TreatiseTreatise

Directors' and Officers' Liability: Current Law, Recent Developments, Emerging Issues (3rd Edition)

 by Barry M Kaplan, Gregory L Watts
 
 Copyright: 2016-2017
 Last Updated: November 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402424892
  • Page Count: 622
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

The third edition of Directors’ and Officers’ Liability provides an up-to-date, straightforward explanation of the obligations of directors and officers of public companies, the penalties that they face if they fail to meet their obligations, and the protections that are offered them under the law or by agreement.

Authors Barry Kaplan and Gregory Watts (Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati) guide readers through the sources of law governing the duties of directors and officers; exculpation, indemnity, and insurance; cybersecurity and other topics of utmost importance to directors and officers.

Directors’ and Officers’ Liability is an essential resource for directors and officers, and the attorneys who advise them, as well as business managers, business associations, and federal and state regulators.
  Preface
  Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Sources of the Laws, Rules and Requirements That Govern the Duties of Directors and Officers
  • § 1:1 : Introduction1-2
  • § 1:2 : State Corporate Law1-3
  • § 1:3 : Model Business or Corporation Codes1-6
  • § 1:4 : Corporate Charter and Bylaws1-7
    • § 1:4.1 : Delaware Exclusive Venue Provisions1-8
  • § 1:5 : Corporate Contracts, Including Indemnification Agreements and Officer Employment Agreements1-8
  • § 1:6 : State Securities Laws1-9
  • § 1:7 : Federal Securities and Criminal Law1-9
  • § 1:8 : Sarbanes-Oxley and Dodd-Frank1-10
  • § 1:9 : Expectations of Institutional and Retail Investors1-11
    • § 1:9.1 : Institutional Investors1-11
      • [A] : State and Labor Union Pension Funds1-11
      • [B] : Hedge Funds1-13
    • § 1:9.2 : Retail Investors1-15
  • § 1:10 : Standards Established by Proxy Advisors1-16
  • § 1:11 : Stock Exchange Listing Requirements1-16
  • § 1:12 : Director and Officer Professional Development Organizations1-17
Chapter 2: Board Committees
  • § 2:1 : Overview2-3
  • § 2:2 : Delegation to and Reliance on Board Committees2-4
    • § 2:2.1 : Delegation2-4
    • § 2:2.2 : Reliance2-5
  • § 2:3 : Board Committees2-7
    • § 2:3.1 : The Independent Director2-7
      • [A] : Definition and Practice2-7
      • [B] : Legal Requirements2-8
        • [B][1] : Corporate Law2-8
        • [B][2] : Stock Exchange Rules2-9
        • [B][3] : SEC Disclosure2-13
    • § 2:3.2 : Audit Committee2-13
      • [A] : Origin and Development2-13
      • [B] : Justification2-14
      • [C] : Membership and Qualifications2-15
        • [C][1] : Independence and Financial Literacy2-15
        • [C][2] : The Financial Expert2-17
        • [C][3] : Size and Structure2-20
      • [D] : Duties2-20
        • [D][1] : General; The Charter2-20
        • [D][2] : Auditing2-25
          • [D][2][a] : External Auditing2-25
          • [D][2][b] : Internal Auditing2-27
        • [D][3] : Complaint Procedures and Investigations2-28
        • [D][4] : Risk Management2-29
        • [D][5] : Compliance2-33
      • [E] : Related Obligations of Officers and Directors2-34
        • [E][1] : Officer Certification2-34
          • [E][1][a] : Content of the Certification2-36
          • [E][1][b] : Form of Certification2-44
          • [E][1][c] : Penalties for Improper Certification2-46
        • [E][2] : Improper Influence on Audits2-47
        • [E][3] : Prohibition on Retaliation Against Whistleblowers2-49
          • [E][3][a] : Dodd-Frank Whistleblower Provisions and SEC Implementing Rules2-55
    • § 2:3.3 : Nominating/Corporate Governance Committee2-67
      • [A] : Justification and Background2-67
      • [B] : Composition and Charter2-68
      • [C] : Duties2-69
        • [C][1] : Nominating Responsibilities2-69
          • [C][1][a] : Board Membership Policies2-69
          • [C][1][b] : Recruiting and Nominating Directors2-70
          • [C][1][c] : Assigning Directors to Committees2-73
          • [C][1][d] : Planning for Management Succession2-74
        • [C][2] : Corporate Governance Responsibilities2-74
          • [C][2][a] : Corporate Governance Guidelines2-75
          • [C][2][b] : Management and Board Evaluation2-76
          • [C][2][c] : Director Compensation2-77
          • [C][2][d] : Review and Revision of Board Policies2-78
          • [C][2][e] : Director Orientation and Education2-79
          • [C][2][f] : Shareholder Communication2-79
    • § 2:3.4 : Compensation Committee2-84
      • [A] : Justification and Background2-84
      • [B] : Composition and Charter2-86
        • [B][1] : Relationship with Compensation Consultants2-91
        • [B][2] : Risk-Based Compensation2-93
      • [C] : Duties2-97
        • [C][1] : Determining CEO Compensation2-97
          • [C][1][a] : Option Backdating and Other Manipulation2-100
        • [C][2] : Other Compensation Policies2-115
        • [C][3] : Shareholder Disclosure2-115
        • [C][4] : Special Compensation Arrangements2-116
      • [D] : Related Executive Compensation Issues2-117
        • [D][1] : Clawbacks2-117
        • [D][2] : Freeze on Extraordinary Payments2-120
    • § 2:3.5 : Legal Compliance/Ethics Committee2-122
      • [A] : Justification and Background2-122
      • [B] : Generalities2-123
      • [C] : Duties2-124
        • [C][1] : Legal Compliance2-124
          • [C][1][a] : Supervision of Compliance2-124
          • [C][1][b] : Attorney Reporting/Qualified Legal Compliance Committee2-125
          • [C][1][c] : Internal Investigations2-127
        • [C][2] : Ethics2-128
      • [D] : Related Restrictions on Executives2-132
    • § 2:3.6 : Disclosure Committee2-133
      • [A] : Background2-133
      • [B] : Disclosure Controls2-133
      • [C] : Disclosure Committee2-135
      • [D] : Special Disclosure Issues2-136
        • [D][1] : Off-Balance Sheet Disclosure in Management’s Discussion and Analysis2-136
        • [D][2] : Reconciliation of Non-GAAP or Pro Forma Financial Measures2-139
        • [D][3] : Real-Time Disclosures2-140
        • [D][4] : Mandatory SEC Review of Disclosure2-141
Chapter 3: Duties and Liabilities of Directors and Officers Under State Corporate Law
  • § 3:1 : Overview3-3
  • § 3:2 : The Basics—Who Are Directors and Officers, and What Do They Do?3-4
    • § 3:2.1 : Directors3-4
    • § 3:2.2 : Officers3-8
  • § 3:3 : Breach of the Duty of Loyalty3-13
    • § 3:3.1 : Overview3-13
    • § 3:3.2 : Sources of the Duty of Loyalty3-16
    • § 3:3.3 : Relationship with the Duty of Care and Business Judgment Rule3-17
    • § 3:3.4 : Relationship with Good Faith Requirement3-17
    • § 3:3.5 : Interested Party Transactions3-18
      • [A] : What Constitutes a Material Self-Interest?3-20
      • [B] : Safe Harbor Statutes3-22
      • [C] : Importance of Disclosure in Obtaining Approval or Ratification3-25
      • [D] : Statutory Effect of Approval or Ratification3-25
    • § 3:3.6 : Director and Officer Compensation Decisions3-27
      • [A] : Compensation Approved by Disinterested and Independent Directors3-28
      • [B] : Compensation Approved or Ratified by Shareholders3-32
    • § 3:3.7 : Mergers with Controlling Shareholders3-33
    • § 3:3.8 : Service on Multiple Boards3-34
    • § 3:3.9 : Competition with Corporation3-36
    • § 3:3.10 : Usurpation of Corporate Opportunity3-37
      • [A] : Rationale3-38
      • [B] : Standards3-38
        • [B][1] : Interest or Expectancy Test3-39
        • [B][2] : Line of Business Test3-39
        • [B][3] : ALI Test3-40
      • [C] : Key Factors in Assessing Whether Corporate Opportunity Has Been Usurped3-41
      • [D] : Officer and Director Liabilities3-42
      • [E] : Corporation’s Rules3-42
    • § 3:3.11 : Improper Use of Confidential Corporate Information3-43
    • § 3:3.12 : Conscious Disregard of Responsibilities—Caremark Claims3-44
    • § 3:3.13 : Remedies3-46
    • § 3:3.14 : Director Exculpation Provisions Do Not Preclude Liability for Breaches of the Duty of Loyalty3-47
  • § 3:4 : Breach of the Duty of Care3-48
    • § 3:4.1 : Overview3-48
    • § 3:4.2 : Key Requirements of the Duty of Care3-49
      • [A] : Knowledge and the Duty to Inquire3-49
      • [B] : Commitment and Diligence3-50
    • § 3:4.3 : Types of Breaches of Fiduciary Duty3-50
      • [A] : Board Decisions3-51
      • [B] : Oversight and Monitoring3-52
    • § 3:4.4 : Business Judgment Rule3-52
      • [A] : Business Decision3-53
      • [B] : Disinterested and Independent3-54
      • [C] : Informed3-55
      • [D] : Good Faith or Honest Belief in Best Interests of Corporation3-57
      • [E] : Business Judgment Rule for Officers3-57
    • § 3:4.5 : Reasonable Delegation3-58
    • § 3:4.6 : Reasonable Reliance on Others3-59
    • § 3:4.7 : Director Exculpation of Liability for Breaches of the Duty of Cure3-63
  • § 3:5 : Breach of the Duty of Disclosure3-63
  • § 3:6 : Breach of the Duty of Confidentiality3-64
  • § 3:7 : Duties of Directors of Financially Troubled Corporations3-65
    • § 3:7.1 : No Duty to Creditors of Solvent Corporations3-65
    • § 3:7.2 : Duties to Creditors of Insolvent Corporations3-66
  • § 3:8 : Ultra Vires and Illegal Acts3-67
    • § 3:8.1 : Ultra Vires Acts3-68
    • § 3:8.2 : Illegal Acts3-69
  • § 3:9 : Waste3-70
  • § 3:10 : Shareholder Ratification3-71
  • § 3:11 : Piercing the Corporate Veil3-72
  • § 3:12 : Remedies3-73
Chapter 4: Duties and Liabilities of Directors and Officers Under Federal and State Securities Laws
  • § 4:1 : Overview4-2
  • § 4:2 : Potential Liability Relating to Capital-Raising Activities4-4
    • § 4:2.1 : Public Offerings4-4
      • [A] : Generalities4-4
      • [B] : Securities Act of 1933 Section 11 Antifraud Liability—Strict Liability Subject to Certain Defenses4-5
        • [B][1] : Damages4-7
        • [B][2] : Defenses Available to Directors and Officers4-7
          • [B][2][a] : Resignation and Notice4-7
          • [B][2][b] : Due Diligence Defense4-8
        • [B][3] : Non-Expertised Parts of Registration Statement4-9
          • [B][3][a] : Reliance upon Experts4-11
          • [B][3][b] : Effect of Earnings Statement on the Need to Show Reliance4-12
      • [C] : Antifraud Liability Under Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act of 19344-12
        • [C][1] : Elements of a 10b-5 Claim4-15
          • [C][1][a] : Materiality4-15
          • [C][1][b] : Misstatement or Omission4-16
          • [C][1][c] : Scienter4-17
          • [C][1][d] : In Connection with the Purchase or Sale of a Security4-17
          • [C][1][e] : Reliance4-18
          • [C][1][f] : Loss Causation4-19
        • [C][2] : Application of 10b-5 Claims to Officers and Directors4-19
      • [D] : Securities Act Section 17—SEC Actions4-20
  • § 4:3 : Disclosures Outside of Offerings4-21
    • § 4:3.1 : Periodic Filings Under the Exchange Act4-21
      • [A] : Generalities4-21
      • [B] : Liabilities4-24
      • [C] : Public Statements4-25
    • § 4:3.2 : Regulation Fair Disclosure (Reg FD)4-27
    • § 4:3.3 : Forward-Looking Statements4-29
  • § 4:4 : Obligations Related to Trading in Company Securities4-31
    • § 4:4.1 : Insider Trading4-31
      • [A] : Background4-31
      • [B] : Trading on the Basis of Inside Information and 10b5-1 Trading Plans4-37
      • [C] : Indirect Insider Trading4-40
      • [D] : Expert Networks4-43
      • [E] : Insider Trading with Respect to Tender Offers4-44
      • [F] : Penalties and Damages4-48
    • § 4:4.2 : Insider Reporting and Short-Swing Trading4-49
      • [A] : Insider Reporting4-49
      • [B] : Short-Swing Trading4-51
      • [C] : Prohibition on Short Sales4-54
      • [D] : Trading During Pension Blackout4-54
    • § 4:4.3 : Resales of Privately Placed Securities4-56
  • § 4:5 : Director and Officer Liability with Respect to Proxy Solicitations4-57
  • § 4:6 : Director and Officer Secondary Liability—Controlling Person Liability4-59
    • § 4:6.1 : Basics and the Issue of Control4-59
    • § 4:6.2 : Defenses4-61
  • § 4:7 : Aiding-and-Abetting Liability4-62
  • § 4:8 : Potential Liability Under State Securities Statutes and Laws4-63
  • § 4:9 : Significant Potential Liabilities Under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act4-64
  • § 4:10 : Potential Director and Officer Liabilities Under ERISA4-65
    • § 4:10.1 : Applicable Plans4-65
    • § 4:10.2 : Plan Fiduciaries4-67
    • § 4:10.3 : Bases for Liability4-70
Chapter 5: Private Civil Actions Against Corporate Officers and Directors—The World of D&O Litigation
  • § 5:1 : Securities Class Action Litigation and the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act5-2
    • § 5:1.1 : Introduction5-2
    • § 5:1.2 : The Basics of a Securities Class Action5-5
      • [A] : Plaintiffs5-5
      • [B] : Defendants5-7
      • [C] : Typical Claims: Section 10b-5 Claims5-7
        • [C][1] : Special Protections Under the PSLRA for Forward-Looking Statements5-8
      • [D] : Other Typical Securities Class Claims: Securities Act of 1933 Act Claims5-9
        • [D][1] : Section 11 Claims5-9
        • [D][2] : Section 12 Claims5-10
      • [E] : Approaches to Damages and Loss Causation5-10
    • § 5:1.3 : Unique Procedural Rules Under the PSLRA5-11
      • [A] : Discovery Stay5-12
      • [B] : Heightened Pleading Standards on a Motion to Dismiss5-12
    • § 5:1.4 : Settlement Dynamics—Insurance and Indemnification Issues5-13
  • § 5:2 : Shareholder Derivative Lawsuits5-14
    • § 5:2.1 : Differences Between a Shareholder’s Derivative and Direct Claims5-16
    • § 5:2.2 : Difference Between Shareholders’ Derivative Claims and Securities Class Actions5-17
    • § 5:2.3 : Impact of Merger on Pending Shareholder Derivative Litigation5-19
    • § 5:2.4 : “Double Derivative” Lawsuits5-19
    • § 5:2.5 : Legal Representation in Shareholder Derivative Suits5-21
    • § 5:2.6 : Shareholder Demand Requirement5-23
      • [A] : Standing to Make a Demand on the Board5-24
      • [B] : Response of the Board to a Demand Letter5-24
      • [C] : Board Refusal of a Demand and “Demand-Refused” Derivative Litigation5-25
      • [D] : Acceptance of a Demand5-27
    • § 5:2.7 : Demand Futility5-28
      • [A] : The Relevant Board5-28
      • [B] : The Focus on a Majority of the Relevant Board5-30
      • [C] : Disinterestedness of Directors5-30
        • [C][1] : The Role of Corporate Exculpation in the Determination of Disinterestedness5-31
      • [D] : Lack of Independence As a Basis for Demand Futility5-31
      • [E] : Discovery in Connection with the Motion to Dismiss for Failure to Make a Pre-Suit Demand5-32
      • [F] : Outcome of a Motion to Dismiss for Failure to Make a Pre-Suit Demand5-33
      • [G] : Demand Futility Decisions Following the 2008 Financial Crisis5-33
    • § 5:2.8 : Special Litigation Committees5-38
      • [A] : Composition of the SLC—The Requirement of Absolute Purity5-39
      • [B] : Actions of an SLC5-39
      • [C] : The SLC Process5-39
      • [D] : Outcomes of the SLC Process5-40
    • § 5:2.9 : Attorney-Client Privilege and Derivative Litigation5-42
    • § 5:2.10 : Attorneys’ Fee Awards in Derivative Litigation5-43
  • § 5:3 : Exclusive Forum Selection Provisions5-43
  • § 5:4 : Personal Jurisdiction over Nonresident Directors and Officers5-44
Chapter 6: Public Enforcement Against Directors and Officers of Public Companies
  • § 6:1 : Securities and Exchange Commission Enforcement6-2
    • § 6:1.1 : The Risk Presented by SEC Enforcement Actions6-2
    • § 6:1.2 : Overview of the SEC Enforcement Process Relating to Directors and Officers of Public Companies6-3
      • [A] : SEC Investigations—The Start of the Process—Inquiries6-3
      • [B] : Informal Investigations6-4
      • [C] : Formal Investigations6-5
      • [D] : The “Wells” Process6-6
      • [E] : Settlement of SEC Proceedings6-7
    • § 6:1.3 : Remedies and Penalties6-7
      • [A] : Injunctions6-8
      • [B] : Monetary Penalties6-8
      • [C] : Clawback of Executive Compensation6-9
      • [D] : Officer and Director Bars6-9
  • § 6:2 : Criminal Enforcement6-10
    • § 6:2.1 : Overview6-10
    • § 6:2.2 : Basics of Criminal Liability6-13
      • [A] : Prosecutors6-13
      • [B] : Burden of Proof6-15
      • [C] : Wrongful Intent6-15
    • § 6:2.3 : Theories of Liability6-16
      • [A] : Committing the Crime6-16
      • [B] : The Responsible Corporate Officer6-17
    • § 6:2.4 : Penalties6-18
    • § 6:2.5 : Key Criminal Statutes6-18
      • [A] : Federal Criminal Laws6-19
        • [A][1] : Crimes Under Securities Act or Exchange Act6-22
        • [A][2] : Securities Fraud6-23
      • [B] : Obstruction of Justice6-24
      • [C] : Improper Certification Under Sarbanes-Oxley Section 9066-25
      • [D] : Retaliation Against Whistleblower6-26
      • [E] : Conspiracy6-26
      • [F] : Insider Trading6-27
      • [G] : Mail and Wire Fraud6-28
      • [H] : Foreign Corrupt Practices Act6-31
        • [H][1] : Anti-Bribery Provisions6-32
        • [H][2] : Intent6-34
        • [H][3] : Exceptions/DOJ Advice6-35
        • [H][4] : Penalties6-36
        • [H][5] : Internal Controls6-37
    • § 6:2.6 : State Criminal Laws6-38
    • § 6:2.7 : Sentencing6-41
      • [A] : Basics6-41
      • [B] : Sentencing Guidelines6-43
      • [C] : Sarbanes-Oxley Enhancements6-46
      • [D] : Sentence Reflecting Losses Caused6-47
      • [E] : Sentence Reflecting Cooperation with Prosecutors6-49
    • § 6:2.8 : Criminal Liability of Public Corporations6-50
Chapter 7: Protection of Directors and Officers from Liability: Exculpation, Indemnification, and Insurance
  • § 7:1 : Overview7-2
  • § 7:2 : Magnitude of Claims7-3
  • § 7:3 : Exculpation of Corporate Directors7-4
    • § 7:3.1 : Exculpation Clauses in Corporate Charter Documents and the Delaware Approach7-4
    • § 7:3.2 : Exculpation Provisions in the Model Business Corporation Act7-6
    • § 7:3.3 : Exculpation of Officers7-6
    • § 7:3.4 : Interplay of Exculpation with Demand Futility Issues in Derivative Litigation7-7
  • § 7:4 : Indemnification7-7
    • § 7:4.1 : Indemnification Statutes7-7
      • [A] : Coverage7-8
      • [B] : Proceedings7-9
      • [C] : Covered Liabilities7-10
      • [D] : Permissive Indemnification7-11
        • [D][1] : Third-Party Actions7-11
        • [D][2] : Corporate Actions7-12
        • [D][3] : Exclusions7-13
        • [D][4] : Corporate Determination7-14
        • [D][5] : Shareholder Disclosure7-15
      • [E] : Mandatory Indemnification7-15
      • [F] : Advancement of Defense Costs to Directors and Officers7-17
      • [G] : Court-Ordered Indemnification7-24
    • § 7:4.2 : Contractual Indemnification7-26
      • [A] : Exclusivity of Statutory Indemnification7-26
      • [B] : Non-Exclusivity7-27
      • [C] : Safeguarding Indemnification Funds7-28
  • § 7:5 : Directors’ and Officers’ Liability Insurance7-28
    • § 7:5.1 : Background7-28
    • § 7:5.2 : Insurance Statutes7-29
    • § 7:5.3 : Insurance Policies7-30
      • [A] : Claims7-31
      • [B] : Losses7-33
      • [C] : Exclusions7-34
      • [D] : Notice7-36
      • [E] : Defense of Litigation7-37
        • [E][1] : Defense Counsel7-38
        • [E][2] : Allocation Issues7-38
        • [E][3] : Settlements7-39
      • [F] : Outside Directors7-40
      • [G] : Change of Control7-40
      • [H] : Cancellation7-41
      • [I] : Effect of the Bankruptcy of the Company7-42
      • [J] : Disclosure of D&O Insurance7-44
Chapter 8: Emerging Issues
  • § 8:1 : Cybersecurity Breach Liability for Directors and Officers8-2
    • § 8:1.1 : Data Breaches and Resulting Consumer Class Actions Against Corporations8-2
      • [A] : Corporate Settlements of Consumer and Card-Issuer Lawsuits8-3
      • [B] : Early Successes in Defeating Consumer Class Actions for Lack of Standing Have Faded8-5
    • § 8:1.2 : Shareholder Derivative Suits Against Directors and Officers Alleging Breaches of Fiduciary Duty Resulting in Data Breaches8-7
      • [A] : Wyndham Worldwide8-7
      • [B] : Target8-8
      • [C] : Home Depot8-9
      • [D] : Yahoo8-10
    • § 8:1.3 : Predicting the Future—Shareholder Derivative Actions Alleging Claims Based Upon Post-Data-Breach Actions, Inactions, and Inadequate Disclosure8-11
      • [A] : Delayed or Inadequate Disclosure8-13
      • [B] : Inadequate Response to Cyber-Attack or Data Breach8-13
  • § 8:2 : Contested Mergers and Acquisitions, Recent Developments Affecting Directors’ and Officers’ Liability8-14
    • § 8:2.1 : Overview8-14
    • § 8:2.2 : Key Factors Driving the Filing of M&A Litigation8-15
      • [A] : Rise and Fall of Disclosure-Only Settlements8-15
        • [A][1] : Trulia8-17
        • [A][2] : Corwin, Nguyen and Singh8-21
      • [B] : Multi-Jurisdictional Litigation and the Delaware Exclusive Forum Bylaw Provision8-23
      • [C] : Overall Result of Recent Changes in Delaware Law8-27
  • § 8:3 : The Recent Proliferation of Securities Act Suits Filed in State Court8-28
  • § 8:4 : Director and Officer Liability in the Pharmaceutical and Biotechnology Arena8-31
    • § 8:4.1 : The “Small Public” Problem8-32
    • § 8:4.2 : Types of Claims Against Small Pharma and Biotech Companies, and Their Directors and Officers8-33
      • [A] : Securities Class Actions8-33
      • [B] : Derivative Litigation8-34
      • [C] : SEC investigations8-34
    • § 8:4.3 : Materiality8-35
    • § 8:4.4 : Specific Issues8-36
    • § 8:4.5 : A Very Useful Tool—The Safe Harbor for Forward-Looking Statements8-37
  Table of Authorities
  Index

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