TreatiseTreatise

Likelihood of Confusion in Trademark Law (2nd Edition)

 by Richard L. Kirkpatrick
 
 Copyright: 2013-2016
 Last Updated: May 2016

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Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402420191
  • Page Count: 590
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  
  • The purchase of PLI titles may include Basic Upkeep Service, whereby supplements, replacement pages and new editions may be shipped to you immediately upon publication for a 30-day examination. This service is cancelable at any time.

The second edition of Likelihood of Confusion in Trademark Law illuminates the pivotal multiple-factor test, giving you a strong grasp of the key elements used by the courts to determine if likelihood of confusion exists. It’s packed with hundreds of real-world examples that help to spotlight the kinds of trademarks that are likely to be confused with established trademarks, and those that are not. Included are effective, trial-tested strategies and tips on how to outmaneuver your opponent in court, whatever side you represent. To further aid your understanding, the treatise includes an appendix of color illustrations of marks from trade dress infringement cases.

Updated with every relevant U.S. Court of Appeals decision, Likelihood of Confusion in Trademark Law, Second Edition is a must-have reference for trademark specialists and other intellectual property attorneys, and important reading for corporate counsel, generalists, and corporate executives.

Testimonials

“Likelihood of Confusion in Trademark Law is an excellent reference guide for professionals and non-professionals interested in the "key question" of trademark law…. Every practitioner should keep a copy of the book nearby.” 
– Bryn T. Lorentz, Corporate Counsel – Intellectual Property, The Kroger Co. 

"Likelihood of Confusion in Trademark Law sheds needed light on an important area of trademark law.” 
– Bernard Zidar, Chief Intellectual Property Counsel, McKesson Corporation

Kirkpatrick gives the practical insight that all trademark law practitioners should have at their fingertips.” 
– Chetuan L. Shaffer, Intellectual Property Counsel, Apple Inc.

A comprehensive reference tool for both novices and experienced trademark practitioners. Kirkpatrick does a first-rate job of relating the subject of each chapter to consumer expectation.” 
—New York Law Journal

 

 

  Table of Contents
  Table of Abbreviations
  Preface
Chapter 1: Principles of Likelihood of Confusion
  • § 1:1 : “Likely to Cause Confusion” Is an Element of Pleading and Proof1-2
    • § 1:1.1 : Federal Statutes and Case Law1-5
    • § 1:1.2 : State Statutes and Common Law1-9
    • § 1:1.3 : “Passing Off” and “Palming Off” Distinguished from Likelihood of Confusion1-16
    • § 1:1.4 : “Confusing Similarity” Distinguished1-17
  • § 1:2 : Private Interests, Public Policies1-18
  • § 1:3 : Causation and Predicates of Confusion1-22
  • § 1:4 : Actionable Confusion1-31
    • § 1:4.1 : Source Confusion1-32
    • § 1:4.2 : Sponsorship Confusion1-32
    • § 1:4.3 : Reverse Confusion1-34
    • § 1:4.4 : Subliminal and Associational Confusion1-36
    • § 1:4.5 : Confusion of Marks and of Products1-37
  • § 1:5 : Other States of Mind Distinguished1-39
    • § 1:5.1 : Dilution1-39
    • § 1:5.2 : Calling to Mind1-40
  • § 1:6 : Relevant Confused Persons: Potential Purchasers, Purchasers, and Nonpurchasers1-41
  • § 1:7 : Relevant Time of Confusion1-46
  • § 1:8 : Proof1-52
    • § 1:8.1 : Direct and Indirect Evidence1-52
    • § 1:8.2 : Burden and Quantum; Special Cases1-54
    • § 1:8.3 : Evidentiary Effect of Registration1-62
    • § 1:8.4 : Lay and Expert Opinion1-63
    • § 1:8.5 : PTO Actions1-65
    • § 1:8.6 : Consents in the PTO1-70
    • § 1:8.7 : Foreign Acts1-70
    • § 1:8.8 : Prior Inconsistent Arguments1-71
    • § 1:8.9 : Benefit of the Doubt1-72
  • § 1:9 : Duty of the Second Comer1-73
Chapter 2: The Multiple Factor Test
  • § 2:1 : The Problem2-2
  • § 2:2 : The Perspective of the Marketplace2-3
  • § 2:3 : Legal Precedent of Only Limited Value2-6
  • § 2:4 : The “Multiple Factor” Method2-8
  • § 2:5 : Flexibility and Interrelatedness of the Factors2-19
  • § 2:6 : Shifting Relevance and Weight of the Factors2-23
  • § 2:7 : The Factors As Applied to Cases of Competitive and Noncompetitive Goods2-31
  • § 2:8 : The Factors in Registrability Proceedings2-33
  • § 2:9 : The Factors As Legal or Factual Questions2-38
  • § 2:10 : Beyond Confusion: The Factors and Equity2-43
  • § 2:11 : Preliminary Injunction2-46
    • § 2:11.1 : Likelihood of Success2-48
      • [A] : Evidence2-51
    • § 2:11.2 : Irreparable Injury2-54
    • § 2:11.3 : Balance of Harms2-56
      • [A] : Harms to Plaintiff2-56
      • [B] : Harms to Defendant2-57
    • § 2:11.4 : Public Interest2-59
  • § 2:12 : Summary Judgment2-61
    • § 2:12.1 : The Factors Applied2-63
      • [A] : Actual Confusion2-70
      • [B] : Intent2-75
      • [C] : Similarity of Marks2-78
Chapter 3: Strength of the Senior Mark
  • § 3:1 : Strength and the Degree of Protection3-1
  • § 3:2 : Strong or Famous Marks3-5
  • § 3:3 : Weak Marks3-13
  • § 3:4 : Inherent and Acquired Strength3-19
    • § 3:4.1 : Inherent Strength3-20
    • § 3:4.2 : Acquired Strength3-27
  • § 3:5 : Factors for Gauging Acquired Strength3-30
    • § 3:5.1 : Direct Evidence3-31
    • § 3:5.2 : Circumstantial Evidence3-32
  • § 3:6 : Third-Party Marks3-41
    • § 3:6.1 : Relevance3-41
    • § 3:6.2 : Weight3-46
    • § 3:6.3 : Problematic Types3-50
    • § 3:6.4 : Number3-56
    • § 3:6.5 : Proof3-58
  • § 3:7 : Effect of Registration and Incontestability3-63
Chapter 4: Similarity of the Marks
  • § 4:1 : Similarity in Context4-2
  • § 4:2 : Degree of Similarity4-6
  • § 4:3 : The Three-Part Test: Sound, Meaning, Appearance4-7
    • § 4:3.1 : Commercial Impression4-7
    • § 4:3.2 : Sound4-10
    • § 4:3.3 : Meaning4-13
      • [A] : Word Versus Picture4-16
      • [B] : Foreign Word Versus English Word4-17
      • [C] : Foreign Word Versus Foreign Word4-19
    • § 4:3.4 : Appearance4-20
      • [A] : Design Versus Design4-22
      • [B] : Letters Versus Letters4-23
      • [C] : Different Word/Similar Design4-25
  • § 4:4 : Consider the Marks As Would the Relevant Public4-26
  • § 4:5 : Consider the Marks Singly4-27
  • § 4:6 : Weigh Similarities More Heavily Than Differences4-29
  • § 4:7 : Compare the Marks in Their Entireties4-32
  • § 4:8 : Consider the Marks in Their Settings4-36
  • § 4:9 : Give Dominant Portions of Composite Marks Greater Weight4-45
    • § 4:9.1 : Family Features4-49
    • § 4:9.2 : Words/Designs4-51
    • § 4:9.3 : Letters/Designs4-52
    • § 4:9.4 : Effect of Registration Disclaimers4-52
  • § 4:10 : Marks Having Portions in Common4-54
    • § 4:10.1 : One Mark Incorporating Another4-54
    • § 4:10.2 : Common Portion Comparatively Strong, Dominant4-59
    • § 4:10.3 : Common Portion Weak, Recessive4-61
    • § 4:10.4 : Common Portion Generic or Functional4-66
    • § 4:10.5 : Given Name/Surname4-68
    • § 4:10.6 : Marks Suggesting an Association4-69
    • § 4:10.7 : Marks with Source Modifiers4-72
    • § 4:10.8 : Marks with Geographic Modifiers4-73
  • § 4:11 : Reversal of Elements4-75
  • § 4:12 : The Familiar Versus the Unfamiliar4-75
  • § 4:13 : Parody4-76
  • § 4:14 : Combining Complainant’s Marks4-77
Chapter 5: Product Relatedness
  • § 5:1 : Governing Principles and Interests5-1
    • § 5:1.1 : Extent of the Right5-2
    • § 5:1.2 : Limitation of the Right5-3
    • § 5:1.3 : Three Product Categories5-5
  • § 5:2 : Relatedness Is Variable and a Matter of Degree5-5
  • § 5:3 : Mind Over Matter5-8
  • § 5:4 : Bases for Inferring Consumer Perception of Product Relatedness5-11
  • § 5:5 : Generalizing the Products5-15
  • § 5:6 : Practices of the Parties and the Trade5-18
  • § 5:7 : Diversification of Products Under the Same Mark5-21
  • § 5:8 : Comparative Quality5-25
  • § 5:9 : Comparative Price5-28
  • § 5:10 : Expansion/Intervening Rights5-29
  • § 5:11 : Effect of Registration5-37
  • § 5:12 : Channels of Trade5-38
    • § 5:12.1 : General Principles5-38
    • § 5:12.2 : Sales in Same Stores5-42
    • § 5:12.3 : Store Sections or Departments5-44
    • § 5:12.4 : Advertising5-46
    • § 5:12.5 : Institutional Purchasers5-48
    • § 5:12.6 : Wholesale Versus Retail5-49
    • § 5:12.7 : Internet5-50
    • § 5:12.8 : Geographic Markets5-50
Chapter 6: The Consumers and Their Degree of Care
  • § 6:1 : Identifying the Relevant Public6-1
  • § 6:2 : Standard of Care6-3
  • § 6:3 : Mixed Types of Consumers6-6
  • § 6:4 : Lower Degree of Ordinary Care6-8
  • § 6:5 : Higher Degree of Ordinary Care6-12
Chapter 7: Actual Confusion
  • § 7:1 : Actual Confusion Not Required7-2
  • § 7:2 : Weight of the Evidence7-2
  • § 7:3 : Quantum of Proof7-4
  • § 7:4 : Types of Confused Persons7-6
  • § 7:5 : Types and Degree of Confusion7-11
  • § 7:6 : Admissibility7-15
  • § 7:7 : Defendant’s Exploitation of Lack of Actual Confusion7-18
  • § 7:8 : Plaintiff’s Explanation of Lack of Actual Confusion7-25
  • § 7:9 : Defendant’s Explanation and Rebuttal of Actual Confusion7-30
    • § 7:9.1 : Causation7-30
    • § 7:9.2 : Bias7-33
    • § 7:9.3 : Vagueness7-35
    • § 7:9.4 : Short-Lived Confusion7-36
    • § 7:9.5 : Actual Reverse Confusion7-37
  • § 7:10 : Surveys7-38
    • § 7:10.1 : Universe7-42
    • § 7:10.2 : Setting7-45
    • § 7:10.3 : Stimulus7-47
    • § 7:10.4 : Control7-49
    • § 7:10.5 : Questions7-51
    • § 7:10.6 : Rate of Confusion7-53
Chapter 8: The Junior User’s Intent
  • § 8:1 : Intent to Confuse Not Required; Good Faith Not a Defense8-1
  • § 8:2 : Knowledge8-5
  • § 8:3 : Wrongful Intent8-8
    • § 8:3.1 : Type and Weight of the Evidence8-10
    • § 8:3.2 : Presumption or Inference of Likelihood of Confusion8-12
    • § 8:3.3 : Similarity of the Marks8-16
    • § 8:3.4 : Prior Contacts Between the Parties8-19
    • § 8:3.5 : Continued Use After Protest8-20
    • § 8:3.6 : Other Indicators of Bad Faith8-22
  • § 8:4 : Rightful Intent8-27
    • § 8:4.1 : Explanation and Persuasion8-27
    • § 8:4.2 : Intent to Compete8-29
    • § 8:4.3 : Intent to Copy8-31
      • [A] : Functional Features; Ideas and Concepts8-32
      • [B] : Generic/Descriptive Terms8-33
      • [C] : Territorially Remote Marks8-34
      • [D] : Otherwise When Likelihood of Confusion Is Not Indicated8-34
    • § 8:4.4 : Intent to Parody or Amuse8-35
    • § 8:4.5 : Other Indicators of Good Faith8-35
  • § 8:5 : Trademark Searches and Advice of Counsel8-39
Appendix A: Color Illustrations of Trademark and Trade Dress Infringement Cases
  Afterword
  Further Reading
  Table of Cases
  Index

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