TreatiseTreatise

Copyright Law: A Practitioner's Guide (2nd Edition)

 by Bruce P. Keller, Jeffrey P. Cunard
 
 Copyright: 2015-2017
 Last Updated: November 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402423147
  • Page Count: 934
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

Written by two nationally recognized lawyers who have litigated major copyright cases, including those involving digital forms of communication, Copyright Law: A Practitioner’s Guide, Second Edition, helps you to:

  • understand the scope of copyright owners’ exclusive rights
  • prove copyright infringement and obtain appropriate remedies
  • renew, restore, and recapture copyrights
  • know when Internet-related activities constitute copyright infringement
  • find out who owns a work for clearance purposes
  • exploit unique defenses and statutory safe harbors that exist in the digital environment
  • get insurance against litigation risks arising from possible infringing uses
  • know when and how to register copyrights with the Copyright Office.

Copyright Law: A Practitioner’s Guide provides up-to-date analysis of court decisions and practical advice for the protection of copyrights. The book also includes a useful detailed flowchart using an actual case result to illustrate how damages and profits are calculated.

  Table of Contents
  Preface
Chapter 1: Introduction
  • § 1:1 : What Is the Relationship of Copyright to Other Forms of Intellectual Property Protection?1-2
    • § 1:1.1 : Intellectual Property Generally1-2
    • § 1:1.2 : Copyrights1-4
    • § 1:1.3 : Patents1-5
    • § 1:1.4 : Trademarks1-6
    • § 1:1.5 : Trade Secrets1-8
    • § 1:1.6 : Unfair Competition/Misappropriation1-9
    • § 1:1.7 : Right of Publicity1-10
  • § 1:2 : What Are the Constitutional and Statutory Limits to Copyright Protection?1-12
    • § 1:2.1 : “To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts”1-12
    • § 1:2.2 : “Writings” of “Authors”1-13
    • § 1:2.3 : The “exclusive Right”1-14
    • § 1:2.4 : “For limited Times”1-15
    • § 1:2.5 : Works Eligible for Protection1-16
    • § 1:2.6 : Fixation1-17
    • § 1:2.7 : Idea Versus Expression1-18
  • § 1:3 : What Statutes Govern Copyright Protection?1-19
    • § 1:3.1 : 1909 Copyright Act1-19
    • § 1:3.2 : 1976 Copyright Act1-20
    • § 1:3.3 : Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act1-21
    • § 1:3.4 : Visual Artists Rights Act1-21
    • § 1:3.5 : Audio Home Recording Act1-21
    • § 1:3.6 : Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act1-22
    • § 1:3.7 : Digital Millennium Copyright Act: Anti-Circumvention/Copyright Management Data1-23
    • § 1:3.8 : Digital Millennium Copyright Act: Limiting Online Service Provider Liability1-24
Chapter 2: Subject Matter
  • § Part A : What Qualifies for Copyright Protection?2-2
  • § § 2:1 : What Types of Creative Efforts Qualify for Copyright Protection?2-2
  • § § 2:2 : The Constitutional Concept of “Writings”2-2
    • § § 2:2.1 : Originality2-4
    • § § 2:2.2 : Expression2-10
      • [A] : Ideas and Scènes à Faire2-12
      • [B] : Merger of Idea and Expression2-16
      • [C] : Computer Programs and the Idea/Expression Doctrine2-20
      • [D] : Facts and Historical Research2-23
    • § § 2:2.3 : Fixation2-25
      • [A] : The Problem of Live Performances2-28
      • [B] : Sui Generis Protection for Live Musical Performances2-29
  • § § 2:3 : The Forward-Looking Nature of Section 102(a)2-29
  • § § 2:4 : The Significance of Media-Neutral Definitions2-31
  • § § 2:5 : Specific Types of Works of Authorship2-32
    • § § 2:5.1 : Literary Works2-33
      • [A] : Computer Programs As “Literary Works”2-33
    • § § 2:5.2 : Musical Works2-35
    • § § 2:5.3 : Dramatic Works2-36
    • § § 2:5.4 : Pantomimes and Choreographic Works2-37
    • § § 2:5.5 : Pictorial, Graphic, and Sculptural Works2-37
      • [A] : Reproductions2-38
      • [B] : Utilitarian Works2-40
    • § § 2:5.6 : Motion Pictures and Other Audiovisual Works2-44
    • § § 2:5.7 : Sound Recordings2-47
    • § § 2:5.8 : Architectural Works2-51
    • § § 2:5.9 : Compilations and Collective Works2-55
    • § § 2:5.10 : Derivative Works2-58
  • § Part B : What Does Not Qualify for Copyright Protection?2-61
  • § § 2:6 : What “Creative” Efforts Are Excluded from Copyright Protection?2-61
  • § § 2:7 : Other Categories of Unprotectable Subject Matter2-62
    • § § 2:7.1 : Government Works2-62
    • § § 2:7.2 : Typefaces2-65
    • § § 2:7.3 : Immoral or Obscene Works2-65
    • § § 2:7.4 : Works Lacking Sufficient Original Expression2-66
  • § § 2:8 : When Protection for Ideas May Be Available2-69
  • § § 2:9 : “Sweat of the Brow”2-73
  • § Part C : Specially Protectable Subject Matter2-74
  • § § 2:10 : Databases2-74
  • § § 2:11 : Semiconductor Chips2-76
  • § § 2:12 : Boat Hull Designs2-76
  • § Part D : The Issue of Preemption2-77
  • § § 2:13 : Preemption2-77
    • § § 2:13.1 : Subject Matter Requirement2-79
    • § § 2:13.2 : Equivalency Requirement2-81
Chapter 3: Ownership and Transfer
  • § 3:1 : Introduction3-2
  • § 3:2 : Who Can Own the Copyright in a Given Work3-3
    • § 3:2.1 : Individual Authors3-3
      • [A] : Ownership Under the 1976 Copyright Act3-3
      • [B] : Ownership Under the 1909 Copyright Act3-6
    • § 3:2.2 : Joint Authors3-7
      • [A] : Joint Ownership Under the 1976 Act3-7
        • [A][1] : The “Intent” Requirement3-12
      • [B] : Joint Ownership Under the 1909 Act3-15
    • § 3:2.3 : Authors of Works Made for Hire3-17
      • [A] : The 1976 Act3-17
        • [A][1] : Works Prepared Within Scope of Employment3-18
        • [A][2] : Writings by University Professors3-22
        • [A][3] : Works Prepared by Independent Contractors3-24
      • [B] : The 1909 Act3-27
    • § 3:2.4 : Authors of Contributions to Collective Works3-31
      • [A] : The 1909 Act and the Concept of Copyright Indivisibility3-31
      • [B] : The 1976 Act, Copyright Divisibility, and Ownership by Authors of Contributions3-33
    • § 3:2.5 : Government Works3-37
  • § 3:3 : The Concept of Divisibility3-37
  • § 3:4 : Distinction Between Owning a Copyright and Owning a Physical Copy or Phonorecord (First Sale Doctrine)3-39
  • § 3:5 : Transfer Types3-41
    • § 3:5.1 : Ownership by Virtue of Voluntary Transfer3-41
      • [A] : Voluntary Transfers Under the 1976 Act3-41
      • [B] : Voluntary Transfers Under the 1909 Act3-43
    • § 3:5.2 : Involuntary Transfers3-43
  • § 3:6 : Transfer Rules3-43
    • § 3:6.1 : When a Writing Is Required3-44
      • [A] : The 1976 Act3-44
      • [B] : The 1909 Act3-51
    • § 3:6.2 : How the Writing Requirement Is Satisfied3-52
    • § 3:6.3 : The Difference Between a Transfer and a Nonexclusive License3-54
    • § 3:6.4 : Transfers and Licenses Under Joint Owners3-56
Chapter 4: Copyright Practice—Exclusive Rights
  • § 4:1 : What Rights Does a Copyright Owner Enjoy?4-2
    • § 4:1.1 : The Reproduction Right—17 U.S.C. § 106(1)4-4
      • [A] : Limited Reproduction and Adaptation Rights in Sound Recordings4-10
      • [B] : Temporary Copies4-12
    • § 4:1.2 : The Right to Prepare Derivative Works—17 U.S.C. § 106(2)4-14
      • [A] : Transformations That Do Not Infringe4-16
      • [B] : The Composite Nature of Derivative Works4-17
      • [C] : Derivative Works That Infringe: Originality and Fixation4-22
    • § 4:1.3 : The Right to Distribute Copies of the Work to the Public—17 U.S.C. § 106(3)4-25
      • [A] : The First Sale Doctrine4-29
      • [B] : Contractual Limitations on the First Sale Doctrine4-31
      • [C] : Importation and “Gray Market” Goods4-36
      • [D] : First Sale Online4-39
    • § 4:1.4 : The Right to Perform the Work Publicly—17 U.S.C. § 106(4)4-41
      • [A] : What Is a “Performance”?4-41
      • [B] : What Makes a Performance “Public”?4-45
        • [B][1] : The Public Place Clause4-45
        • [B][2] : The Transmit Clause4-47
      • [C] : Collective Licensing of Public Performances4-52
      • [D] : The Digital Audio Performance Right—17 U.S.C. § 106(6)4-53
        • [D][1] : The Case of Streaming Services4-56
        • [D][2] : The Case of Traditional Broadcasters Who Also Webcast4-58
    • § 4:1.5 : The Right to Display the Work Publicly—17 U.S.C. § 106(5)4-59
  • § 4:2 : What Are Moral Rights?4-62
    • § 4:2.1 : Moral Rights Under Federal and State Law4-63
    • § 4:2.2 : Visual Artists Rights Act of 19904-66
      • [A] : What Rights Does VARA Provide?4-66
      • [B] : Transfer and Waiver4-70
      • [C] : Scope and Duration of VARA Rights4-71
      • [D] : Works of Visual Art Incorporated into Buildings4-72
      • [E] : What Is a “Work of Recognized Stature”?4-73
      • [F] : Beware The Ides of March4-74
Chapter 5: Deposit, Registration, and Recordation
  • § 5:1 : Introduction: The Policy Role of Deposit and Registration5-2
  • § 5:2 : Depositing Material5-2
    • § 5:2.1 : Deposit Generally5-2
    • § 5:2.2 : Deposit Requirements; “Best Edition”5-3
    • § 5:2.3 : Exceptions to the Mandatory Deposit Requirement5-5
      • [A] : Special Relief5-6
    • § 5:2.4 : Consequences for Failure to Deposit5-6
    • § 5:2.5 : Deposit for Works Distributed Online5-7
  • § 5:3 : Registration5-8
    • § 5:3.1 : Why Register?5-8
    • § 5:3.2 : How to Register5-15
      • [A] : The Application5-15
        • [A][1] : Who May Submit an Application?5-15
        • [A][2] : How to Complete the Proper Application Form5-16
      • [B] : Registration of Multiple Works5-20
      • [C] : Works Consisting of Sounds or Images5-24
      • [D] : Fees and Deposit Accounts5-25
      • [E] : “Special Handling” of Copyright Applications5-26
    • § 5:3.3 : The Process After an Application Is Submitted5-26
      • [A] : Corrections and Amplifications to an Application5-27
      • [B] : Effect of Errors or Omissions5-28
      • [C] : Examination5-29
      • [D] : Correspondence Concerning Pending Applications5-31
      • [E] : Refusals and Appeals5-32
      • [F] : Cancellations5-33
    • § 5:3.4 : Preregistration5-34
  • § 5:4 : Recordation5-35
    • § 5:4.1 : Purpose of Recordation5-35
    • § 5:4.2 : Documents That May Be Recorded5-36
Chapter 6: Publication and Notice
  • § 6:1 : Introduction: Publication and Notice Under the 1909 and 1976 Acts6-2
    • § 6:1.1 : Publication Under the 1909 Act6-6
      • [A] : “Investive” and “Divestive” Publication Under the 1909 Act6-8
      • [B] : Limited Publication Under the 1909 Act6-9
      • [C] : General Publication Under the 1909 Act6-11
      • [D] : Public Performance or Display Under the 1909 Act6-13
    • § 6:1.2 : Publication Under the 1976 Act6-16
      • [A] : The Express Definition of Publication Under the 1976 Act6-16
        • [A][1] : “Distribution of copies or phonorecords . . . to the public”6-16
        • [A][2] : “Offering to distribute copies or phonorecords”6-18
        • [A][3] : “Public performance or display of a work does not of itself constitute publication”6-19
      • [B] : The Significance of Publication Under the 1976 Act6-20
        • [B][1] : Fair Use6-22
        • [B][2] : Statutory Remedies6-24
  • § 6:2 : Is Copyright Notice Required?6-26
    • § 6:2.1 : Works Published Before 1978 (the 1909 Act)6-27
      • [A] : Exceptions for Notice Errors Involving Licensees Under the 1909 Act6-27
      • [B] : Defective Notice Under the 1909 Act6-28
      • [C] : Notices Affixed to Collective Works Under the 1909 Act6-30
    • § 6:2.2 : Works Published Between January 1, 1978, and March 1, 1989 (the 1976 Act As Initially Enacted)6-33
      • [A] : Notices Affixed to Collective Works Under the 1976 Act6-34
    • § 6:2.3 : Works Published On or After March 1, 1989 (the 1976 Act As Amended by the Berne Convention Implementation Act)6-35
    • § 6:2.4 : Form and Placement of Notice Under the 1909 and 1976 Acts6-35
      • [A] : Claim6-36
      • [B] : Year6-36
        • [B][1] : Error in Date Under the 1909 Act6-37
        • [B][2] : Error in Date Under the 1976 Act6-38
      • [C] : Name6-39
      • [D] : Placement6-40
    • § 6:2.5 : The Effect of Improper or Omitted Notice Under the 1909 and 1976 Acts6-43
      • [A] : The 1909 Act6-43
      • [B] : The 1976 Act6-44
        • [B][1] : Omission of Notice from a “Relatively Small Number of Copies”6-44
        • [B][2] : “Curing” Defective Notice6-45
        • [B][3] : Failure of Authorized Third Parties to Comply with Notice Provisions6-46
      • [C] : Innocent Infringement Under the 1976 Act6-46
        • [C][1] : Actual Notice6-47
        • [C][2] : Works Consisting Predominantly of Works by the U.S. Government6-47
    • § 6:2.6 : Special Practice Topic: Does Publication of a Derivative Work Constitute Publication of the Preexisting Work?6-48
      • [A] : Sound Recordings and Musical Works6-48
      • [B] : Motion Pictures and Screenplays6-50
      • [C] : Works in Other Media6-53
Chapter 7: Duration and Renewal; and Appendices 7A-7B
  • § 7:1 : Introduction7-2
  • § 7:2 : Works Created on or After January 1, 19787-4
    • § 7:2.1 : Single Author (Works Other than Anonymous Works, Pseudonymous Works, and Works Made for Hire)7-4
    • § 7:2.2 : Joint Authors7-5
    • § 7:2.3 : Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works7-7
    • § 7:2.4 : Works Made for Hire7-8
  • § 7:3 : Works Created Before January 1, 19787-8
    • § 7:3.1 : Unpublished Works (Works Previously Protected by Common-Law Copyright)7-8
    • § 7:3.2 : Published Works in Their First Term on January 1, 19787-9
      • [A] : Automatic Renewal Provisions7-9
      • [B] : Works Whose First Term Expired Before January 1, 19927-12
    • § 7:3.3 : Works in Their Renewal Term on January 1, 19787-13
  • § 7:4 : Renewal Rights7-13
    • § 7:4.1 : Timing of Application for Renewal7-15
    • § 7:4.2 : Entitlement to Renewal and Statutory Succession7-15
    • § 7:4.3 : Assignment of Renewal7-17
    • § 7:4.4 : Vesting of Renewal7-17
    • § 7:4.5 : Posthumous Works7-19
    • § 7:4.6 : Derivative Works7-20
  • § 7:5 : Termination of Transfers7-23
    • § 7:5.1 : Purpose of Termination Provisions7-23
    • § 7:5.2 : Threshold Termination Issues7-24
      • [A] : Work for Hire7-24
      • [B] : “Agreement to the Contrary”7-27
      • [C] : Recordation7-29
    • § 7:5.3 : Transfers Effected on or After January 1, 19787-31
      • [A] : Scope7-31
      • [B] : Persons Entitled to Exercise7-31
      • [C] : Effective Date7-32
      • [D] : Manner of Terminating: Notice7-33
      • [E] : Effect of Termination7-34
      • [F] : Further Grants of Reverted Rights7-34
      • [G] : Derivative Works7-35
      • [H] : Sound Recordings and Section 203(a)7-36
    • § 7:5.4 : Transfers Effected Before January 1, 19787-38
      • [A] : Scope7-38
      • [B] : Persons Entitled to Exercise7-40
      • [C] : Effective Date7-40
      • [D] : Further Grants of Reverted Rights7-41
      • [E] : Answer to Hypothetical7-41
  • § 7:6 : Copyright “Restoration”7-42
  • Appendix 7A : Duration Decision Tree7-48
  • Appendix 7B : Termination Decision Tree7-49
Chapter 8: Fair Use Doctrine
  • § 8:1 : Overview8-2
  • § 8:2 : Weighing the Costs—How to Advise Clients8-4
    • § 8:2.1 : Fair Use Checklist8-5
  • § 8:3 : Basis of the Fair Use Doctrine8-6
    • § 8:3.1 : What Is the Purpose of the Fair Use Doctrine?8-8
      • [A] : Balance in Copyright Law8-8
      • [B] : First Amendment Issues8-9
  • § 8:4 : What Are the Elements of the Fair Use Defense?8-10
    • § 8:4.1 : Illustrative Purposes Set Out in Preamble to Section 1078-12
    • § 8:4.2 : Factor One: Type of Unauthorized Use8-14
      • [A] : Commercialism and Transformation8-14
      • [B] : Other First Factor Considerations8-24
    • § 8:4.3 : Factor Two: Distinction Between Fanciful and Factual Copyrighted Works8-26
    • § 8:4.4 : Factor Three: Amount of the Work That Can Be Used8-28
    • § 8:4.5 : Factor Four: Impact on the Market for, or Value of, the Copyrighted Work8-30
  • § 8:5 : How Have Specific Instances of the Fair Use Defense Been Resolved?8-34
    • § 8:5.1 : Off-Air Recording8-34
      • [A] : Home Recording for Private Use8-34
      • [B] : Recording for Public Use8-37
    • § 8:5.2 : Fair Use of Digital Audio Files8-37
    • § 8:5.3 : Space Shifting8-40
    • § 8:5.4 : Reverse Engineering8-41
    • § 8:5.5 : Search Engines8-44
    • § 8:5.6 : Internet Browsing8-46
    • § 8:5.7 : Parodies8-47
Chapter 9: Specific Limitations on a Copyright Owner’s Exclusive Rights
  • § 9:1 : Introduction9-2
  • § 9:2 : Home Recording9-3
    • § 9:2.1 : Video Recording9-3
    • § 9:2.2 : Audio Recording9-4
  • § 9:3 : Corporate Photocopying9-7
  • § 9:4 : Library Photocopying and Archival Uses9-10
    • § 9:4.1 : General Prerequisites for Library or Archival Copying9-11
    • § 9:4.2 : Quantity Limitations9-11
    • § 9:4.3 : Works Subject to Library or Archival Copying9-12
    • § 9:4.4 : Copying of Published Works During Last Twenty Years of Term9-12
    • § 9:4.5 : Preservation and Security of Unpublished Works9-13
    • § 9:4.6 : Replacement of Unobtainable Published Works9-13
    • § 9:4.7 : Reproduction of Articles or Excerpts of Copyrighted Works at Request of Users9-14
    • § 9:4.8 : Reproduction of Entire Copyrighted Works at Request of Users9-14
    • § 9:4.9 : Unsupervised Copying by Library Users9-15
    • § 9:4.10 : Audiovisual News Programs9-15
    • § 9:4.11 : Effect of Section 108 on Other Rights and Obligations9-15
  • § 9:5 : Classroom Uses9-16
    • § 9:5.1 : Reproduction of Copyrighted Works and the Fair Use Guidelines9-16
    • § 9:5.2 : Performance and Display of Copyrighted Works9-17
      • [A] : Instructional Performances and Displays9-18
      • [B] : Religious Services9-21
      • [C] : Certain Other Nonprofit Performances9-21
      • [D] : Reception in Public Place9-22
      • [E] : Retail Sale of Phonorecords9-24
      • [F] : Agricultural Fairs9-25
      • [G] : Transmission to Aurally and Visually Impaired9-25
  • § 9:6 : Noncommercial Broadcasting9-25
  • § 9:7 : Ephemeral Recordings9-26
    • § 9:7.1 : General Provisions9-26
    • § 9:7.2 : Ephemeral Recordings in Connection with Digital Transmissions9-28
  • § 9:8 : Limitations on Rights in Sound Recordings9-29
    • § 9:8.1 : General Limitations9-29
    • § 9:8.2 : Digital Audio Transmissions9-30
  • § 9:9 : License to Record Nondramatic Musical Works: “Compulsory” and “Mechanical” Licenses9-32
  • § 9:10 : Compulsory License for Digital Phonorecord Deliveries9-35
  • § 9:11 : Backing Up and Maintenance of Computer Programs9-36
  • § 9:12 : Rental Activities9-38
    • § 9:12.1 : Impact of First Sale Doctrine9-38
    • § 9:12.2 : Record Rental9-39
    • § 9:12.3 : Computer Programs9-40
  • § 9:13 : Secondary Transmissions9-40
    • § 9:13.1 : Exempt Secondary Transmissions9-40
    • § 9:13.2 : Cable9-41
    • § 9:13.3 : Satellite Carriers9-42
      • [A] : Superstations and National Stations9-42
      • [B] : Local Broadcasters9-43
  • § 9:14 : Jukeboxes9-44
  • § 9:15 : Architectural Works9-44
  • § 9:16 : Reproduction for Blind or Other Disabled People9-46
Chapter 10: Clearing Rights; and Appendix 10A
  • § 10:1 : Introduction and Rights Clearance Checklist10-2
  • § 10:2 : Deciding Whether to Seek Rights Clearance: Is the Work Protected by a Valid Copyright?10-4
    • § 10:2.1 : Is the Work in the Public Domain?10-4
    • § 10:2.2 : Is the Proposed Use Infringing?10-6
    • § 10:2.3 : Is a Statutory License Available?10-8
    • § 10:2.4 : Is the Work Covered by Other Forms of Intellectual Property Protection?10-8
  • § 10:3 : Dealing with Rights Holders10-11
    • § 10:3.1 : Who Owns the Rights?10-11
    • § 10:3.2 : Clearing Rights to Musical Works and Sound Recordings10-13
    • § 10:3.3 : Clearing Rights to Works by Foreign Authors10-15
    • § 10:3.4 : Orphan Works10-16
  • § 10:4 : Practical Tips for Clearing Rights10-16
    • § 10:4.1 : Initiating Contact10-16
    • § 10:4.2 : Dealing with Specific Rights-Holder Organizations10-17
      • [A] : Licensing for Reproduction: Copyright Clearance Center10-17
      • [B] : Mechanical and Synchronization Rights: The Harry Fox Agency10-18
      • [C] : Performance Rights for Musical Works: ASCAP, BMI, SESAC10-19
      • [D] : Rights to Broadcast Video Material: Motion Picture Licensing Corporation10-21
  • § 10:5 : Insurance Coverage10-21
  • Appendix10A : Copyright Office Circular 22: How to Investigate the Copyright Status of a WorkApp. 10A-1
Chapter 11: Copyright Practice—Infringement
  • § 11:1 : Introduction11-2
  • § 11:2 : What Constitutes Actionable Copyright Infringement?11-3
  • § 11:3 : Where Can Infringement Actions Be Brought?11-4
    • § 11:3.1 : Federal Court Subject Matter Jurisdiction11-4
      • [A] : “Arising Under” the Copyright Act11-4
      • [B] : Registration11-13
    • § 11:3.2 : Arbitration11-15
    • § 11:3.3 : Preemption of State Law Claims11-15
      • [A] : The Extra-Element Test11-15
      • [B] : Unfair Competition and Consumer Protection Act Claims11-17
      • [C] : Contract Claims: Breach and Interference11-21
      • [D] : Right of Publicity Claims11-24
      • [E] : Unjust Enrichment Claims11-26
      • [F] : Property and Misappropriation Claims11-27
      • [G] : Other State Law Claims11-30
      • [H] : State Criminal Law11-32
    • § 11:3.4 : Extraterritorial Claims11-33
  • § 11:4 : Personal Jurisdiction and Venue11-36
    • § 11:4.1 : Personal Jurisdiction11-36
      • [A] : Long-Arm Statutes and Minimum Contacts11-36
      • [B] : Personal Jurisdiction over Foreign Defendants11-41
    • § 11:4.2 : Venue11-41
  • § 11:5 : Standing to Sue11-42
  • § 11:6 : Elements of an Infringement Claim11-45
    • § 11:6.1 : Establishing and Pleading the Prima Facie Case11-45
    • § 11:6.2 : Proving Infringement11-47
      • [A] : Actual Copying: Access and Probative Similarity11-48
      • [B] : Striking Similarity11-52
      • [C] : Actionable Copying: Substantial Similarity11-53
    • § 11:6.3 : De Minimis Copying11-67
    • § 11:6.4 : The Role of Expert Testimony11-69
    • § 11:6.5 : The Right to Jury Trial11-70
  • § 11:7 : What Defenses Exist?11-71
    • § 11:7.1 : Independent Creation11-71
    • § 11:7.2 : Fair Use11-73
    • § 11:7.3 : Statute of Limitations11-74
    • § 11:7.4 : Sovereign Immunity11-80
    • § 11:7.5 : Equitable Defenses11-83
      • [A] : Estoppel11-84
      • [B] : Laches11-85
      • [C] : Abandonment11-87
      • [D] : Copyright Misuse11-88
      • [E] : Unclean Hands11-92
    • § 11:7.6 : Fraud on the Copyright Office11-93
    • § 11:7.7 : Activities Protected from Monetary Liability Under DMCA Safe Harbors11-94
      • [A] : “Service Provider”11-95
      • [B] : Eligibility Requirements11-97
      • [C] : Conduits for Infringing Material11-102
      • [D] : Caching11-103
      • [E] : Storing Infringing Material at the Direction of a User11-104
      • [F] : DMCA Notice and Counter-Notice11-111
      • [G] : Material Misrepresentations in DMCA Notices11-114
      • [H] : Providing Access to Infringing Material11-117
    • § 11:7.8 : Other Defenses11-118
  • § 11:8 : Direct and Indirect Infringement Liability11-119
    • § 11:8.1 : Distinction Between Direct and Secondary Infringement11-119
    • § 11:8.2 : Direct Infringement: The Volitional Conduct Requirement11-120
    • § 11:8.3 : Contributory Infringement11-126
      • [A] : Knowledge11-128
      • [B] : Material Contribution11-133
      • [C] : Inducement11-135
    • § 11:8.4 : Vicarious Infringement11-139
      • [A] : Right and Ability to Supervise11-140
      • [B] : Direct Financial Benefit11-143
Chapter 12: Copyright Practice—Remedies; and Appendices 12A-12B
  • § 12:1 : Introduction12-2
  • § 12:2 : Three Types of Monetary Remedies12-3
  • § 12:3 : Statutory Damages12-5
    • § 12:3.1 : Registration As a Precondition for Statutory Damages12-5
      • [A] : When Infringement Commences12-7
      • [B] : Registration As Part of a Collective Work; Derivative Works12-8
    • § 12:3.2 : Timely Election of Statutory Damages12-10
    • § 12:3.3 : Calculating the Number of Infringed Works12-11
    • § 12:3.4 : Calculating the Number of Infringers from Whom Plaintiff May Recover12-14
    • § 12:3.5 : Setting the Amount of Damages Within the Statutory Range12-16
      • [A] : Innocent Infringement12-17
      • [B] : Willful Infringement12-18
      • [C] : Judicial Reduction of Statutory Damage Awards12-21
  • § 12:4 : Actual Damages12-23
    • § 12:4.1 : Measuring Damages12-24
      • [A] : Diminution in Market Value12-24
      • [B] : Lost Profits12-24
      • [C] : Lost Opportunity to License12-26
      • [D] : Level of Proof12-29
  • § 12:5 : Defendant’s Profits12-30
    • § 12:5.1 : Proving Gross Revenues12-30
    • § 12:5.2 : Proving Deductible Expenses and Profit Not Attributable to Infringement: The Defendant’s Burden12-33
      • [A] : Profits Only12-34
      • [B] : Production Costs and Overhead12-35
      • [C] : Profits Not Attributable to Infringement12-36
  • § 12:6 : Litigating Actual Damages and Profits: A Summary Judgment Case Study12-37
  • § 12:7 : Right to Jury Trial12-41
  • § 12:8 : Attorney’s Fees12-42
    • § 12:8.1 : Prevailing Party12-44
    • § 12:8.2 : Kirtsaeng and the Fogerty Factors12-46
      • [A] : Frivolousness of the Claims or Defenses12-48
      • [B] : The Losing Party’s Motivation12-49
      • [C] : Objective Reasonableness of the Claim12-50
      • [D] : The Need in the Particular Case to Advance Goals of Compensation or Deterrence12-52
    • § 12:8.3 : Additional Considerations12-53
    • § 12:8.4 : Assessing a Reasonable Fee12-54
    • § 12:8.5 : Offer of Judgment Under Rule 6812-56
  • § 12:9 : Prejudgment Interest12-57
  • § 12:10 : Declaratory Judgments12-59
  • § 12:11 : Injunctions12-63
    • § 12:11.1 : Preliminary Injunctions12-63
    • § 12:11.2 : Permanent Injunctions12-65
    • § 12:11.3 : Scope of Injunctive Relief12-67
    • § 12:11.4 : Impoundment and Destruction12-70
    • § 12:11.5 : Recall Orders12-72
  • Appendix 12A : Mayweather Actual Damages Analysis FlowchartApp. 12A-1
  • Appendix 12B : Mayweather Profits Analysis FlowchartApp. 12B-1
Chapter 13: The Copyright Office
  • § 13:1 : Introduction: Structure and Functions of the Copyright Office13-1
    • § 13:1.1 : Divisions of the Copyright Office13-2
  • § 13:2 : Filings Maintained by the Copyright Office13-3
  • § 13:3 : Retrieving Copyright Office Records13-5
    • § 13:3.1 : Inspection and Copying of Copyright Act Filings13-5
    • § 13:3.2 : Inspection of Correspondence13-6
    • § 13:3.3 : Requests for Copies13-6
    • § 13:3.4 : Requests Under the Freedom of Information Act13-7
  • § 13:4 : Other Information Offered by the Copyright Office13-7
    • § 13:4.1 : Copyright Office Reports13-8
    • § 13:4.2 : Laws and Regulations13-8
  • § 13:5 : Communications with the Copyright Office13-8
Chapter 14: Anti-Circumvention and Copyright Management Information
  • § 14:1 : Circumvention of Technological Protection Measures14-2
    • § 14:1.1 : Anti-Circumvention Separate from Copyright Infringement14-2
    • § 14:1.2 : “Circumvention” of an “Effective” “Technological Measure”14-3
      • [A] : Technological Measures14-3
      • [B] : Technological Measure Must Be “Effective”14-3
      • [C] : Circumvention14-5
    • § 14:1.3 : Devices or Services Designed or Used to Circumvent14-6
      • [A] : Anti-Circumvention and Nonexpressive Works14-8
    • § 14:1.4 : Librarian of Congress Exemptions from Section 1201(a)14-10
    • § 14:1.5 : Other Rights Not Affected14-12
    • § 14:1.6 : Statutory Exceptions to Anti-Circumvention Prohibitions14-13
  • § 14:2 : Falsifying and Removal and Alteration of Copyright Management Information14-15
    • § 14:2.1 : Copyright Management Information14-16
    • § 14:2.2 : Knowing Falsification with Intent to Aid Infringement14-18
    • § 14:2.3 : Intentional Removal or Alteration or Distribution, Knowing It Will Aid Infringement14-19
    • § 14:2.4 : Secondary Liability14-20
  • § 14:3 : Remedies for Violations of Anti-Circumvention Provisions14-21
    • § 14:3.1 : Damages: Actual and Statutory14-21
    • § 14:3.2 : Other Remedies14-24
  • § 14:4 : Litigating DMCA Claims14-24
Chapter 15: Criminal Copyright and Seizures
  • § 15:1 : Introduction15-2
  • § 15:2 : When Does Copyright Infringement Become a Crime?15-2
    • § 15:2.1 : Copyright Crimes15-3
    • § 15:2.2 : “Traditional” Criminal Infringement15-4
    • § 15:2.3 : Noncommercial Criminal Copyright Infringement15-5
    • § 15:2.4 : Pre-Release Piracy of Commercial Works15-6
  • § 15:3 : Elements15-7
    • § 15:3.1 : Willfulness15-7
    • § 15:3.2 : Retail Value15-8
    • § 15:3.3 : Registration Requirement15-9
  • § 15:4 : Defenses15-9
    • § 15:4.1 : Statute of Limitations15-9
    • § 15:4.2 : First Sale15-9
    • § 15:4.3 : Fair Use15-10
    • § 15:4.4 : Jurisdiction15-10
    • § 15:4.5 : Venue15-11
  • § 15:5 : Monetary Penalties15-12
    • § 15:5.1 : Restitution15-12
    • § 15:5.2 : Forfeiture15-13
  • § 15:6 : Other Copyright-Related Criminal Activity15-13
    • § 15:6.1 : Bootlegging15-13
      • [A] : Live Musical Performances15-13
      • [B] : Motion Pictures15-14
    • § 15:6.2 : DMCA15-15
    • § 15:6.3 : Fraudulent Copyright Notice Placement, Removal, or Alteration and Misrepresentation to Copyright Office15-17
    • § 15:6.4 : Counterfeit Labels, Documentation, and Packaging15-18
  • § 15:7 : Alternative Theories of Criminal Liability15-19
    • § 15:7.1 : Relationship of Copyright Crimes to Noncopyright Crimes15-19
    • § 15:7.2 : Other Statutes That Can Magnify the Consequences of Copyright Infringement15-20
      • [A] : Conspiracy15-20
      • [B] : RICO15-20
      • [C] : Deportation15-21
  • § 15:8 : Criminal Copyright Infringement Under State Law15-22
  • § 15:9 : Forfeiture15-22
    • § 15:9.1 : Property Subject to Forfeiture15-22
    • § 15:9.2 : Nature of Forfeiture Proceedings15-23
  • § 15:10 : Seizure and Exclusion of Infringing Materials15-24
    • § 15:10.1 : Excluding Infringing Imports15-24
    • § 15:10.2 : Customs Seizures15-25
      • [A] : Registration and Recordation15-25
      • [B] : Customs Procedures15-26
    • § 15:10.3 : Court-Ordered Exclusion from Importation15-28
    • § 15:10.4 : International Trade Commission Exclusion and Cease-and-Desist Orders15-28
      • [A] : Statutory Requirements15-28
      • [B] : Procedure15-29
      • [C] : Appeal15-29
  Table of Authorities
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