      • [A] : Employer’s Duty to Exercise Reasonable Care to Prevent Harassing Behavior3-59
      • [B] : Employer’s Duty to Exercise Reasonable Care to Correct Harassing Behavior Promptly3-61
        • [B][1] : Employer Response Found to Be Inadequate3-62
        • [B][2] : Employer Response Found to Be Appropriate3-63
        • [B][3] : Employer Liable for Conduct by Other Non-Supervisor3-64
        • [B][4] : Acts of Non-Employees3-67
      • [C] : Employee Unreasonably Failed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to Avoid Harm3-68
        • [C][1] : Plaintiff’s Failure to Complain3-69
        • [C][2] : Timeliness of Plaintiff’s Complaint3-71
      • [D] : EEOC Enforcement Guidance on Employer Liability for Harassment by Supervisors3-73
    • § 3:4.5 : Evidentiary Issues in Sex Harassment Cases: Effect of Statute of Limitations on Evidence of Acts Occurring Before Limitations Period3-73
    • § 3:4.6 : Application of Legal Standards: Summary Judgment Versus Jury Trials3-76
    • § 3:4.7 : Punitive Damages3-78
    • § 3:4.8 : Principles of Vicarious Employer Liability and Concepts of Agency: When Is an Individual Considered a “Supervisor”?3-79
    • § 3:4.9 : Individual Supervisor Liability3-83
      • [A] : Federal Law3-83
      • [B] : State Law3-83
        • [B][1] : California3-83
        • [B][2] : New York3-83
        • [B][3] : Ohio3-84
    • § 3:4.10 : Other Procedural Issues3-85
      • [A] : “Pattern-or-Practice” Cases3-85
      • [B] : EEOC “Waiting Period”3-86
    • § 3:4.11 : Theories Used by Accused Sexual Harassers Who Have Been Disciplined or Terminated3-88
    • § 3:4.12 : Attorney Fees Where Plaintiff’s Lawsuit Is Frivolous, Unreasonable, or Without Foundation3-89
Chapter 4: Race, Religion, and National Origin Discrimination
  • § 4:1 : Race4-2
    • § 4:1.1 : Subordinate Bias, “Cat’s Paw,” “Rubber Stamp” Theory4-3
    • § 4:1.2 : “Me-Too” Evidence4-5
    • § 4:1.3 : Summary Judgment Test in “Mixed-Motive” Cases4-7
    • § 4:1.4 : Adverse Employment Action4-8
    • § 4:1.5 : Reverse Bias in Promotional Examinations4-12
    • § 4:1.6 : Other Promotional Issues: Lists and Affirmative Action4-14
    • § 4:1.7 : Tests and Selection Procedures—EEOC Guidance Fact Sheet4-16
    • § 4:1.8 : EEOC Procedural and Compliance Issues4-19
    • § 4:1.9 : Insufficient Evidence of Race Discrimination/Bias4-22
    • § 4:1.10 : Sufficient Evidence of Race Discrimination/Bias4-26
    • § 4:1.11 : Title VII Class Action Issues4-30
    • § 4:1.12 : Title VII Standing4-31
  • § 4:2 : Religious Discrimination4-33
  • § 4:3 : National Origin Discrimination4-47
Chapter 5: Age Discrimination
  • § 5:1 : Introduction5-2
  • § 5:2 : Procedural Requirements5-5
    • § 5:2.1 : A “Charge” with the EEOC5-5
    • § 5:2.2 : Timeliness and Equitable Tolling5-7
    • § 5:2.3 : ADEA Safe Harbor—Retiree Benefit Plans5-10
  • § 5:3 : Who Is an Employer for Purposes of the ADEA?5-12
  • § 5:4 : Who Is an Employee for Purposes of the ADEA?5-16
    • § 5:4.1 : Generally5-16
    • § 5:4.2 : The Law Enforcement Exception5-17
  • § 5:5 : Plaintiff’s Burden to Prove a Prima Facie Case5-19
    • § 5:5.1 : Employer’s Legitimate Expectations5-25
    • § 5:5.2 : Stray Remarks5-27
    • § 5:5.3 : Similarly Situated5-29
  • § 5:6 : Employer’s Legitimate Nondiscriminatory Business Reason5-31
  • § 5:7 : Plaintiff’s Burden to Prove Employer’s Lawful Reason Is Pretext for Age Discrimination5-33
    • § 5:7.1 : Insufficient Evidence of Pretext5-33
    • § 5:7.2 : Sufficient Evidence of Pretext5-35
  • § 5:8 : Retaliation Against Protected Activity5-39
  • § 5:9 : Methods of Proof: Mixed Motives, Direct and Circumstantial, Pattern or Practice, and Disparate Treatment or Impact5-43
    • § 5:9.1 : Mixed Motives5-43
    • § 5:9.2 : Direct and Circumstantial Evidence5-47
    • § 5:9.3 : Pattern or Practice5-49
    • § 5:9.4 : Disparate-Impact Theory5-50
    • § 5:9.5 : Other Methods of Proof5-54
  • § 5:10 : Releases and Waivers5-56
    • § 5:10.1 : The Requirements of the OWBPA5-56
    • § 5:10.2 : Case Law Regarding OWBPA Releases5-59
      • [A] : Ratification and Tender Back Under the OWBPA5-59
      • [B] : Cure of the Defective Release5-60
      • [C] : Invalid Waiver As a Separate Cause of Action5-61
      • [D] : OWBPA Requirements Not Applied to Non-Age Claims5-62
    • § 5:10.3 : EEOC Regulations Regarding OWBPA Releases5-63
      • [A] : Wording of Waiver Agreements5-63
      • [B] : Waiver of Future Rights5-66
      • [C] : Consideration5-66
      • [D] : Consultation5-66
      • [E] : Time Periods5-67
      • [F] : Informational Requirements5-68
        • [F][1] : To Whom the Information Must Be Given5-69
        • [F][2] : Mandatory Information5-69
      • [G] : Waivers Settling Charges and Lawsuits5-71
      • [H] : EEOC’s Enforcement Powers5-72
        • [H][1] : Tender Back5-72
        • [H][2] : Covenants Not to Challenge Waiver5-73
        • [H][3] : Abrogation5-73
        • [H][4] : Burden5-73
  • § 5:11 : Other Issues5-74
    • § 5:11.1 : Arbitration of ADEA Claims5-74
    • § 5:11.2 : Remedies5-75
    • § 5:11.3 : Harassment Based on Age5-77
Chapter 6: EEO Class Actions
  • § 6:1 : Introduction6-3
  • § 6:2 : Recent Developments6-3
  • § 6:3 : Litigating Class Action Certification6-10
    • § 6:3.1 : Certification Elements of a Class Action6-10
      • [A] : Numerosity6-11
      • [B] : Commonality6-12
        • [B][1] : Need for Reasonable Connection Between the Claims of the Named Plaintiffs and the Alleged Class and Within the Class6-12
          • [B][1][a] : Commonality Based on Decentralized, Subjective Decision-Making and Dukes v. Wal-Mart6-14
        • [B][2] : Commonality in Harassment Cases6-22
      • [C] : Typicality6-23
      • [D] : Adequacy of Representation6-23
        • [D][1] : Adequacy of Counsel6-24
        • [D][2] : Relation Between Class Representatives and Class6-24
    • § 6:3.2 : Maintainability of the Class Action Suit—Fulfillment of Rule 23(b) Generally6-25
      • [A] : Opting Out6-27
      • [B] : Rule 23 Notice Amendments6-27
    • § 6:3.3 : Fulfillment of Rule 23(b) in Employment Discrimination Class Actions6-29
      • [A] : Certification Under Rule 23(b)(2) in Actions That Involve Compensatory and Punitive Damages6-29
      • [B] : Discrimination Class Actions Under Rule 23(b)(3)6-31
    • § 6:3.4 : Appellate Review of Class Certification Decisions6-32
      • [A] : Interlocutory Review6-32
      • [B] : Review After Named Plaintiff’s Claim Has Become Moot6-33
      • [C] : Interlocutory Appeal of Conditional FLSA Collective Actions6-34
    • § 6:3.5 : Other Class Action Issues6-34
  • § 6:4 : Disparate-Treatment and Disparate-Impact Cases6-36
    • § 6:4.1 : Disparate-Treatment Class Actions6-36
    • § 6:4.2 : Disparate-Impact Class Actions6-38
    • § 6:4.3 : Special Issues in Multi-Facility Cases6-40
  • § 6:5 : Punitive Damages in Disparate-Treatment Pattern-or-Practice Cases6-41
  • § 6:6 : Opt-In Class Actions6-43
  • § 6:7 : Class Action Fairness Act of 20056-44
    • § 6:7.1 : The Purpose and Intent of the Law6-45
    • § 6:7.2 : Basis for Federal Court Jurisdiction6-46
    • § 6:7.3 : What Is a Covered Class Action?6-50
  • § 6:8 : EEOC Litigation6-50
    • § 6:8.1 : Pursuing Pattern-or-Practice Claims Under Section 706 of Title VII6-50
    • § 6:8.2 : Statutes of Limitations Under Section 7076-58
    • § 6:8.3 : Rule 23’s Inapplicability to Pattern-or-Practice Claims6-60
    • § 6:8.4 : Attorney-Client Privilege6-63
  • § 6:9 : Statistical Evidence6-63
    • § 6:9.1 : Need for Appropriate, Probative Statistical Comparisons6-65
    • § 6:9.2 : Regression Analyses6-70
    • § 6:9.3 : Statistical Significance6-74
    • § 6:9.4 : Attacking Plaintiffs’ Statistics6-77
    • § 6:9.5 : Summary6-80
  • § 6:10 : Settlement of Class Actions6-81
    • § 6:10.1 : Rule 23 Amendments6-81
    • § 6:10.2 : Class Certification for Settlement6-83
Chapter 7: Americans with Disabilities Act
  • § 7:1 : Introduction7-3
  • § 7:2 : Recent Enforcement Statistics7-4
  • § 7:3 : Basic Issues Under the ADA7-6
    • § 7:3.1 : EEOC Regulations Implementing the ADAAA7-6
      • [A] : Revisions to “Actual Disability” Prong7-6
      • [B] : Revisions to “Record of” Prong7-8
      • [C] : Revisions to “Regarded as” Prong7-9
    • § 7:3.2 : Who Is a “Qualified Individual”?7-10
    • § 7:3.3 : Who Is Disabled?7-11
      • [A] : Physical or Mental Impairment7-12
      • [B] : Temporary or Intermittent, Episodic Impairments7-15
      • [C] : Substantial Limitation7-17
      • [D] : Major Life Activities7-22
      • [E] : Perceived Impairments7-24
      • [F] : Association with a Disabled Person7-25
      • [G] : Exclusions from the Definition of Disability7-26
        • [G][1] : Excluded Matters7-26
        • [G][2] : Drugs and Alcohol—Specific Provisions7-26
    • § 7:3.4 : Qualification7-28
      • [A] : Essential Functions of the Job7-28
      • [B] : Estoppel from Claiming Ability to Perform Essential Job Functions7-31
      • [C] : Direct Threat7-31
      • [D] : Causation7-32
    • § 7:3.5 : Ministerial Exception7-34
  • § 7:4 : Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodation7-35
    • § 7:4.1 : EEOC Reasonable Accommodation Enforcement Guidance7-36
    • § 7:4.2 : Statutory and Regulatory Examples of Reasonable Accommodation7-37
    • § 7:4.3 : When Is an Employer Obligated to Make a Reasonable Accommodation?7-39
    • § 7:4.4 : The Process for Identifying Reasonable Accommodations7-41
  • § 7:5 : What Is Reasonable Accommodation?7-44
    • § 7:5.1 : Accommodation for Applicants7-44
    • § 7:5.2 : Job Restructuring and Reallocation of Job Duties7-44
    • § 7:5.3 : Light Duty7-45
    • § 7:5.4 : Transfer or Reassignment to a Vacant Position7-45
      • [A] : Accommodation Required7-45
      • [B] : Accommodation Not Required Where Employee Fails to Identify Vacant Position for Which He or She Is Qualified7-48
      • [C] : Transfer to a New Position Is Accommodation of Last Resort7-49
    • § 7:5.5 : Modification of Work Schedule/Attendance Requirement7-50
      • [A] : Accommodation Required7-50
      • [B] : Accommodation Not Required7-51
    • § 7:5.6 : Work at Home/Work Outside the Office7-52
    • § 7:5.7 : Transportation to and from Work7-54
    • § 7:5.8 : Requests for Leave7-54
    • § 7:5.9 : Modifying No-Fault Attendance Policies As a Reasonable Accommodation7-55
    • § 7:5.10 : Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodation for Perceived Disability7-56
  • § 7:6 : Disability Harassment7-56
  • § 7:7 : Job Application Procedures: Pre- and Post-Offer Inquiries7-57
    • § 7:7.1 : Pre-Offer Inquiries7-58
      • [A] : Disability-Related Questions7-59
      • [B] : Liability for Improper Inquiries of Applicants Without Disability Status7-61
    • § 7:7.2 : Post-Offer Inquiries7-64
    • § 7:7.3 : Qualification Standards in Hiring7-66
    • § 7:7.4 : Medical Examinations and Safeguarding Medical Information7-68
      • [A] : What Is a Medical Examination?7-69
      • [B] : What Constitutes a Conditional Job Offer After Which a Medical Examination May Be Required?7-70
    • § 7:7.5 : Other Lawful Disability-Related Inquiries and Medical Examinations7-70
  • § 7:8 : Employer Defenses to Requests for Reasonable Accommodation7-71
    • § 7:8.1 : Undue Hardship7-72
    • § 7:8.2 : Direct Threat to Health or Safety of Individual or Others7-72
    • § 7:8.3 : Limitation Period7-73
  • § 7:9 : Regulations Implementing ADA Equal Employment Provisions7-75
    • § 7:9.1 : Employee Health Insurance Plans7-75
    • § 7:9.2 : Voluntary Wellness Programs7-75
  • § 7:10 : Relief Available Under the ADA7-76
Chapter 8: Employee Privacy Law
  • § 8:1 : Introduction8-5
  • § 8:2 : Pre-Employment Inquiries8-6
    • § 8:2.1 : A Framework for the Interview Process8-6
    • § 8:2.2 : Prohibited Subjects8-7
      • [A] : Name/Marital Status8-7
      • [B] : Age/Birthdate8-8
      • [C] : Health and Physical Condition8-8
      • [D] : AIDS8-9
      • [E] : Arrest Records8-10
      • [F] : Convictions8-12
      • [G] : National Origin and Citizenship8-14
      • [H] : Religion8-15
      • [I] : Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Family Status8-15
      • [J] : Past Drug Use8-16
      • [K] : Genetic Information8-17
      • [L] : Facially Neutral Criteria8-17
    • § 8:2.3 : Using the Internet to Research Applicant’s Background8-18
    • § 8:2.4 : Best Practices for the Interview Process8-19
      • [A] : Brief the Recruiters and Interviewers8-19
      • [B] : Adopt a Checklist8-19
      • [C] : Allocate Interview Responsibility8-20
      • [D] : Provide Examples of Permissible Questions8-20
      • [E] : Use Evaluation Forms8-20
      • [F] : Guidelines Based on ADA Provisions8-20
  • § 8:3 : The Employer’s Need to Know Versus the Employee’s Right to Privacy—The Bases of the Right to Privacy8-21
    • § 8:3.1 : Constitutional8-21
      • [A] : Federal8-21
        • [A][1] : Searches by Public Employers8-22
        • [A][2] : Investigations of Applicants and Employees by Public Employers8-25
      • [B] : New York8-26
      • [C] : California8-26
        • [C][1] : Hill v. NCAA8-27
        • [C][2] : Analyzing Privacy Interests in the Employment Context8-29
        • [C][3] : Hill’s Progeny8-29
    • § 8:3.2 : Statutory8-32
      • [A] : Federal8-32
        • [A][1] : Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 19868-32
      • [B] : States8-34
        • [B][1] : New York8-34
        • [B][2] : California8-36
    • § 8:3.3 : Common-Law Privacy Protections for Private Employees8-38
      • [A] : California8-39
      • [B] : New York8-39
    • § 8:3.4 : Application of Privacy Laws to Technology8-39
      • [A] : Email8-40
      • [B] : Blogs and Social Media8-43
      • [C] : GPS Tracking8-45
    • § 8:3.5 : Reasons to Monitor Employees’ Use of Electronic Media8-47
    • § 8:3.6 : Third-Party Discovery of Employee Information8-48
    • § 8:3.7 : NLRA Implications for Employee Privacy Policies8-49
    • § 8:3.8 : Tort Liability8-51
    • § 8:3.9 : Application of the Right to Privacy8-52
      • [A] : Whether an Employee’s Expectation of Privacy Is Reasonable8-52
      • [B] : Analyzing the Employer’s and the Employee’s Competing Interests8-53
        • [B][1] : Federal Cases8-53
        • [B][2] : New York8-55
        • [B][3] : California8-55
    • § 8:3.10 : Practical Guidelines for Employee Searches8-57
  • § 8:4 : Substance Abuse8-58
    • § 8:4.1 : In General8-58
    • § 8:4.2 : Determining the Appropriate Type of Drug and Alcohol Policy8-59
      • [A] : Determine the Extent and Risk of Drug and Alcohol Use by Employees8-59
      • [B] : Determine Whether Federal or State Law Requires or Prohibits Any Particular Drug or Alcohol Policy in Your Workplace8-59
        • [B][1] : Legal Requirements for Federal Contractors and Grantees8-60
          • [B][1][a] : The Drug-Free Work Place Act8-60
          • [B][1][b] : Defense, Transportation, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations8-60
          • [B][1][c] : OSHA Regulations8-61
          • [B][1][d] : State Requirements8-61
        • [B][2] : Legal Restrictions on Drug Testing8-61
          • [B][2][a] : U.S. Supreme Court Cases8-62
          • [B][2][b] : Lessons of the Customs and Railway Cases8-63
          • [B][2][c] : Random Drug Testing Addressed by U.S. Supreme Court8-64
          • [B][2][d] : California Cases8-65
          • [B][2][e] : California and Ninth Circuit Decisions Regarding the Constitutionality of Drug Tests8-66
        • [B][3] : Civil Rights Statutes8-67
        • [B][4] : Potential Liability Under Common-Law Tort8-67
          • [B][4][a] : Defamation and Invasion of Privacy8-68
          • [B][4][b] : Negligent Hiring and/or Retention of Employees8-68
          • [B][4][c] : False Imprisonment8-69
          • [B][4][d] : False Arrest8-69
    • § 8:4.3 : Considerations When Adopting a Drug or Alcohol Policy8-70
      • [A] : Any Drug and Alcohol Policy Should Be Communicated in Writing8-70
      • [B] : Considering a Rehabilitative Option8-71
      • [C] : A Supervisor’s Role Should Be Determined and Communicated8-71
      • [D] : Consider Other Preventive Measures and Investigative Techniques8-72
      • [E] : Consider Negative Implications Before Adopting a Drug-Testing Program8-73
    • § 8:4.4 : Developing a Drug-Testing Policy8-74
    • § 8:4.5 : Implementing Drug-Testing Policies8-77
    • § 8:4.6 : Drug-Testing and the Legalization of Marijuana8-78
  • § 8:5 : Investigations and Testing on Prospective and Current Employees8-79
    • § 8:5.1 : Conducting Background Investigations on Prospective and Current Employees Through a Consumer Reporting Agency8-79
      • [A] : Initial Issues to Address Before Conducting Background Investigations8-82
        • [A][1] : Determining the Applicants on Whom to Perform Background Checks8-82
        • [A][2] : Information to Be Obtained from Background Checks8-83
        • [A][3] : Who Should Perform Background Checks8-83
        • [A][4] : Information Employers Should Obtain from Applicants to Perform Background Checks8-83
      • [B] : The Fair Credit Reporting Act and Its Amendments8-84
        • [B][1] : What Is a “Consumer Report”?8-85
        • [B][2] : What Is a CRA?8-85
        • [B][3] : Inquiries Should Be Job-Related8-85
        • [B][4] : Obsolete Information8-86
        • [B][5] : Penalties for Noncompliance8-86
      • [C] : Supplemental California Laws8-86
        • [C][1] : California’s Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies Act8-87
        • [C][2] : California’s Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act8-87
      • [D] : Supplemental New York Laws8-88
      • [E] : Summary of Steps an Employer Should Take When Requesting Consumer Reports8-89
        • [E][1] : Provide Initial Notice and Obtain Written Authorization8-89
          • [E][1][a] : Additional Initial Disclosure Requirements for Consumer Credit Reports Under the CCRAA8-89
          • [E][1][b] : Additional Requirements for Investigative Consumer Reports8-89
        • [E][2] : Provide Certification of Compliance to the CRA8-91
          • [E][2][a] : Additional Certification That an Employer Should Make to the CRA When Requesting an Investigative Consumer Report8-92
        • [E][3] : Provide the Consumer with Information8-92
        • [E][4] : Provide Adverse Action Notice After Adverse Employment Action Has Been Taken8-92
        • [E][5] : Under the ICRAA, Investigative Information May Be Disclosed in All Cases8-93
    • § 8:5.2 : Compiling Background Information Without Utilizing the Services of a CRS and Conducting Internal Investigations8-94
      • [A] : When an Employer Uses an Outside Entity for an Internal Investigation8-94
      • [B] : When an Employer Does Not Use an Outside Entity to Compile Investigative Information or Conduct an Investigation8-96
        • [B][1] : Investigative Consumer Reports That an Employer Compiles in Connection with Its Application Process8-97
          • [B][1][a] : References8-97
          • [B][1][b] : Prior Employers8-97
        • [B][2] : Internal Investigations That an Employer Conducts in Response to an Allegation or Suspicion of Employee Misconduct or Wrongdoing8-98
          • [B][2][a] : Public Records8-98
          • [B][2][b] : Attorney-Client Privilege/Attorney Work Product8-99
    • § 8:5.3 : Polygraph Examinations8-101
      • [A] : In General8-101
      • [B] : Record Keeping8-102
      • [C] : Rights of the Examinee8-102
    • § 8:5.4 : Honesty Testing8-104
    • § 8:5.5 : Tests of Skills and Abilities8-104
    • § 8:5.6 : Psychological and Psychiatric Testing8-105
    • § 8:5.7 : Personality Testing8-106
    • § 8:5.8 : Fingerprints and Photographs8-106
    • § 8:5.9 : Genetic Testing8-107
Chapter 9: Guarding Trade Secrets
  • § 9:1 : Introduction9-3
  • § 9:2 : What Is a Trade Secret?9-4
    • § 9:2.1 : Defend Trade Secrets Act9-4
      • [A] : Definitions9-5
      • [B] : Ex Parte Seizure Orders9-7
      • [C] : Early Cases9-9
    • § 9:2.2 : Uniform Trade Secrets Act and the California Definition9-11
      • [A] : Secrecy9-14
        • [A][1] : Publicly Known Through Internet Disclosure9-16
      • [B] : Reasonable Efforts to Preserve Secrecy9-17
        • [B][1] : Confidentiality Agreements9-18
        • [B][2] : Alerts/Reminders of Confidential Nature of Trade Secrets9-18
        • [B][3] : Limited “Need-to-Know” Access9-19
        • [B][4] : Avoiding Public Disclosure of Trade Secrets9-20
      • [C] : Value Derived from Secrecy9-20
    • § 9:2.3 : Restatement of Torts and the New York Definition9-21
    • § 9:2.4 : Trade Secret Protection Checklist9-24
  • § 9:3 : Keeping Employees from Competing or Working for Competitors upon Their Departure9-26
    • § 9:3.1 : Background9-26
    • § 9:3.2 : State Enforcement of Covenants Not to Compete9-29
      • [A] : Legitimate Interest of the Employer9-32
        • [A][1] : Trade Secrets9-34
        • [A][2] : Customer Lists9-34
        • [A][3] : Customer Solicitation9-35
        • [A][4] : An Employee’s Unique Services As a “Legitimate Employer Interest”9-36
      • [B] : Reasonableness Standard9-38
      • [C] : Other Considerations9-40
    • § 9:3.3 : Garden Leave and Notice Provisions9-41
    • § 9:3.4 : The Employee Choice Doctrine9-42
    • § 9:3.5 : Non-Compete Covenants Under California Law9-44
      • [A] : The California Rule and Its Application9-44
        • [A][1] : The Policy Behind the California Rule9-45
        • [A][2] : Choice-of-Law and Forum-Selection Provisions9-45
        • [A][3] : Overly Broad Non-Compete Provisions9-47
      • [B] : Enforceability of Non-Compete Clauses That Limit but Do Not Prohibit Competition9-47
        • [B][1] : Covenants by Employees Not to Use or Disclose Trade Secrets9-47
        • [B][2] : Narrow Restraint Exception9-47
        • [B][3] : Trade Secrets Exception9-48
        • [B][4] : Other Statutory Exceptions9-50
      • [C] : Enforcement of Non-Solicitation Clauses9-51
        • [C][1] : What Is “Solicitation”?9-51
        • [C][2] : Customer Solicitation9-51
        • [C][3] : “Raiding” Competitors’ Employees9-52
        • [C][4] : No-Hire Agreements9-52
  • § 9:4 : Preventing Departing Employees from Using or Disclosing Trade Secrets9-54
    • § 9:4.1 : Background9-54
    • § 9:4.2 : Sources of Protection for Employers9-54
      • [A] : Civil Remedies for Trade Secret Misappropriation9-54
        • [A][1] : Basis for Liability9-54
        • [A][2] : Available Remedies9-56
        • [A][3] : Limitations Periods9-57
        • [A][4] : Risks Associated with Civil Discovery9-58
      • [B] : Inevitable Disclosure Doctrine9-59
        • [B][1] : States Adopting the Doctrine9-60
        • [B][2] : States Rejecting the Doctrine9-64
      • [C] : Other Potential Remedies Available to the Employer9-64
        • [C][1] : Common-Law Duty of Loyalty and Law of Unfair Competition9-64
        • [C][2] : Tortious Interference with Contractual Relations9-65
        • [C][3] : Computer Fraud and Abuse Act9-66
          • [C][3][a] : Broad View9-67
          • [C][3][b] : Narrow View9-71
          • [C][3][c] : Recent Trends9-76
          • [C][3][d] : Future Outlook9-82
        • [C][4] : Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act9-83
      • [D] : Effect of Trade Secret Preemption9-83
      • [E] : Criminal Statutes9-84
        • [E][1] : Federal Statutes9-84
        • [E][2] : California Statutes9-91
        • [E][3] : New York Statutes9-92
  • § 9:5 : A Primer on Strategy: Before and After an Employee Leaves9-93
    • § 9:5.1 : Establishing and Maintaining Secrecy9-93
      • [A] : Confidentiality Agreements9-94
      • [B] : Non-Compete, Non-Solicitation, and Nondisclosure Provisions; Severability Clause9-95
      • [C] : Confidentiality Alerts/Reminders9-97
      • [D] : Limited Access9-97
      • [E] : Avoiding Public Disclosure9-98
    • § 9:5.2 : What to Do When an Employee Leaves9-98
      • [A] : Exit Interview9-98
      • [B] : Search of Departing Employee’s Workspace/Computer9-100
      • [C] : Forensic Analysis of Employee’s Computer9-101
      • [D] : Follow-Up Letters9-105
      • [E] : Restrictive Covenants9-106
      • [F] : Risk Monitoring9-107
Chapter 10: Whistleblowing and Other Retaliation Claims
  • § 10:1 : Introduction10-3
  • § 10:2 : An Overview of Retaliation Under the EEO Laws10-6
    • § 10:2.1 : The Retaliation Analysis10-9
    • § 10:2.2 : The Prima Facie Case10-11
      • [A] : Element 1: Protected Activity10-11
        • [A][1] : The Opposition Clause10-15
          • [A][1][a] : Examples of Protected Opposition Activity10-17
          • [A][1][b] : Examples of Unprotected Opposition Activity10-22
          • [A][1][c] : Reasonable and Non-Disruptive Requirement10-27
          • [A][1][d] : Reasonable, Good-Faith Belief Requirement10-29
        • [A][2] : The Participation Clause10-36
          • [A][2][a] : Participation in Litigation Process10-36
            • [A][2][a][i] : Examples of Protected Participation Activity10-36
            • [A][2][a][ii] : Examples of Non-Protected Participation Activity10-37
          • [A][2][b] : Lying During an Investigation10-39
      • [B] : Element 2: Adverse Employment Action10-40
        • [B][1] : Standard for Evaluating Whether an Employer’s Action Is Retaliatory10-41
          • [B][1][a] : Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co. v. White10-41
          • [B][1][b] : Cases Interpreting Burlington10-43
        • [B][2] : Retaliation Based on Use of Judicial Process10-52
        • [B][3] : Retaliatory Hostile Work Environment10-54
        • [B][4] : Third-Party Retaliation10-56
          • [B][4][a] : Retaliation Against “Closely Related” Individuals and Associational Retaliation10-56
          • [B][4][b] : Retaliation by Different Entities10-60
        • [B][5] : When the Employee Asserting a Claim Is an Attorney10-61
          • [B][5][a] : Generally10-61
          • [B][5][b] : Retaliation Claims by Attorneys10-62
          • [B][5][c] : Retaliatory Discharge Claims by Attorneys10-64
      • [C] : Element 3: Proof of Causal Connection10-67
        • [C][1] : Direct Evidence of Retaliation10-67
        • [C][2] : Circumstantial Evidence of Retaliation10-76
          • [C][2][a] : Proving Causation with Circumstantial Evidence of Retaliation10-77
          • [C][2][b] : Temporal Proximity10-77
            • [C][2][b][i] : Cases Holding Inference of Causation Exists10-79
            • [C][2][b][ii] : Cases Holding Inference of Causation Does Not Exist10-82
        • [C][3] : Retaliatory Action Imputable to Employer10-84
          • [C][3][a] : “Cat’s Paw” Theory of Liability10-85
          • [C][3][b] : Retaliatory Harassment10-88
            • [C][3][b][i] : Retaliatory Acts Will Be Imputed to Employer Where Employer Orchestrated Harassment10-88
            • [C][3][b][ii] : Retaliatory Acts Will Be Imputed to Employer Where Employer Orchestrated Harassment, Knew About Harassment, or Failed to Stop It10-89
        • [C][4] : Prior Criticism of Performance10-91
    • § 10:2.3 : Rebutting the Prima Facie Case—Legitimate Business Reasons and the Employer’s Lack of Retaliatory Intent10-93
    • § 10:2.4 : Pretext10-97
  • § 10:3 : Sarbanes-Oxley and Whistleblower Law10-98
    • § 10:3.1 : Recent Amendments10-100
    • § 10:3.2 : Recent Case Law Developments10-100
  • § 10:4 : Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 201010-112
    • § 10:4.1 : Whistleblower Incentives10-113
    • § 10:4.2 : Whistleblower Protections10-115
      • [A] : Scope of Protections10-116
      • [B] : Pre-Dispute Arbitration Agreements/Waivers of Claims10-119
    • § 10:4.3 : New Consumer Financial Whistleblower Protections10-120
Chapter 11: Employee Blogging and Social Media
  • § 11:1 : Introduction11-2
  • § 11:2 : General Concerns with Employee Blogging and Social Networking11-4
  • § 11:3 : Ownership of Business-Related Blogs and Social Media Content11-6
  • § 11:4 : Laws and Regulations Governing Employee and Employer Liability11-8
    • § 11:4.1 : National Labor Relations Act11-9
      • [A] : Scope of Protected “Concerted Activity”11-9
      • [B] : Lawful Social Media Policies11-10
        • [B][1] : Recent NLRB Decisions11-10
        • [B][2] : Guidance from the NLRB’s Office of the General Counsel11-16
      • [C] : Lawful and Unlawful Discipline for Violations of Social Media Policies11-20
        • [C][1] : Unlawful Discipline11-21
        • [C][2] : Lawful Discipline11-25
    • § 11:4.2 : Federal Trade Commission Guidelines for Employee Reviews of Company Products11-26
    • § 11:4.3 : Negligent Supervision Liability for Employee Online Activity11-26
    • § 11:4.4 : Whistleblowing, the First Amendment, and Retaliation11-27
      • [A] : Whistleblower and Retaliation Laws11-27
      • [B] : The First Amendment and Retaliation Jurisprudence11-29
    • § 11:4.5 : Equal Employment Opportunity Laws11-34
      • [A] : Social Media and Hiring Decisions11-35
      • [B] : Discovery of Current Employees’ Protected Status or Protected Activity Through Social Media11-39
      • [C] : Obligation to Rectify Complaints of Unlawful Conduct11-40
      • [D] : Nondiscriminatory Investigation and Enforcement of Social Media Policies11-41
    • § 11:4.6 : Restrictive Covenants11-42
    • § 11:4.7 : State Laws Pertaining to Off-Duty Conduct11-43
      • [A] : New York Labor Law11-44
      • [B] : California Labor Law11-45
    • § 11:4.8 : The Right to Privacy and the Stored Communications Act11-47
    • § 11:4.9 : New Laws Prohibiting Employers’ Access to Employees’ Social Media Accounts11-49
  • § 11:5 : Utilizing Social Media in Investigations and Litigation11-53
    • § 11:5.1 : Social Media Considerations in Workplace Investigations11-53
    • § 11:5.2 : Scope of Discoverability of Blogs and Social Media11-54
    • § 11:5.3 : Methods of Discovering Blogs and Social Media11-59
    • § 11:5.4 : The Importance of Prompt Discovery Notices11-60
    • § 11:5.5 : Limitations on Attorney Research Using Blogs and Social Networking Sites11-62
    • § 11:5.6 : Publicizing Litigation Proceedings via Blogs and Social Networks11-64
Chapter 12: Family, Medical, and Military Leave: Recent Developments Under the FMLA and USERRA
  • § 12:1 : Introduction12-3
  • § 12:2 : FMLA and Interpreting Regulations12-4
    • § 12:2.1 : Basic Requirements12-4
      • [A] : “Covered Employer”12-5
        • [A][1] : Applicable Regulations12-5
        • [A][2] : Selected Cases12-5
      • [B] : “Successor in Interest”12-6
        • [B][1] : Applicable Regulations12-6
        • [B][2] : Selected Cases12-7
      • [C] : “Eligible Employee”12-8
        • [C][1] : Applicable Regulations12-8
        • [C][2] : Selected Cases12-10
      • [D] : Reasons for Leave12-11
        • [D][1] : Applicable Regulations12-11
        • [D][2] : Selected Cases12-14
      • [E] : Amount of Leave Entitlement12-16
        • [E][1] : Applicable Regulations12-16
        • [E][2] : Selected Cases12-18
      • [F] : Serious Health Condition12-19
        • [F][1] : Applicable Regulations12-19
        • [F][2] : Selected Cases12-20
    • § 12:2.2 : Employee’s Obligation to Provide Notice of Need for Leave12-23
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations12-23
      • [B] : Selected Cases12-24
    • § 12:2.3 : Employer’s Obligation to Designate Leave and to Provide Notice of Rights12-25
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations12-25
      • [B] : Selected Cases12-28
    • § 12:2.4 : Healthcare Provider’s Certification12-29
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations12-29
      • [B] : Selected Cases12-32
    • § 12:2.5 : Substitution of Paid Leave12-34
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations12-34
    • § 12:2.6 : Continuation of Health Insurance12-35
    • § 12:2.7 : Intermittent and Reduced Leave Schedules Under the FMLA12-35
    • § 12:2.8 : Right to Reinstatement12-36
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations12-36
      • [B] : Selected Cases12-38
    • § 12:2.9 : Prohibition of Interference, Discrimination, or Retaliation12-40
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations12-40
      • [B] : Selected Cases: Discrimination and Retaliation12-42
      • [C] : Selected Cases: Interference12-52
    • § 12:2.10 : Eleventh Amendment Sovereign Immunity12-58
    • § 12:2.11 : Statute of Limitations12-59
      • [A] : Applicable Statute12-59
      • [B] : Selected Cases12-59
    • § 12:2.12 : Personal Liability12-60
    • § 12:2.13 : Relief Available Under the FMLA12-60
      • [A] : Applicable Statute12-60
      • [B] : Selected Cases12-61
    • § 12:2.14 : Waiver of Rights Under the FMLA12-62
    • § 12:2.15 : Miscellaneous Issues12-63
      • [A] : Arbitration of FMLA Claims12-63
      • [B] : FMLA Preemption12-63
      • [C] : Bankruptcy Estoppel12-64
      • [D] : Exacerbation Claims Under the FMLA12-64
  • § 12:3 : Military Leave12-65
    • § 12:3.1 : Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 199412-65
      • [A] : Important Concepts Under USERRA12-67
      • [B] : Reemployment Rights12-68
        • [B][1] : Employee’s Responsibility to Provide Documentation of Service12-69
        • [B][2] : Returning Employees’ Employment Rights12-69
        • [B][3] : Disabled Employees’ Rights Under USERRA12-70
        • [B][4] : Selected Cases12-71
      • [C] : Changed Circumstances12-73
      • [D] : Compensation and Benefits12-73
      • [E] : Prohibition on Discrimination and Acts of Reprisal12-75
        • [E][1] : Important Concepts12-75
        • [E][2] : Selected Cases12-76
      • [F] : Release of USERRA Claims12-78
      • [G] : Arbitration of USERRA Claims12-80
      • [H] : Eleventh Amendment Sovereign Immunity and State Law Preemption—Selected Cases12-80
Chapter 13: Arbitration
  • § 13:1 : Introduction13-2
  • § 13:2 : Class Action Arbitration and Waivers13-5
    • § 13:2.1 : Whether Arbitration of Class Claims Is Permissible13-5
    • § 13:2.2 : The Enforceability of Class Action Waivers13-8
      • [A] : General Principles and Concepcion13-8
      • [B] : The Impact of Concepcion in California13-13
      • [C] : Impact of Concepcion Outside of California13-17
      • [D] : Concepcion and the National Labor Relations Act13-20
    • § 13:2.3 : Whether Federal Statutory and State Law Employment Claims Are Arbitrable13-24
      • [A] : Title VII13-25
      • [B] : Age Discrimination in Employment Act and the Waiver Restrictions of the Older Workers Benefit Protection Act13-26
      • [C] : Fair Labor Standards Act13-27
      • [D] : Sarbanes-Oxley13-28
      • [E] : USERRA Claims13-31
      • [F] : State Law Claims13-32
  • § 13:3 : Whether an Arbitration Agreement Will Be Given Full Effect If It Does Not Provide All Available Statutory Remedies13-33
    • § 13:3.1 : Background13-33
    • § 13:3.2 : Punitive Damages13-33
    • § 13:3.3 : Attorney Fees13-35
    • § 13:3.4 : Equitable Relief13-36
  • § 13:4 : Enforceability of Arbitration Agreements13-36
    • § 13:4.1 : Enforceability of Agreements in Employment Documents, Contracts, Partnership Agreements, and Employee Handbooks13-36
    • § 13:4.2 : Whether the Agreement to Arbitrate Must Be Knowing and Voluntary13-38
    • § 13:4.3 : Whether an Agreement to Arbitrate Is an Unconscionable Contract of Adhesion13-40
      • [A] : Procedural Unconscionability13-40
      • [B] : Substantive Unconscionability13-41
    • § 13:4.4 : Whether the Employer Must Pay All Arbitration Costs13-43
    • § 13:4.5 : Whether Arbitration Agreements Are Enforceable by Third Parties13-46
  • § 13:5 : EEOC Litigation on Behalf of Employee Subject to an Agreement to Arbitrate13-47
  • § 13:6 : Questions of Arbitrability: Who Decides?13-48
  • § 13:7 : The Scope of Judicial Review of Arbitration Awards13-51
    • § 13:7.1 : Limited Grounds for Vacating an Arbitration Award13-51
    • § 13:7.2 : “Manifest Disregard of the Law”13-52
    • § 13:7.3 : Other Grounds for Judicial Review13-54
  • § 13:8 : Whether the Right to Compel Arbitration Can Be Waived13-57
  • § 13:9 : Conclusion13-59
  Table of Cases
  Index

  Please click here to view the latest update information for this title: Last Update Information  
 

Share
Email
UPKEEP SERVICE
Your purchase will also sign you up for “Upkeep Service,” whereby you will receive future automatic shipments of updates, new editions and supplements to this edition, as they become available, for a 30-day preview. Updates, new editions and supplements published within 90 days of your purchase will be issued free of charge; all other updates will be subject to an additional charge if kept beyond the preview period, invoiced at the time of delivery. This service will continue until canceled by you at any time. See here.

  • FOLLOW PLI:
  • twitter
  • LinkedIn
  • GooglePlus
  • RSS

All Contents Copyright © 1996-2017 Practising Law Institute. Continuing Legal Education since 1933.

© 2017 PLI PRACTISING LAW INSTITUTE. All rights reserved. The PLI logo is a service mark of PLI.