TreatiseTreatise

Anti-Money Laundering Deskbook: A Practical Guide to Law and Compliance (Looseleaf)

 by Nicole S. Healy
 
 Copyright: 2014-2017
 Last Updated: June 2017

 Product Details >> 

Product Details

  • ISBN Number: 9781402422652
  • Page Count: 656
  • Number of Volumes: 1
  •  

Also available in hardcover

Money laundering by drug cartels, terrorists, and other criminal groups is a fast-growing problem. Technologies including online payment systems, virtual currency, and stored value cards have joined well-established methods of laundering the proceeds of criminal activity.    

Laundered proceeds provide economic fuel for terrorist activities and violent conflicts across the globe, and fund other criminal activity. Moreover, it is not just criminal gangs that launder money. Because many white collar crimes are predicate offenses for money laundering, a wide array of violations can generate proceeds to be laundered before they can be freely spent. Anti-Money Laundering Deskbook: A Practical Guide to Law and Compliance is a roadmap to understanding this complex area.

The U.S. Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FINCEN) defines money laundering as “the process of making illegally-gained proceeds appear legal,” through a three-step  process of “placement, layering and integration.” Anti-Money Laundering Deskbook defines the terms, and then walks the reader through the federal statutory framework that has evolved substantially since 9/11, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the many statutes and regulations governing money laundering, structuring financial transactions, terrorist finance, and forfeiture.

This Deskbook provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of money laundering as a cross-border issue, helping the reader to understand such issues as:

  • How money laundering works – including through informal currency transfer networks, e-payment systems, virtual currencies, trade- or service-based schemes, and other methods
  • When property is considered “involved in” or “traceable” to an offense and thus may be seized or forfeited
  • How the structuring of funds to avoid required reporting is an offense regardless of whether the funds are derived from illegal or entirely legal activity
  • How international organizations are adapting to the constantly changing attempts to evade prosecution through complex e-transfers that no longer are being cleared through state-chartered banks
  • What offenses are on the growing list of “specified unlawful activities” (SUAs) that are predicate offenses to money laundering violations
Anti-Money Laundering Deskbook provides a thorough discussion of all the major U.S. cases considering money laundering activity, describes the programs of the major international anti-money laundering (AML) organizations, and provides a suggested model for an effective AML compliance program.
  Table of Contents
  List of Abbreviations
  Preface
Chapter 1: Overview
  • § 1:1 : Definition of Money Laundering1-1
  • § 1:2 : How Money Laundering Works1-3
  • § 1:3 : Overview of U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Laws1-4
Chapter 2: Financial Institutions and Money Laundering
  • § 2:1 : Introduction2-1
  • § 2:2 : Cautionary Tales—Money Laundering Involving Major Financial Institutions2-2
    • § 2:2.1 : HSBC Bank USA2-2
    • § 2:2.2 : Standard Chartered Bank2-5
    • § 2:2.3 : ING Bank2-5
    • § 2:2.4 : AmSouth Bank2-6
    • § 2:2.5 : Riggs Bank2-7
      • [A] : Internal Controls2-8
      • [B] : Independent Testing2-9
      • [C] : Designation of Individuals to Coordinate and Monitor Compliance2-9
      • [D] : Training Appropriate Personnel2-9
  • § 2:3 : Conclusion2-10
Chapter 3: Money Laundering in Practice
  • § 3:1 : Introduction3-1
  • § 3:2 : Money Laundering Mechanisms3-5
    • § 3:2.1 : Bulk Cash Smuggling and U.S. Dollar Deposits into Foreign Bank Accounts3-5
    • § 3:2.2 : Black Market Peso Exchange3-8
  • Figure 3-1 : Simplified BMPE Transactions Flow Chart3-10
    • § 3:2.3 : Trade-Based Money Laundering3-13
      • § [A] : Red Flags in Trade-Based Money Laundering3-14
    • § 3:2.4 : Bearer Instruments3-15
      • § [A] : Traveler’s Checks3-15
      • § [B] : Bearer Bonds3-16
      • § [C] : Money Orders3-17
    • § 3:2.5 : Casinos and Online Gambling3-17
    • § 3:2.6 : Luxury Goods3-22
    • § 3:2.7 : Shell Banks3-25
    • § 3:2.8 : Shell Companies and Trusts3-25
      • § [A] : Recent Investigations and Prosecutions Involving Money Laundering Through Shell Companies3-28
    • § 3:2.9 : Real Estate3-31
    • § 3:2.10 : Insurance and Other Investments3-38
    • § 3:2.11 : Check-Cashing Businesses3-38
    • § 3:2.12 : Benefits Fraud3-41
    • § 3:2.13 : Health Care Fraud and Money Laundering3-42
Chapter 4: Key U.S. Laws and Regulations
  • § 4:1 : Anti-Money Laundering Laws4-2
    • § 4:1.1 : Bank Secrecy Act (1970) (BSA)4-2
      • [A] : Legislative History4-2
      • [B] : Organization4-4
    • § 4:1.2 : Money Laundering Control Act (1986)4-5
    • § 4:1.3 : Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 19884-9
    • § 4:1.4 : Annunzio-Wylie Anti-Money Laundering Act (1992)4-9
    • § 4:1.5 : Money Laundering Suppression Act (1994)4-11
    • § 4:1.6 : Money Laundering and Financial Crimes Strategy Act (1998)4-11
    • § 4:1.7 : Intelligence Reform & Terrorism Prevention Act of 20044-12
  • § 4:2 : Major Overhaul of U.S. AML/CFT Laws: The USA PATRIOT Act4-12
  • § 4:3 : The PATRIOT Act’s Anti-Money Laundering Provisions: In General4-13
  • § 4:4 : The PATRIOT Act’s Anti-Money Laundering Provisions: Specific Sections4-17
    • § 4:4.1 : Section 311—Special Measures for Jurisdictions, Financial Institutions, or International Transactions of Primary Money Laundering Concern4-17
    • § 4:4.2 : Section 312—Special Due Diligence for Correspondent Accounts and Private Banking Accounts4-23
    • § 4:4.3 : Section 313—Prohibiting U.S. Correspondent Accounts with Shell Banks4-25
    • § 4:4.4 : Section 315—Additional Predicate Offenses4-26
    • § 4:4.5 : Section 318—Expansion of the Definition of Financial Institution4-26
    • § 4:4.6 : Section 326—Customer Identification Verification4-26
    • § 4:4.7 : Section 352—AML Programs4-27
    • § 4:4.8 : Section 358—Reports to the Intelligence Community4-28
    • § 4:4.9 : Section 359—Reporting Suspicious Activity by Underground Banking System4-29
    • § 4:4.10 : Section 371—Prohibition on Bulk Cash Smuggling4-30
Chapter 5: Criminal AML Statutes and the Antiterrorism Act
  • § 5:1 : Overview5-3
  • § 5:2 : 18 U.S.C. § 1956—Domestic Money Laundering, International Money Laundering, and “Sting” Operations5-4
  • § 5:3 : Domestic Money Laundering—18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(1)5-4
    • § 5:3.1 : Elements of the Crime: Summary5-6
    • § 5:3.2 : Elements of the Crime: Specific Issues5-9
      • [A] : Distinct Offenses5-9
      • [B] : Merger5-10
      • [C] : Proceeds5-13
      • [D] : Intent5-20
      • [E] : Promotion—18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(1)(A)(i)5-21
        • [E][1] : Elements5-21
        • [E][2] : Intent to Promote5-21
        • [E][3] : Continuing Offense5-24
      • [F] : Concealment—18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(1)(B)(i)5-24
        • [F][1] : Elements5-24
        • [F][2] : Evidence of Concealment5-25
          • [F][2][a] : Intent to Conceal a Listed Attribute5-27
          • [F][2][b] : Source of the Proceeds5-29
      • [G] : Concealment—Avoiding a Reporting Requirement—18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(1)(B)(ii)5-30
        • [G][1] : Elements5-30
        • [G][2] : Venue5-31
        • [G][3] : Illustrative Cases Demonstrating Sufficient Evidence of Intent to Avoid Reporting Requirements5-31
  • § 5:4 : International Money Laundering—18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(2)5-32
    • § 5:4.1 : Elements—Summary5-32
    • § 5:4.2 : Elements5-33
      • [A] : Specified Unlawful Activity5-33
      • [B] : Transfer/Transportation5-34
      • [C] : Insufficient Evidence of Concealment5-35
  • § 5:5 : Money Laundering Stings—18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(3)5-35
    • § 5:5.1 : Elements—Summary5-35
    • § 5:5.2 : Elements5-36
      • [A] : Knowledge and Intent5-36
    • § 5:5.3 : Defenses to Sting Operations5-38
      • [A] : Entrapment5-38
      • [B] : Outrageous Government Conduct5-41
  • § 5:6 : Extraterritorial Jurisdiction—18 U.S.C. § 1956(f)5-42
    • § 5:6.1 : Extraterritorial Jurisdiction—Predicate Offenses5-44
  • § 5:7 : Money Laundering Conspiracy—18 U.S.C. § 1956(h)5-48
    • § 5:7.1 : Elements—Summary5-49
    • § 5:7.2 : Elements5-50
      • [A] : Mental State5-50
      • [B] : No Overt Act Required5-50
      • [C] : Personal Jurisdiction5-50
      • [D] : Multiple Objectives5-51
      • [E] : No Requirement to Prove Elements of Substantive Money Laundering Offense5-51
      • [F] : Statute of Limitations5-52
  • § 5:8 : 18 U.S.C. § 1957—Transactions in Criminally Derived Property Over $10,0005-52
    • § 5:8.1 : Elements—Summary5-52
    • § 5:8.2 : Elements5-53
      • [A] : Separate Crime5-53
      • [B] : Knowledge and Intent5-54
      • [C] : Commingling5-54
  • § 5:9 : Conducting an Unlicensed Money Transfer Business—18 U.S.C. § 19605-55
    • § 5:9.1 : Elements5-55
    • § 5:9.2 : U.S. Jurisdiction Over Foreign Person Conducting U.S. Money Service Transactions5-56
    • § 5:9.3 : Cryptocurrency Exchanges Are Money Transmitters and Must Be Licensed5-58
  • § 5:10 : Bulk Cash Smuggling—31 U.S.C. § 53325-60
    • § 5:10.1 : Elements5-60
  • § 5:11 : Terrorist Finance: Antiterrorism Act of 1990, as amended, 18 U.S.C. § 2331 et seq.5-62
    • § 5:11.1 : Prohibitions on the Financing of Terrorism5-62
    • § 5:11.2 : Key Elements in Pleading Private Civil Actions: Standing and Causation5-64
      • [A] : As of 2015, the ATA Provides for Secondary Liability5-71
    • § 5:11.3 : Financial Institutions and Terrorist Finance5-74
      • [A] : Selected Cases Involving Terrorist Finance Claims Against Financial Institutions5-75
      • [B] : The Dark Ages Meet the Digital Age: Cryptocurrency and Terrorist Finance5-87
      • [C] : FATF Report—Terrorist Finance Mechanisms5-88
Chapter 6: Reporting Requirements and Structuring
  • § 6:1 : Required Reports6-2
    • § 6:1.1 : Suspicious Activity Reports (SAR)6-3
      • [A] : SARs—Confidentiality6-4
    • § 6:1.2 : Currency Transaction Reports (CTR)6-7
    • § 6:1.3 : Currency Monetary Instrument Reports (CMIR)6-7
    • § 6:1.4 : Other Reports—Filed with the IRS6-8
      • [A] : Form 83006-8
      • [B] : Foreign Bank Accounts Report (F-BAR)6-9
  • § 6:2 : Structuring Transactions to Evade Reporting Requirements—31 U.S.C. § 53246-12
    • § 6:2.1 : Statutory Prohibition—31 U.S.C. § 5324(a) and (b)6-13
    • § 6:2.2 : Implementing Regulations—31 C.F.R. § 1010.3146-13
    • § 6:2.3 : Structuring—Cases and Issues6-14
      • [A] : Elements6-14
      • [B] : Separate Offense from Money Laundering6-14
      • [C] : Mental State6-14
      • [D] : Evidence That Defendant Intended to Evade the Reporting Requirements6-15
      • [E] : No Requirement That the Structured Funds Were Criminally Derived6-17
      • [F] : Defendant Cannot Be Criminally Liable Where the Institution Did Not Have an Obligation to File a Report6-17
  • § 6:3 : Banking Regulators—Guidance to Financial Institutions6-17
Chapter 7: Penalties
  • § 7:1 : Criminal Penalties: Statutory Bases7-2
  • § 7:2 : Criminal Penalties: U.S. Sentencing Guidelines7-3
    • § 7:2.1 : Background7-3
    • § 7:2.2 : Organization of the Guidelines7-5
    • § 7:2.3 : Application of the Guidelines to Individuals and Companies7-7
      • [A] : Guidelines Calculations for a Sample Individual Offender7-7
    • § 7:2.4 : Organizational Sentencing Guidelines—U.S.S.G. Chapter Eight7-10
      • [A] : Structure and Purpose7-10
      • [B] : Compliance Programs and Sentencing7-12
      • [C] : Recent Failures of Compliance Programs and Remedial Measures7-13
      • [D] : Elements and Objectives of an Effective Compliance Program7-15
      • [E] : Application Notes7-19
  • § 7:3 : Civil Penalties7-19
    • § 7:3.1 : Statutory Basis7-19
    • § 7:3.2 : Cases Interpreting the Statute7-20
Chapter 8: Civil and Criminal Forfeiture Proceedings
  • § 8:1 : Differences Between Civil and Criminal Forfeiture8-1
  • § 8:2 : Relation Back Principle8-3
  • § 8:3 : The Forfeiture Process8-4
    • § 8:3.1 : What May Be Forfeited8-4
    • § 8:3.2 : Forfeiture Proceedings8-5
      • [A] : Administrative Forfeiture8-5
      • [B] : Criminal Forfeiture8-6
      • [C] : Civil Forfeiture8-9
  • Figure 8-1 : Comparison of Civil and Criminal Forfeiture in AML Cases8-11
  • § 8:4 : Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act of 20008-17
  • § 8:5 : Changes to DOJ’s Asset Forfeiture Policy—January 20158-19
Chapter 9: Forfeiture Statutes
  • § 9:1 : Civil Forfeiture in Money Laundering Cases—18 U.S.C. § 9819-2
    • § 9:1.1 : Burden of Proof9-3
    • § 9:1.2 : Challenges to Civil Forfeitures9-4
      • [A] : Interbank Accounts9-4
    • § 9:1.3 : Third-Party Challenges to Civil Forfeitures9-8
      • [A] : Tracing and Fungible Assets9-9
      • [B] : Standing to Challenge Forfeiture9-10
  • § 9:2 : Criminal Forfeiture—18 U.S.C. § 9829-13
    • § 9:2.1 : Criminal Forfeiture Generally9-13
    • § 9:2.2 : Forfeiture Judgment in an Amount Greater Than Defendant’s Assets9-17
      • [A] : Tracing9-17
      • [B] : Property “Involved in” an Offense9-19
      • [C] : Facilitation9-21
  • § 9:3 : Forfeiture of Substitute Assets9-21
  • § 9:4 : Forfeitures Based on Specific Violations9-23
    • § 9:4.1 : Reporting Violations Generally9-23
    • § 9:4.2 : Forfeiture of Monetary Instruments— 31 U.S.C. § 5317(c)9-24
    • § 9:4.3 : Bulk Cash Smuggling—31 U.S.C. § 53329-25
  • § 9:5 : Constitutional Issues9-27
    • § 9:5.1 : Double Jeopardy and Parallel Proceedings: Criminal Convictions and Civil Forfeiture9-27
    • § 9:5.2 : Eighth Amendment—Limitations on Amount to Be Forfeited9-28
      • [A] : Bulk Cash Smuggling9-29
      • [B] : Proportionality and Civil Forfeiture9-32
  • § 9:6 : Challenges to Criminal Forfeitures9-33
    • § 9:6.1 : Third-Party Challenges in Ancillary Proceedings9-33
    • § 9:6.2 : Challenges by the Defendant9-36
      • [A] : No Exemption to Forfeiture Laws for Attorneys’ Fees9-36
      • [B] : Due Process and Pretrial Restraint of Assets9-37
      • [C] : Pre-Seizure Notice and Delay9-46
      • [D] : Section 1957 and Restraint of Assets to Be Used to Pay Attorneys’ Fees9-47
  • § 9:7 : Kleptocracy Asset Recovery Initiative9-50
    • § 9:7.1 : Selected Investigations—1MDB9-50
    • § 9:7.2 : Other Investigations and Prosecutions9-55
Chapter 10: Money Laundering and the Attorney-Client Privilege
  • § 10:1 : Attorney-Client Privileged Communications10-1
    • § 10:1.1 : Disqualification of Counsel Based on a Prior Representation10-3
  • § 10:2 : Information Not Protected by the Privilege10-6
    • § 10:2.1 : Client Identity or Fee Information10-6
    • § 10:2.2 : The Crime-Fraud Exception10-8
  • § 10:3 : Misuse of the Attorney-Client Privilege10-8
  • § 10:4 : Voluntary Disclosure10-12
  • § 10:5 : The Gatekeeper Initiative and Other Efforts at Mandatory Disclosures10-15
Chapter 11: U.S. Anti-Money Laundering Organizations
  • § 11:1 : Overview11-1
  • § 11:2 : U.S. Departments and Agencies with AML/CFT Responsibility11-3
  • § 11:3 : U.S. Department of the Treasury11-4
    • § 11:3.1 : Financial Crimes Enforcement Network11-4
    • § 11:3.2 : Office of Foreign Assets Control11-7
    • § 11:3.3 : Internal Revenue Service11-9
  • § 11:4 : U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission11-9
  • § 11:5 : U.S. Department of Justice11-10
  • § 11:6 : U.S. Department of State11-12
  • § 11:7 : U.S. Department of Homeland Security11-14
  • § 11:8 : U.S. Intelligence Agencies11-15
Chapter 12: International Organizations and Treaties
  • § 12:1 : In General12-1
  • § 12:2 : Financial Action Task Force12-2
  • § 12:3 : International Monetary Fund12-7
  • § 12:4 : United Nations12-7
  • § 12:5 : European Union12-9
  • § 12:6 : Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units12-14
  • § 12:7 : Unintended Consequences of Multinational AML/CFT Enforcement Regimes: The Economic Effects of De-Risking12-15
Chapter 13: Evolving Payment and Funds Transfer Technologies
  • § 13:1 : Overview of E-Transfer Systems13-1
  • § 13:2 : Online, Stored Value, and Mobile Payment and Funds Transfer Systems13-6
  • Figure 13-1 : Examples of E-Transfers Mechanisms13-7
  • § 13:3 : Prepaid Access Cards and Devices13-10
    • § 13:3.1 : How Prepaid Access Works13-11
    • § 13:3.2 : Misuse of Prepaid Access13-13
  • § 13:4 : Online Value Transfer and Payment Systems13-17
    • § 13:4.1 : Online Payments and Funds Transfers13-18
    • § 13:4.2 : Mobile Payment Services13-20
  • § 13:5 : Electronic Currencies13-25
    • § 13:5.1 : Bitcoin13-26
    • § 13:5.2 : E-Currency and Money Laundering13-32
    • § 13:5.3 : Liberty Reserve13-34
    • § 13:5.4 : Silk Road13-38
  • § 13:6 : FinCEN Guidance Regarding Virtual Currencies13-44
  • § 13:7 : FinCEN Administrative Rulings on Virtual Currency Businesses13-47
    • § 13:7.1 : Proposed Virtual Currency Trading Platform Would Need to Register As an MSB13-48
    • § 13:7.2 : Proposed Virtual Currency Payment System Was an MSB13-51
  • § 13:8 : Cryptocurrency Regulation: Regulatory Actions13-52
Chapter 14: Selected Regulations Relating to E-Transfers
  • § 14:1 : Overview14-1
  • § 14:2 : U.S. Regulation of “Prepaid Access” Providers and Sellers14-3
  • § 14:3 : European Union Regulation14-8
    • § 14:3.1 : EU Payment Services Directive14-8
    • § 14:3.2 : E-Money Directive14-9
  • § 14:4 : U.K. Regulation14-11
Chapter 15: Ethics and Compliance Issues for Providers of E-­Transfer Services
  • § 15:1 : Overview15-1
  • § 15:2 : AML Risks Relating to E-Transfers15-2
  • § 15:3 : Addressing AML Risks in E-Transfer Systems15-5
    • § 15:3.1 : Written AML Program and Policy Statement15-5
    • § 15:3.2 : Customer Due Diligence15-7
    • § 15:3.3 : Training and Implementation15-10
    • § 15:3.4 : Prevention and Detection15-11
    • § 15:3.5 : Recordkeeping15-13
  • § 15:4 : Balancing AML/CFT Objectives with Expanding Financial Inclusion15-15
Chapter 16: AML and State-Authorized Marijuana-Related Businesses
  • § 16:1 : Overview16-1
  • § 16:2 : FinCEN Guidance16-2
  • § 16:3 : FinCEN Potential “Red Flags”16-4
Chapter 17: Risk Assessment and Compliance
  • § 17:1 : The Interplay of Ethics, Risks, and Compliance17-1
  • § 17:2 : Assessing and Addressing Risks17-3
  • § 17:3 : Developing a Profile of the Company or Business As a Tool to Identifying Risk17-5
Chapter 18: Designing and Implementing an Effective Compliance Program
  • § 18:1 : An AML/CFT Compliance Program Is Only One Element in a Broader Compliance Program18-2
  • § 18:2 : Codes of Conduct/Ethics18-5
  • § 18:3 : Compliance Programs18-6
    • § 18:3.1 : The Company Must Fully Commit to Implementing an Effective Compliance Program18-8
    • § 18:3.2 : Compliance Programs Must Be Designed and Periodically Reevaluated to Address Risks Specific to the Company18-10
    • § 18:3.3 : A Compliance Program Should Be Readily Available and Written and Communicated in Language Understandable to a Layperson18-10
    • § 18:3.4 : Compliance Training and Evaluation Should Be Provided at Hire or Retention and Periodically Thereafter18-11
    • § 18:3.5 : The Compliance Officer or Department Must Have Adequate Resources and Authority18-12
    • § 18:3.6 : Starting at the Top, the Company Should Develop a Strong Culture of Compliance18-13
    • § 18:3.7 : Periodic Testing, Auditing, and Improvements18-18
  • Figure 18-1 : Checklist for an Effective Compliance Program18-19
  • § 18:4 : Designing an Effective AML Program18-21
    • § 18:4.1 : AML Program—Key Elements18-21
      • [A] : Sources of Information Regarding AML Requirements18-23
      • [B] : Designing and Managing the AML Program—In-House Versus Outside Vendors18-23
    • § 18:4.2 : Key Components of an AML Program18-26
      • [A] : Written Policies, Procedures, and Controls18-26
        • [A][1] : Customer Due Diligence18-26
        • [A][2] : CDD: Additional Requirements for Financial Institutions18-28
        • [A][3] : Recordkeeping18-28
        • [A][4] : Data Management and Analysis18-28
      • [B] : Designated AML Program Officer18-29
      • [C] : Employee Training18-30
      • [D] : Auditing and Testing18-30
  • Figure 18-2 : AML Program Checklist18-31
    • § 18:4.3 : Specific Examples of AML Risks18-33
      • [A] : Example 1: Trade-Based Money Laundering18-33
      • [B] : Example 2: Laundering Funds Used to Pay Bribes18-37
  • § 18:5 : What to Do If Money Laundering or Structuring or Other Violations Are Suspected or Discovered18-39
Chapter 19: Shadow Banking and Trade- or Service-Based Money Laundering
  • § 19:1 : Overview19-1
  • § 19:2 : Shadow Banking and Money Laundering/Terrorist Finance19-2
    • § 19:2.1 : Securitization and AML Criminal Laws19-8
    • § 19:2.2 : Dark Pools19-10
  • § 19:3 : Transparency, Beneficial Ownership, and Capital Flow19-14
    • § 19:3.1 : Beneficial Ownership and Transparency19-14
    • § 19:3.2 : Misuse of Offshore Entities and Shell Companies: The “Panama Papers”19-14
    • § 19:3.3 : Capital Flow and Money Laundering19-16
  • § 19:4 : Trade- and Service-Based Money Laundering19-17
Chapter 20: Money Laundering, Terrorist Finance and the Diamond Industry
  • § 20:1 : The Unique Role of Diamonds20-1
  • § 20:2 : The Diamond Business: A Brief Introduction20-5
    • § 20:2.1 : Diamond Mining and Cutting20-8
    • § 20:2.2 : Diamond Sales and Trading20-10
    • § 20:2.3 : Diamond Import and Export20-11
    • § 20:2.4 : Retail Sales20-13
  • § 20:3 : Money Laundering Vulnerabilities Unique to the Diamond Trade20-14
Chapter 21: Human Trafficking and Money Laundering
  • § 21:1 : Human Trafficking: Background21-1
  • § 21:2 : U.S. Law: Human Trafficking and Money Laundering21-6
  • § 21:3 : Federal Contracts and AML Amendments to the Federal Acquisition Regulations21-13
    • § 21:3.1 : Executive Order 1362721-13
    • § 21:3.2 : Subsequent FAR Amendments21-17
  • § 21:4 : Human Trafficking Claims Against U.S. Businesses21-29
  • § 21:5 : Extraterritorial Jurisdiction21-30
  • § 21:6 : Money Laundering and Other Labor and Immigration Violations21-34
  Index

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