TreatiseTreatise

Art Law (4th Edition)

 by Ralph E. Lerner, Judith Bresler, Ralph E Lerner, Judith Bresler
 
 Copyright: 2012

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Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402418884
  • Page Count: 2074
  • Number of Volumes: 2
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Widely acknowledged as the cornerstone reference for visual art professionals and their attorneys since it was first published in 1989, ART LAW provides unsurpassed legal, business, financial, tax, and estate planning information and guidance for this major sector of the creative arts.

Written by two of America’s foremost art law authorities and stocked with more timesaving forms, checklists, charts, and procedural guides than ever before, the new Fourth Edition of ART LAW enables you to:

  • Draft effective agreements clearly defining the rights and obligations of the parties involved, whether they’re artists, dealers, collectors, investors, appraisers, museums, or auction houses.
  • Create tax-advantaged strategies for collectors and artists — with the help of detailed coverage of complete and partial inter vivos charitable transfers, noncharitable transfers, deductions of expenses when selling collections, outright bequests of artwork, and income tax deductions for expenses when creating art.
  • Minimize the legal exposure of clients — by helping collectors avoid valuation errors, dealers avoid conflicts of interest, artists avoid copyright infringement, and art experts avoid liabilities when rendering opinions about art.

Just published, the new Fourth Edition has been completely updated to reflect the most recent legal developments and business trends and includes new material in each chapter as well as a new stand-alone chapter on Holocaust-looted art.

ART LAW includes a host of step-by-step, field-tested checklists and a vast storehouse of adaptable model agreements involving collectors and dealers, artists and dealers, and dealers and dealers, as well as forms for appraisals, property exchanges, tax-free exchanges, loans and promised gifts from artists’ estates, dealings with auction houses, private and public  commissions, and museum donations.

Distilling an immense body of law into two practical, transaction-oriented volumes, the new Fourth Edition of ART LAW is required reading for anyone who buys, sells, collects, appraises, authenticates, exhibits, restores, creates, invests, or advises in the visual art world.

  Forewords
  Preface
  Table of Contents
  Introduction
Chapter 1: Artist-Dealer Relations
  • : Outright Sale4
    • : Generally4
    • : The Outright Sale Contract5
  • : Consignment5
    • : Generally5
    • : Fiduciary Duties6
    • : Exclusivity8
    • : Change of Gallery Representation: Possible Pitfalls9
      • : S.A.R.L. Galerie Enrico Navarra v. Marlborough Gallery Inc.9
    • : Contractual Rights13
    • : Necessity of a Written Contract: The Dealer’s Lesson13
      • : O’Keeffe v. Bry13
      • : Estate of Jean-Michel Basquiat15
    • : Necessity of a Written Contract: The Artist’s Lesson16
      • : Sonnabend Gallery v. Halley16
    • : Limitations on Written Contracts18
    • : The Artist-Dealer Agreement: A Checklist23
    • : State Statutes on Consignment34
      • : Consignment Statutes in General35
      • : Consignment Statutes and the U.C.C.35
      • : Risk of Loss or Damage38
      • : Reclamation by the Artist40
      • : The Artist’s Waiver41
  • : The Artist’s Work As the Subject of a Bailment41
  • : Cooperative Galleries44
  • : The Dealer’s Potential Tort and Criminal Liabilities45
  • Appendix 1-1 : Artist Representation Agreement51
  • Appendix 1-2 : Consignment Contract65
  • Appendix 1-3 : Shortened Form of Artist Representation Agreement with Security Interest66
  • Appendix 1-4 : Artist Representation and Sale Agreement68
  • Appendix 1-5 : Act to Amend the New York Arts and Cultural Affairs Law Regarding Consignments of Works of Art (Assembly Bill A.8604-B)76
  • Appendix 1-6 : New York City Bar, Report on Legislation by the Art Law Committee79
Chapter 2: Private Sales
  • : Sales by Dealers87
    • : Warranties88
      • : Express Warranties88
        • : Warranty by Affirmation of Fact or Promise89
        • : Warranty by Description90
        • : Statements of Opinion92
        • : Exclusion of Warranty: Examination of Goods96
        • : Exclusion of Warranty: Disclaimer96
          • : Weiscz v. Parke-Bernet Galleries, Inc.97
          • : Parol Evidence Rule98
      • : Implied Warranties98
        • : Warranty of Merchantability98
        • : Warranty of Fitness for a Particular Purpose101
        • : Exclusion of Implied Warranties: Examination of Goods101
        • : Exclusion of Implied Warranties: Disclaimer102
        • : Implied Warranties and Privity102
        • : Warranty of Title103
          • : Exclusion of Warranty of Title: Disclaimer103
          • : Warranty of Title and Measure of Damages: Menzel v. List104
          • : Warranty of Title and Measure of Damages: The U.C.C.105
      • : Notice of Breach of Warranty107
    • : The Statute of Frauds108
    • : Offer and Acceptance110
    • : Duty Owed by Art Dealer to Potential Buyer111
    • : The Statute of Limitations112
    • : The Unconscionable Contract112
    • : Liability of Dealers As Agents114
    • : Title in Works of Art114
      • : Passage of Title114
      • : Voidable Title117
      • : Void Title119
      • : Entrustment120
        • : Agency Distinguished from Entrustment125
        • : The Duty of Inquiry into Title127
        • : The Merchant’s Duty of Disclosure129
        • : Risk of Loss129
        • : Principles of Contract and Tort Law129
      • : Contractual Mistake130
        • : Mutual Mistake130
        • : Mutual Mistake Rebutted by Authenticity135
      • : Fraud and Misrepresentation Versus Breach of Warranty137
        • : Fraud137
        • : Negligent Misrepresentation138
        • : Comparisons with Breach of Warranty138
      • : Lack of Transparency in Private Transactions139
      • : Insurance141
        • : What is Covered by “All Risk of Physical Loss”?141
        • : Coverage and Passage of Title142
        • : Coverage in Transit144
      • : Arts and Consumer Legislation145
        • : Penal Statutes145
        • : Warranties of Authenticity145
        • : New York’s Door-to-Door Sales Protection Act149
        • : Native American Arts150
        • : Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act150
        • : Truth-in-Lending Act151
        • : Federal Trade Commission Act151
        • : New York City Truth-in-Pricing Law151
        • : Antitrust Claims and Restrictions on Sales—Right of First Refusal152
    • : Sales by Collectors153
      • : Express Warranties153
      • : Implied Warranty of Merchantability154
      • : Warranty of Title154
      • : Statute of Frauds154
      • : Voidable Title154
      • : Buyer in the Ordinary Course of Business154
      • : Collector-Dealer Consignments155
        • : Applicability of Revised U.C.C.155
        • : Failure to Perfect a Security Interest156
        • : The Berry-Hill and Salander Bankruptcies159
        • : The Consignment Contract160
      • : Risk of Loss161
      • : Arts and Consumer Legislation161
      • : Immunity from Seizure of Artwork161
    • : Secured Transactions162
      • : Creation of the Security Interest162
      • : Attachment163
      • : Perfection164
      • : Signature165
      • : Priorities165
        • : Secured Party Versus Lien Creditor165
        • : Secured Party Versus Secured Party165
        • : Secured Party Versus Buyer166
      • : Creditor’s Rights on Default166
      • : When Default Occurs167
      • : Bringing Suit on the Debt167
      • : Realizing on Tangible Collateral: Right to Repossession167
      • : Retention of Collateral in Satisfaction of the Debt167
      • : Sale or Other Disposition of Collateral168
        • : Debtor’s Right of Redemption168
      • : Liability of the Secured Party168
  • Appendix 2-1 : Collector-Dealer Consignment Agreement with Minimum Gross Sales Price183
  • Appendix 2-2 : Shortened Version of a Collector Consignment with Security Agreement190
  • Appendix 2-3 : Owner-to-Dealer Consignment Agreement with Net Sale Proceeds192
  • Appendix 2-4 : Agent-to-Dealer Consignment Agreement with Net Sales Proceeds199
  • Appendix 2-5 : Dealer-to-Collector Sales Agreement206
  • Appendix 2-6 : Collector-to-Collector Sales Agreement with Installments215
  • Appendix 2-7 : Introduction Commission and Noncircumvention Agreement224
  • Appendix 2-8 : Dealer’s Memorandum of Delivery on Approval227
  • Appendix 2-9 : Dealer-to-Collector Bill of Sale Without Condition Report229
  • Appendix 2-10 : Owner-to-Collector Bill of Sale with Condition Report234
  • Appendix 2-11 : Agreement of Sale with Conditions Precedent239
Chapter 3: Statute of Limitations for Theft and Breach of Warranty
  • : Art Theft251
    • : Resources for Investigation and Recovery252
    • : Why the Limitations Period Is Critical253
    • : The Discovery Rule254
      • : O’Keeffe v. Snyder254
      • : The Byzantine Mosaics256
      • : Discovery Rule in Ohio and Pennsylvania257
      • : Drawbacks to the Discovery Rule258
    • : The Demand-Refusal Rule259
      • : The Guggenheim Case: New York’s Current Law259
      • : Demand-Refusal: What Constitutes Refusal?262
      • : Demand-Refusal: The Laches Defense263
    • : The California Statute273
    • : Accrual: Replevin versus Conversion275
    • : International Issues: Theft and Choice of Law276
  • : Breach of Warranty279
    • : Title Insurance280
    • : Breach of Warranty of Title280
  • : Authenticity: Forgeries282
    • : Ancient Forgeries282
    • : Modern Forgeries283
    • : Fake Art As a Crime286
    • : Does the Counterfeiter Have a Legitimate Role?287
    • : Gauging Authenticity288
    • : Breach of Authenticity290
    • : Mistake and Fraud295
Chapter 4: Auctions
  • : Types of Auctions304
  • : Online Auction Services305
  • : Application of U.C.C.308
    • : Marx v. Sotheby Parke-Bernet, Inc.308
    • : The Statute of Frauds309
    • : The Entrustment Provision309
  • : Relationships Among the Parties311
    • : Abrams v. Sotheby Parke Bernet, Inc.312
  • : The Auction House & the Consignor313
    • : Standard of Care314
    • : Negligence314
    • : Statute of Limitations314
    • : Duty of Disclosure316
    • : Auction Proceeds Are Tantamount to Trust Funds316
    • : Auctioneer’s Commission317
    • : Duty to Obtain Best Price317
      • : Buyer’s Premium318
      • : Guaranteed Price318
    • : Nonrefundable Advances and Nonrecourse Loans320
    • : Artwork As Collateral for Loans320
    • : Third-Party Guarantees321
    • : Irrevocable Bids322
    • : Interested Parties323
    • : Appropriate Estimates and Reserve Prices323
    • : Liability As Market Expert324
      • : Cristallina S.A. v. Christie, Manson & Woods International, Inc.325
    • : Limitations on Fiduciary Obligations326
      • : Contractual Limitations326
      • : Other Limitations331
      • : When Does a Fiduciary Duty Commence?332
    • : Consignor’s Assurances of Good and Clear Title333
    • : Commissions for Introducing the Consignor333
    • : Consignment Contracts333
      • : Auctioneer’s Discretion334
      • : Commission335
      • : Settlement of Account335
      • : Seller’s Representations and Warranties335
      • : Indemnification335
      • : Expenses336
      • : Copyright Matters336
      • : Resale Royalties336
      • : Buyer’s Nonpayment337
      • : Reserve Prices338
      • : Rescission338
      • : Private Sales339
      • : Withdrawal339
    • : When the Consignor Is a Dealer339
  • : The Auction House & the Purchaser339
    • : Jurisdiction over Bidders340
    • : Conditions of Sale in the Auction Catalog342
      • : Enforceability Where Buyer Has Not Seen the Catalog342
      • : Enforceability Where Catalog Entry Differs from Property’s Actual Condition344
    • : Sales Tax345
    • : Authenticity346
    • : Limited Warranties346
    • : The Case of the Fabergé Egg347
    • : Authenticity: An Increased Responsibility to Purchasers?348
      • : Liability in Fraud to Remote Buyers349
    • : Title350
    • : Disclaimers of Warranties351
      • : Giusti v. Sotheby Parke Bernet, Inc.351
    • : When a Buyer Refuses to Pay: Limits to an Auctioneer’s Rights353
      • : Personal Liability Where Successful Bidder Refuses to Pay354
    • : Loans to Buyers355
  • : New York City Regulation of Auctioneers356
    • : Written Contract356
    • : Disclosure to Consignors356
    • : Consignor Warrants Good Title357
    • : Disclosure to Prospective Buyers357
    • : Conduct of the Auction357
  • : Proposed Regulation in New York State358
  • : Antitrust Violations and Other Forbidden Practices359
    • : The Sotheby’s / Christie’s Class Action Settlement359
    • : Puffing360
    • : Chill Bidding360
    • : Providing Assistance to Bidding Rings361
    • : The Auction Experience362
  • Appendix 4-1 : Sotheby’s Standard Agreement371
  • Appendix 4-2 : Christie’s Standard Agreement381
  • Appendix 4-3 : Sotheby’s Warranty and Disclosure in Its Auction Catalogs390
  • Appendix 4-4 : Christie’s Warranty and Disclosure in Its Auction Catalogs397
  • Appendix 4-5 : City of New York Auctioneer Rules406
Chapter 5: Prints and Sculpture Multiples
  • : Prints422
    • : Printmaking Techniques422
      • : Relief Prints422
      • : Intaglio Prints423
        • : Etching423
        • : Aquatint423
        • : Embossing424
        • : Engraving424
        • : Drypoint424
        • : Mezzotint424
      • : Collagraphs424
      • : Stencil Prints425
      • : Planographic Prints425
        • : Lithographs425
        • : Monotypes426
      • : Digital Prints426
    • : Print Terminology426
      • : Edition Size426
      • : Edition Signing and Numbering426
      • : Proofs427
        • : Trial Proof427
        • : Bon à Tirer Proof428
        • : Artist’s Proof428
        • : Presentation Proof428
        • : Printer’s Proof428
        • : Cancellation Proof428
        • : Hors de Commerce428
        • : Restrike428
      • : Chop Mark428
      • : Posthumous Prints429
    • : The “Original” Print429
    • : Print Abuse430
      • : Forgeries431
        • : Magui Publishers431
        • : United States v. Austin and United States v. Amiel434
        • : Galerie Furstenberg434
      • : Perversions of the Edition Size436
      • : Other Abusive Practices438
    • : Print-Disclosure Statutes438
      • : California439
      • : New York439
      • : Other States440
      • : Are Print-Disclosure Statutes Effective?440
    • : Other Proposals to Curb Fraudulent Practices441
    • : Artist Versus Printer: A Copyright Issue441
  • : Sculpture Multiples442
    • : Multiples Abuse442
    • : Multiples Legislation443
Chapter 6: Commissioned Works
  • : Private Commissions449
    • : Purchaser Satisfaction450
    • : Copyright Ownership451
  • : Public Commissions453
    • : Commission Agreement: A Checklist453
      • : Manner of Selection453
      • : Terms Defined453
      • : Artist’s Services454
      • : Completion Time454
      • : Structural Requirements455
      • : Installation455
      • : Maintenance455
      • : Moral Rights455
      • : Payment456
      • : Nonperformance Clause456
      • : Insurance Coverage457
      • : Warranties457
      • : Models and Sketches457
      • : Copyright457
      • : Compliance with Applicable Law458
      • : Publicity458
      • : Equal Employment Opportunity458
      • : Repair and Restoration458
      • : Acceptance of the Artwork459
      • : Sales Taxes460
      • : Income Taxes460
  • : Removal of the Artwork: The Serra Case461
  • : Ephemeral Artwork464
  • Appendix 6-1 : Private Commission Agreement—Sculpture (Without Waiver of Moral Rights)468
  • Appendix 6-2 : Private Commission Agreement—Painting (With Waiver of Moral Rights)475
  • Appendix 6-3 : General Services Administration Public Buildings Service Contract for Fine Arts Services483
Chapter 7: Expert Opinions and Liabilities
  • : Disparagement493
    • : Elements of Disparagement494
    • : Tovar v. Indiana497
  • : Defamation498
    • : The Defamatory Statement498
    • : Of Purported Fact499
    • : False Statement503
      • : Boule v. Hutton504
    • : Concerning the Plaintiff509
    • : Published by the Defendant to a Third Party509
    • : Requisite Element of Fault509
  • : Lanham Act Violations513
  • : Negligence515
    • : Who Can Sue for Negligence?516
    • : Duty of Care516
  • : Negligent Misrepresentation520
    • : Struna v. Wolf521
    • : The Ravenna Case522
    • : Requisite Special Relationship523
    • : Statute of Limitations527
  • : Fraud530
    • : The Goldman Case530
      • : Actionable Fraud531
      • : Imputable to the Trust531
      • : Implications532
    • : The Amsterdam Case532
    • : The Pickett Case533
    • : Statute of Limitations534
      • : Itakura v. Primavera Galleries534
      • : Fraudulent Concealment: Krahmer v. Christie’s535
    • : Fraud and Remote Buyers: The Shafrazi Case538
      • : Shafrazi v. Christie’s538
    • : Guilty Knowledge: The Cohen and Zoellner Cases540
      • : Cohen v. Mazoh540
      • : Zoellner v. Christie’s541
  • : Pushback by the Experts542
    • : Actions for Malicious Prosecution543
      • : Seltzer v. Morton543
    • : Recovery for Plaintiff’s Bad Faith and Oppressive Conduct544
      • : Fastov v. Christie’s544
  • : Art Foundations and Art Authentication Boards546
    • : Must an Authentication Board Render an Opinion on All Submissions?548
      • : Thome v. Alexander & Louisa Calder Foundation548
    • : Antitrust Liability550
      • : The Kramer Case551
      • : The Warhol Case552
    • : Other Liabilities554
  • : Limitations on Liability556
    • : Limitations by Insurance556
    • : Limitations by Contract556
      • : Use of Exculpatory Language558
      • : Limitations of Exculpatory Language: The Foxley and E.S.T. Cases559
  • Appendix 7-1 : Excerpt from Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice and Advisory Opinions (USPAP) 2012–2013 Edition572
  • Appendix 7-2 : Appraisal Contract597
  • Appendix 7-3 : Art Advisory Agreement599
Chapter 8: International Trade
  • : The Black Market for Cultural Property: An Aerial View608
    • : Africa608
    • : Asia608
    • : Eastern Europe609
    • : Latin America610
    • : The Mediterranean Region610
    • : The Middle East611
    • : Iraq611
    • : The West612
  • : Selected International Treaties612
    • : The Hague Convention of 1954613
    • : The 1970 UNESCO Convention613
    • : UNIDROIT Convention614
    • : The European Union: Protecting Art in a Border-Free EU615
      • : Value-Added Tax on Art616
  • : United States Treaties617
  • : United States Legislation618
    • : Cultural Property Implementation Act618
    • : United States Customs Service620
      • : New Rules for Air Cargo621
    • : National Stolen Property Act (NSPA)622
  • : International Law Concerning ­Cultural Property622
    • : Civil Actions622
      • : The Byzantine Mosaics624
      • : Other Cases627
        • : The Sevso Treasure627
        • : The Elmali Hoard628
    • : Criminal Actions and the NSPA629
      • : Ninth Circuit: United States v. Hollinshead629
      • : Fifth Circuit: Mexican Pre-Columbian Artifacts and the McClain Cases629
      • : Seventh Circuit: Guatemalan Pre-Columbian Artifacts630
      • : Second Circuit: Italy and the Gold Phiale631
        • : District Court632
        • : Court of Appeals634
      • : Egypt: The Head of Amenhotep III and Other Artifacts635
      • : First Circuit: The Bakwin Cézanne and Other Paintings639
    • : U.S. Forfeiture Actions641
      • : The Roman Marble Torso of Artemis642
      • : The Spanish Manuscript Case642
      • : The Painting Known as “Hannibal”644
      • : United States v. Sharyl Davis645
      • : Forfeiture and Import Restrictions under the CPIA646
  • : Recent Trends Towards Repatriation649
    • : The Raid on Four California Museums649
    • : A Shift in American Museum Philosophy650
    • : Italy’s Approach to Repatriation650
    • : Impact of Italy’s Efforts651
  • : Structuring International Transactions652
  • Appendix 8-1 : Collector-Dealer Consignment Agreement with Minimum Gross Sales Price: Sale Outside the United States664
  • Appendix 8-2 : Agreement of Sale: Sale Outside the United States (Cash Escrow) Undisclosed Seller672
  • Appendix 8-3 : Agreement of Sale Outside the United States (Letter of Credit)684
  • Appendix 8-4 : Customs Directive696
  • Appendix 8-5 : UNESCO Members711
  • Appendix 8-6 : UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported ­Cultural Object: (Rome, 24 June 1995)720
  • Appendix 8-7 : UNIDROIT Members739
Chapter 9: Holocaust-Looted Art
  • : The Portrait of Wally Case743
    • : Temporary Change in the New York Statute744
    • : The Federal Litigation744
  • : The International Response to Wally747
  • : Pushback Against Heirs by Individual Possessors750
    • : Alsdorf v. Bennigson750
    • : Dunbar v. Seger-Thomschitz751
    • : Holocaust Victims Redress Act: No Private Right of Action752
      • : Orkin v. Taylor752
  • : Pushback Against Heirs by Museums754
    • : The Toledo Museum of Art755
    • : The Detroit Institute of Arts756
    • : The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston757
    • : MoMA and the Guggenheim759
  • : Sovereign Immunity and the FSIA760
    • : Retroactivity of FSIA: The Altmann Case760
    • : Cassirer v. Kingdom of Spain764
    • : Chabad v. Russian Federation765
    • : Csepel v. Republic of Hungary766
    • : Freund v. Republic of France767
    • : Alperin v. Vatican Bank768
    • : Westfield v. Federal Republic of Germany769
  • : California’s Extended Statute of Limitations769
    • : Von Saher v. Norton Simon Museum770
  • : Practical Suggestions771
    • : Art Title Insurance771
    • : Mediation771
  • Appendix 9-1 : Washington Conference Principles on Nazi-Confiscated Art777
  • Appendix 9-2 : Terezin Declaration779
Chapter 10: First Amendment Rights
  • : The Concept of Freedom of Expression792
    • : Pure Speech, Visual Speech, and Conduct792
      • : Public and Nonpublic Forums793
      • : Government Actors799
      • : Government Speech801
      • : Utilitarian Device Rather than Expressive Content801
      • : Physical Conduct and the Four-Part Test802
      • : Art As Visual Speech803
      • : Art Vending804
    • : Art as a Threat813
    • : Art As Commentary814
      • : Art As Social Commentary in Advertising816
      • : Commercial versus Noncommercial Expression817
      • : Art As Commentary on Business Practices817
      • : Art As Political Expression818
      • : Controversial Art Exhibited in Museums820
      • : Satire822
      • : Defamation829
  • : Use of the Flag832
    • : The Flag, Conduct, and Constitutional Protection833
      • : Violence As a Distinguishing Factor835
      • : Proposed Constitutional Amendment836
      • : Flag-Protection Legislation836
      • : The Flag and Nonexpressive Conduct837
    • : Exhibition of the Flag As Art839
  • : Use of Emblems and Insignia840
  • : Graffiti Art842
  • : Trademark Appropriation843
    • : Trademark Infringement843
    • : Trademark Dilution851
    • : False Endorsement Under the Lanham Act856
      • : Elements of a False Endorsement Claim857
      • : Elements of a False Advertising Claim857
  • : Public Art858
    • : The Serra Case858
    • : Other Controversies861
  • : Limitations on Freedom of Expression862
    • : Obscenity863
      • : Evolution of the Current Guidelines863
      • : The Current Test864
      • : Aftermath of Miller865
      • : The Miller Test as a (Failed) Basis of Other Legislation868
      • : Sale or Distribution Versus Private Possession869
      • : Artwork, Minors, and Pornography869
      • : The Captive Audience871
      • : The National Endowment for the Arts874
  • : The Rights of Privacy and Publicity876
    • : Privacy878
      • : Incidental-Use Exception879
      • : Newsworthiness Exception880
      • : Limited-Artistic-Dissemination Exception882
      • : Opinion Exception883
      • : “Portrait or Picture” of Fictitious Characters884
      • : New York’s Privacy Statutes and the Statute of Limitations884
  • : Publicity886
    • : Post-Mortem Right of Publicity and the Saga of Marilyn Monroe887
    • : Where Right of Publicity Trumps First Amendment890
Chapter 11: Copyrights
  • : History910
  • : Elements of Copyright911
    • : Fixation911
    • : Distinction Between the Work and the Copyright in the Work911
      • : Transfers of Copyright on or After January 1, 1978911
      • : Transfers of Statutory Copyright Before January 1, 1978911
      • : Transfers of Common-Law Copyright912
    • : Idea and Expression912
    • : Originality915
      • : Originality and Scènes à Faire923
    • : Publication925
      • : The Copyright Act of 1909925
      • : The Copyright Act of 1976930
    • : Duration931
      • : Works Created on or After January 1, 1978931
      • : Works Created Before January 1, 1978, with Subsisting Copyrights933
      • : Works Created but Not Published or Registered Before January 1, 1978933
  • : Exclusive Rights933
    • : The Right to Reproduce933
      • : Restrictions934
    • : The Right to Adapt934
    • : The Right to Distribute937
      • : Restrictions937
    • : The Right to Display939
      • : Restrictions939
  • : Divisibility of Copyright940
    • : The Copyright Act of 1909940
    • : The Copyright Act of 1976941
    • : Licenses and Assignments941
      • : Nonexclusive Licenses943
    • : Joint Ownership945
  • : Anonymous and Pseudonymous Works947
  • : Compilations and Collective Works947
  • : Works Made for Hire948
    • : Specially Commissioned Works949
    • : Works Prepared by an Employee951
      • : The Copyright Act of 1909957
  • : Copyright Procedures959
    • : Notice959
      • : Form and Placement of Notice961
        • : The Copyright Act of 1976961
        • : The Copyright Act of 1909961
      • : Omission of Notice962
      • : Defective Notice962
    • : Registration962
    • : Deposit966
    • : Recordation967
    • : Renewals967
    • : Termination of Transfers969
      • : Grants Executed by the Artist on or After January 1, 1978969
      • : Grants Executed by the Artist Before January 1, 1978970
    • : Statute of Limitations970
    • : Orphan Works970
  • : Utilitarian Objects and Copyright973
    • : Conceptual Separability976
  • : International Perspectives981
    • : The Berne Convention981
      • : Berne Doctrines982
      • : Droit Moral982
      • : Copyright Formalities983
      • : Berne’s Enforcement Inadequacies984
    • : The World Trade Organization984
      • : The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988985
      • : TRIPs986
      • : Amendment to United States Law: Copyright Restoration987
      • : Copyright Restoration As Constitutional991
    • : The WIPO Copyright Treaty992
  • : Copyright Infringement993
    • : Infringement Tests993
      • : Access994
      • : Substantial Similarity994
    • : Common Source998
    • : Prerequisites to an Infringement Suit999
    • : Fair Use999
      • : Rogers v. Koons1001
      • : Campbell v. Acuff-Rose1004
      • : Post-Campbell1005
      • : Koons Revisited After Campbell1006
      • : Cariou v. Prince1013
        • : Purpose and Character of Prince’s Use of the Photographs1015
        • : Nature of the Copyrighted Work1017
        • : Amount and Substantiality of the Portion Used1017
        • : Market Harm1017
        • : Aggregate Analysis and Conclusions As to Liability1018
      • : Art Reproductions in Auction and Gallery Catalogs: A Fair Use?1018
  • : Remedies for Copyright Infringement1019
    • : Injunctive Relief1019
    • : Impoundment and Disposition1020
    • : Damages1020
      • : Actual Damages and Profits1020
      • : Where the Government Is the Infringer1022
      • : Statutory Damages and Attorney’s Fees1023
    • : Costs and Attorney’s Fees1025
    • : Criminal Remedies1025
    • : Trademark Remedies under the Lanham Act1025
  • : Architectural Works1027
  • Appendix 11-1 : Copyright Office Form VA1054
  • Appendix 11-2 : WIPO Copyright Treaty1058
  • Appendix 11-3 : Fine Art License1068
Chapter 12: Moral Rights
  • : Origins1071
  • : Categories of Moral Rights1072
    • : Right of Disclosure (?Droit de Divulgation)1072
    • : Right to Withdraw from Publication or to Make ­Modifications Droit de Retrait ou de Repentir)1072
    • : Right of Authorship (?Droit à la Paternité)1073
    • : Right of Integrity (?Droit au Respect de l’Oeuvre)1073
  • : Characteristics of Moral Rights Abroad1073
    • : The Personal Right1074
    • : The Perpetual Right1074
    • : The Inviolable and Unassignable Right1074
  • : Droit Moral and the United States1075
    • : Early Attitudes1075
    • : Backdoor Recognition of Moral Rights1076
  • : No Legislation Yields No Protection1077
  • : State Moral Rights Legislation1078
    • : California’s Moral Rights Legislation1079
    • : New York’s Artists Authorship Rights Act1079
    • : Massachusetts’ Moral Rights Statute1080
    • : Maine’s Moral Rights Statute1080
    • : Louisiana’s Artists’ Authorship Rights Act1081
    • : New Jersey’s Artists’ Rights Act1081
    • : Pennsylvania’s Fine Arts Preservation Act1081
    • : New Mexico’s Act Relating to Fine Art in Public Buildings1082
    • : Rhode Island’s Artists’ Rights Act1082
    • : Connecticut’s Art Preservation and Artists’ Rights Statute1082
    • : Nevada’s Statute1083
    • : Moral Rights Statutes for Public Art Commissions1083
      • : Utah1083
      • : Georgia1083
      • : Montana1083
      • : South Dakota1083
      • : Puerto Rico1084
  • : Judicial Scrutiny of State Legislation1084
    • : Wojnarowicz v. American Family Association1084
    • : Morita v. Omni Publications International1087
      • : Other Cases1087
  • : Federal Moral Rights Legislation: VARA1088
    • : Covered Works1089
    • : Limitations to Covered Works1089
      • : Subject Matter1089
      • : Quantity1091
      • : Advertisement or Promotion1092
      • : Site-Specific Works1094
  • : Moral Rights Granted1095
    • : Attribution1095
    • : Integrity1096
  • : Distortion, Mutilation, Modification, or Destruction1098
  • : Destruction and State of Mind1099
  • : “Recognized Stature”1100
    • : The Carter Case1100
      • : Was the Plaintiffs’ Artwork in the Lobby a Single Work of Art or Several Pieces That Must Be Treated Separately Under VARA?1101
      • : Was the Plaintiffs’ Artwork Applied Art?1101
      • : Was the Plaintiffs’ Artwork a Work Made for Hire?1102
      • : Was the Plaintiffs’ Artwork a Work of Visual Art Under VARA?1102
      • : Would Intentional Distortion, Mutilation, or Modification of the Artwork Be Prejudicial to the Plaintiffs’ Honor or Reputation?1102
      • : Is the Artwork a Work of Recognized Stature?1102
      • : Does VARA Violate the Fifth Amendment?1103
    • : “Recognized Stature” in Later Case Law1104
  • : Persons Covered1106
  • : Duration1106
  • : Registration1107
  • : Remedies1107
  • : Preemption1108
    • : VARA and Insurance1111
  • : Waiver and Transfer of Rights1112
    • : Waiver for Movable Works of Visual Art1112
    • : Waiver for Works of Visual Art Incorporated into Buildings1112
    • : Questioning the Wisdom of Waivers1112
  • : Does VARA Meet the Requirements of Berne?1113
Chapter 13: Resale Rights (Droit de Suite)
  • : What Is Droit de Suite?1125
  • : European Perspectives1127
    • : Origins1127
    • : European Union: Harmonization of Droit de Suite1128
  • : World Legislation1129
  • : The United States Concept1133
    • : Federal Legislation1133
    • : California Resale Royalties Act1135
      • : Subject Matter1136
      • : First-Sale Exclusion1136
      • : Required Situs1136
      • : Royalty Amount1136
      • : Limitation and Termination1136
      • : Waiver of Rights1137
      • : Case Law Under the California Statute1137
    • : CRRA Struck Down Pending Appeal1139
    • : Georgia’s Droit de Suite Statute1140
  • Appendix 13-1 : Model Droit de Suite System1145
  • Appendix 13-2 : California Resale Royalties Act1148
  • Appendix 13-3 : Jurist Contract Form1151
  • Appendix 13-4 : European Union Directive on Resale Rights1155
Chapter 14: The Collection As Investment Property
  • : Definitions1169
    • : Dealer1169
    • : Investor1170
    • : Collector1171
    • : Statutory Provisions1171
  • : Expenses1172
    • : Prior Law1172
    • : Conclusions Under Wrightsman1173
    • : Section 1831174
      • : Section 183(b)1177
      • : Cases Under Section 1831178
    • : Section 681183
  • : Losses1184
    • : Losses on Sales1184
    • : Losses on Inherited Property1186
    • : Casualty Losses1186
    • : Involuntary Conversions1187
  • : Exchanges1187
  • : Record Keeping1190
  • : Self-Directed Retirement Plans1190
  • : Insurance1192
  • : Sales and Use Taxes1193
    • : Sale of Art1194
      • : Delivery Out of State1194
      • : Purchase Exclusively for Resale1195
      • : Trade-In Credit1196
    • : Advice on Purchase or Sale1197
    • : Purchase at Auction1198
  • : Situs of Property—State-Source Income1198
  • : Depreciation1199
  • Appendix 14-1 : Agreement for Exchange of Property1208
  • Appendix 14-2 : Sample Invoice—Exchange and Trade-In Credit1221
  • Appendix 14-3 : IRS Form 8824–Like-Kind Exchanges1222
Chapter 15: Tax and Estate Planning for Collectors
  • : Valuation1228
    • : IRS Valuation Regulations1229
    • : IRS Valuation Procedures1231
      • : Rules Before January 1, 19851231
      • : Choosing an Appraiser1232
      • : Additional Information on Appraisers and Valuation1232
      • : Appraisal Rules Effective January 1, 1985, Prior to Changes Made by the Pension Protection Act of 20061233
        • : Qualified Appraisal1234
        • : Qualified Appraiser1235
        • : Appraisal Summary1236
        • : Appraisal Fee1237
        • : Pension Protection Act of 20061237
          • : Qualified Appraisal1237
        • : Qualified Appraiser1238
          • : Notice 2006-961238
        • : Appraisal Foundation1239
        • : Guiding Principle1239
      • : Advance-Valuation-Ruling Procedure1240
    • : IRS Record-Keeping Requirements1240
    • : IRS Art Advisory Panel1241
    • : Determining Fair Market Value1242
      • : The IRS Determination of Value1242
      • : Revenue Rulings on Valuation1243
        • : Revenue Ruling 79-256, 1979-2 C.B. 1051243
        • : Revenue Ruling 79-419, 1979-2 C.B. 1071243
        • : Revenue Ruling 79-432, 1979-2 C.B. 2891243
        • : Revenue Ruling 80-69, 1980-1 C.B. 551244
        • : Revenue Ruling 80-233, 1980-2 C.B. 691244
        • : Recent Rulings1244
      • : Litigation on Valuation1244
        • : Retail Market, Tax Shelters, and the Blockage Discount1244
      • : Gifford M. Mast, Jr. Case1247
        • : Other Valuation Cases1249
      • : The Quedlinburg Treasures1253
      • : Buyer’s Premium1254
      • : Current Trend in Valuation Cases1259
    • : Penalties for Incorrect Valuations1259
      • : Prior Laws1259
      • : New Penalty Rules1260
      • : New Disclosure Rules for Donee Charitable Organizations1262
      • : Regulation of Appraisers1263
      • : Appraisal Costs1263
  • : Charitable Transfers1264
    • : Complete Inter Vivos Charitable Transfers1264
      • : Requirements for Claiming a Charitable Deduction1264
        • : Status of the Organization1264
        • : Type of Property1265
          • : Capital Gain Property1265
          • : Ordinary Income Property1266
      • : Related Use Rule1268
        • : Private Letter Ruling 77-51-0441270
        • : Private Letter Ruling 80-09-0271270
        • : Private Letter Ruling 81-43-0291270
        • : Private Letter Ruling 82-08-0591270
        • : Private Letter Ruling 91-31-0531271
        • : Private Letter Ruling 98-33-0111271
        • : Related Use Reporting1271
        • : Related Use Penalty1272
      • : Qualified Appraisal by a Qualified Appraiser1272
    • : Charitable Deduction Limitations1273
      • : General Percentage Limitation1273
      • : Ordinary Income Property Percentage Limitation1273
      • : Capital Gain Property Percentage Limitation1273
      • : Examples1274
    • : The Section 68 Limitation1275
    • : Alternative Minimum Tax1275
    • : Checklist for Collectors1276
  • : Partial Inter Vivos Charitable Transfers1278
    • : Retained Life Estate: The Future Interest Rule1278
      • :
        • : Fractional Gifts Before August 17, 20061280
        • : Fractional Gifts After August 17, 20061280
      • : Valuation Limitation1281
      • : Timing Limitation1281
      • : Use Limitation1281
      • : Recapture of Deduction1281
      • : Denial of Deduction1282
      • : Danger of Fractional Gifts and the Repeal1282
      • : Planning1282
    • : Fractional Interest—Valuation Issues1283
    • : Leaseback1286
    • : Limited Present Interest1287
    • : Gift Annuities1287
    • : Bargain Sale1288
    • : Loans to Charities1289
    • : Charitable Remainder Trust: Inter Vivos1289
      • : Collection Kept for Trust Term1290
      • : Collection Sold Within First Year1291
      • : Collection Sold After First Year1295
    • : When the Charitable Donation Is Completed1296
    • : Private Operating Foundations1297
      • : Income Test1297
      • : Asset Test1298
      • : Endowment Test1300
      • : Support Test1300
    • : Techniques to Avoid1300
    • : Complete Testamentary Charitable Transfers1301
      • : Changes Under ERTA1302
    • : Partial Testamentary Charitable Transfers1303
      • : Charitable Remainder Trust: Testamentary1303
      • : Charitable Lead (Income) Trust1306
      • : Planning for the Collector—Charitable Lead and Charitable Remainder Trusts1309
      • : Spousal Use1310
      • : Double Deduction Denied1312
      • : Fractional Interest1313
        • : Amount of Deduction1314
      • : Retained Copyright Interest1315
        • : Tax Law Background1315
        • : Copyright Law Background1315
        • : Interaction of Tax Law and Copyright Law1316
        • : The Collector1317
        • : The Artist1318
        • : Additional Problems under Section 2055(e)(4)1318
        • : Conclusion1319
  • : Noncharitable Transfers1320
    • : Inter Vivos Transfers1320
      • : Advantages of Lifetime Gifts1320
      • : Disadvantages of Lifetime Gifts1322
      • : Intrafamily Transfers1322
      • : Basis on Transfer1322
      • : Grantor Retained Income Trusts1323
        • : The Stone Case1325
      • : Family Limited Partnerships1327
      • : Lifetime Sales1330
    • : Testamentary Transfers1330
      • : Outright Transfer1330
      • : Transfer in Trust1331
  • : Selling the Collection After Death1331
    • : Deduction of Selling Expenses1331
    • : Denial of Double Deduction1338
    • : Basis for Purposes of Sale1339
  • : The Museum and Restricted Gifts1341
  • Appendix 15-1 : Information Required Before Contribution1362
  • Appendix 15-2 : Deed of Gift of Entire Interest to Museum1363
  • Appendix 15-3 : Deed of Gift of Entire Interest from Foundation to Museum1365
  • Appendix 15-4 : Deed of Gift of One-Fourth Interest to a Museum1368
  • Appendix 15-5 : Deed of Gift of One-Fourth Interest with Promised Gift Agreement1370
  • Appendix 15-6 : Specific Bequest of a Work of Art1375
  • Appendix 15-7 : Specific Items to Named Individuals1376
  • Appendix 15-8 : Items to a Class of Individuals1377
  • Appendix 15-9 : Specific Items to Unnamed Charities1378
  • Appendix 15-10 : Expenses for Tangibles1379
  • Appendix 15-11 : Information Required to Be Contained in an Appraisal of Tangible Personal Property Being Contributed to Charity for Which a Deduction Will Be Claimed for Federal Income Tax Purposes1380
  • Appendix 15-12 : Charitable Contributions Chart1382
  • Appendix 15-13 : IRS Publication 561—Determining the Value of Donated Property1384
  • Appendix 15-14 : IRS Form 8283—Noncash Charitable Contributions1399
  • Appendix 15-15 : Art Advisory Panel 2011 Annual Report1401
Chapter 16: Tax and Estate Planning for Artists
  • : Valuation1409
    • : Blockage Discount1410
      • : David Smith1411
      • : Louisa J. Calder1414
      • : Georgia O’Keeffe1415
      • : Andy Warhol1419
      • : Blockage by Another Name1422
    • : Penalties1423
  • : Charitable Transfers1424
    • : Inter Vivos Transfers1424
      • : Planning Advice1424
      • : Artists Exchanging Works1425
      • : Charitable Remainder Trust: Inter Vivos1426
      • : The Artwork and the Copyright1427
      • : Planning with the Inter Vivos Unitrust1429
    • : Testamentary Transfers1430
      • : Outright Bequests1430
      • : Related Use1431
      • : Charitable Remainder Trust: Testamentary1433
      • : Marital Bequest1434
      • : Size of Bequest1435
      • : Discretionary Bequests1435
  • : Noncharitable Transfers1435
    • : Inter Vivos Transfers1435
      • : Assignment of Income1436
      • : Right of Termination Under the Copyright Act1438
    • : Testamentary Transfers1438
      • : Will-Bumping1439
      • : Selling Expenses1440
      • : Postmortem Sales—Basis Adjustment1440
      • : Paying the Estate Tax1444
        • : Tax Deferral1444
        • : Qualified Family-Owned Business Interests1445
        • : State Estate Tax1446
      • : Fiduciary Responsibility1446
  • : Income Taxes1447
    • : Deduction for Expenses of Creating Art1447
    • : Stella Waitzkin1448
    • : Business Use of Residence1449
    • : Should Artists Incorporate?1450
  • : Miscellaneous Issues1451
    • : Merchandising Rights1451
      • : Grant1451
      • : Ownership1451
      • : Consideration1452
      • : Term1452
      • : Territory1452
      • : Quality Control1452
      • : Indemnity1452
      • : Accounting1452
      • : Copyright1452
    • : Definition of Artist As It Applies to Real Estate1452
    • : Photography1453
    • : Video Art1453
    • : Artistic Materials1454
    • : Sales Tax1454
  • Appendix 16-1 : Credit Shelter Nonmarital Trust for Artist’s Works of Art1463
  • Appendix 16-2 : Outright to Charity Subject to Selection Within Time Limitation1464
  • Appendix 16-3 : Loan and Promised Gift Agreement1466
  • Appendix 16-4 : Bequest of Art—Retained Copyright1469
Chapter 17: Museums
  • : Organizational Structure1473
    • : Public Museums1474
    • : Private Museums1474
      • : Charitable Trust1474
      • : Nonprofit Corporation1475
  • : Incoming Works1476
    • : Accessioning1476
      • : Issues of Title1478
      • : Issues of Illegal Export1484
      • : Issues of U.S. Protected Artifacts1485
      • : Issues of Copyright1487
      • : Restricted Gifts1488
      • : Taxes1492
  • : Loans1493
    • : Standard of Care1493
    • : The Loan Agreement1494
      • : Dates of Exhibition1495
      • : Lender’s Identification1495
      • : The Work Being Loaned1495
      • : Insurance1495
      • : Catalog and Publicity1496
      • : Framing1496
      • : Shipping1496
      • : Additional Conditions1496
      • : Unreturnable Loans1496
    • : International Loans1497
      • : Insurance1497
      • : Foreign Loans: Seizure and Other Judicial Process1497
      • : Force Majeure1498
      • : Taxation1498
  • : Outgoing Works1498
    • : Deaccessioning1498
      • : Legal Issues1498
      • : Public Relations Issues1500
      • : Ethical Issues1504
    • : Outgoing Loans1504
      • : Loan Recipients1504
      • : Objects Loaned1505
      • : Insurance1505
      • : Traveling Exhibitions1505
    • : Indefinite Loans1506
      • : When Does the Statute of Limitations Begin to Run?1507
      • : Legislative Solutions1509
  • : Appraisals and Authentications1510
    • : Appraisals1510
    • : Authentications1510
  • : Income-Producing Activities1511
  • Appendix 17-1 : Loan Agreement (for Lending Multiple Works to Multiple Museums)1521
  • Appendix 17-2 : Loan Agreement (for Lending One Work to a Museum)1531
  • Appendix 17-3 : Loan Agreement (Loan to a Commercial Art Gallery)1540
  • Appendix 17-4 : Loan and Conditional Gift Agreement1549
  • Appendix 17-5 : IRS Form 8282—Donee Information Return1556
Chapter 18: Art Law Online and Digital art
  • : Introduction1561
  • : Copyrights in the Digital Age1563
    • : Overview1563
    • : Exclusive Rights of Copyright Holders Within the Digital Medium1564
      • : Reproduction of the Copyrighted Work in Digital Copies1564
      • : The Creation of Digital Derivative Works1565
        • : Appropriation1565
        • : Licensing Digital Artwork1566
      • : Agence France Presse v. Morel1566
      • : Teter v. Glass Onion, Inc.1567
        • : Collective Works1568
      • : Distribution of Digital Copies of the Copyrighted Work to the Public1571
        • : Compilations1574
      • : Public Display of the Digital Copyrighted Work1574
    • : Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)1576
      • : Overview1576
      • : DMCA Safe Harbor Provisions1578
        • : Contributory Infringement1578
        • : Notice and Takedown Provisions Limit ISP Liability1580
        • : File Sharing and Peer-to-Peer Networks1581
        • : Hyperlinks1585
        • : Inline Linking and Framing1585
        • : Fair Use Defense1586
        • : Fair Use Defense and Nonprofit Organizations1586
  • : Trademark Protection1587
    • : Traditional Trademark Law1587
    • : Types of Trademark Infringement1587
      • : Traditional Infringement1587
      • : Use of Trademark in Domain Name1588
      • : Cybersquatting1588
      • : Good-Faith Registration1588
      • : International Disputes1589
      • : Gripe Sites1589
    • : Remedies1589
      • : Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy1589
        • : Prerequisites to a UDRP Proceeding1590
        • : Uniform Dispute Resolution Service Providers1590
      • : Trademark Dilution Revision Act1590
      • : Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act1591
    • : Fair Use Defenses to Trademark Infringement1591
      • : Nominative Fair Use1591
      • : Parody1592
  • : First Amendment Issues Online1593
    • : Defamation Law1593
      • : Communications Decency Act1593
      • : Types of Claims Barred1593
      • : Claims Not Barred1595
    • : The Rights of Privacy and Publicity1595
      • : Privacy1595
      • : Publicity1596
    • : Obscenity and Indecency Law1597
      • : Federal Regulation of Obscenity1597
      • : State Regulation of Obscenity1603
  • : Child Pornography1603
  • : Visual Artists’ Moral Rights in a Digital Age1605
  • : Art Commerce Online1605
    • : Cyberspace Jurisdiction1606
    • : Online Art Auctions, Sales, and Fraud1608
  Statutory Appendix
  Table of Authorities
  Index

  Please click here to view the Table of Authorities: Table of Authorities  
 

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