TreatiseTreatise

Employment Law Yearbook 2012

 by Orrick Herrington & Sutcliffe LLP
 
 Copyright: 2012

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  • ISBN Number: 9781402417542
  • Page Count: 1564
  • Number of Volumes: 1
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Now more than ever, it is imperative that employers and employment law practitioners understand the legal implications of a wide range of workplace actions. Throughout 2011, as employers continued to feel the combined pressure of tight employment markets and a sideways-churning economy, they continued to tighten their fiscal belts for fear of another market dip. These uncertainties have only added fuel to already-hot litigation fires.

Employment Law Yearbook 2012 provides a review of developments in the law from the past year, including case decisions, legislative changes, government agency actions, and other events of interest to employers. Authored by Orrick Herrington & Sutcliffe’s Global Employment Law Practice Group, Employment Law Yearbook 2012 provides practical steps employers can take to minimize their risk and to comply with the law.

Revised annually, Employment Law Yearbook 2012 is an essential reference for in-house and outside corporate attorneys, human resource professionals, attorneys representing employees in lawsuits, and employees involved in lawsuits.
 

  Table of Contents
  Introduction
Chapter 1: Wage-and-Hour Issues
  • § 1:1 : Introduction4
  • § 1:2 : The Legal Framework of Wage-and-Hour Laws6
    • § 1:2.1 : Administrative Interpretations Replace Opinion Letters8
    • § 1:2.2 : Minimum Wage9
      • [A] : FLSA9
      • [B] : California10
      • [C] : New York12
    • § 1:2.3 : Overtime Exemptions13
      • [A] : FLSA13
        • [A][1] : 2004 Amendments to the Federal Regulations15
          • [A][1][a] : Minimum Salary Requirement15
          • [A][1][b] : Rules for “Highly Compensated” Employees15
          • [A][1][c] : Changes to the Salary Basis Requirement16
            • [A][1][c][i] : Permissible Deductions16
            • [A][1][c][ii] : Consequences of Improper Deductions17
            • [A][1][c][iii] : Safe Harbor18
            • [A][1][c][iv] : Other Considerations19
            • [A][1][c][v] : Furloughs19
          • [A][1][d] : Revised “Duties” Test20
            • [A][1][d][i] : Executive Exemption20
            • [A][1][d][ii] : Administrative Exemption22
            • [A][1][d][iii] : Professional Exemption27
            • [A][1][d][iv] : Computer Employee Exemption28
            • [A][1][d][v] : Outside Sales Exemption28
        • [A][2] : Other Federal Exemptions34
          • [A][2][a] : Commission Sales Exemption34
          • [A][2][b] : Domestic Service Exemption35
          • [A][2][c] : Firefighters Exemption36
          • [A][2][d] : Changes to the Motor Carrier Act Exemption36
          • [A][2][e] : Belo Plan37
      • [B] : New York Exemptions38
        • [B][1] : “White Collar” Exemptions38
        • [B][2] : New Writing Requirement for Commission Salespersons39
        • [B][3] : Increasing the Minimum Wage Required for Exemption from State Payment of Wages Law40
      • [C] : California Exemptions41
        • [C][1] : Executive Exemption41
        • [C][2] : Administrative Exemption41
        • [C][3] : Professional Exemption44
        • [C][4] : Outside Sales Exemption45
        • [C][5] : Other Exemptions47
          • [C][5][a] : Computer Professionals47
          • [C][5][b] : Certain Medical Professionals49
          • [C][5][c] : Commissioned Employees49
        • [C][6] : California’s Salary Basis Test50
        • [C][7] : Extraterritorial Application of the Labor Code—The Sullivan v. Oracle Decision53
    • § 1:2.4 : Independent Contractors and Temporary Workers55
      • [A] : Independent Contractors57
      • [B] : Temporary Workers and Joint Employment60
        • [B][1] : Determining Employer Status60
        • [B][2] : Wage-and-Hour Issues63
    • § 1:2.5 : Interns64
    • § 1:2.6 : Tip Pooling and California Labor Code Section 35165
    • § 1:2.7 : Reimbursement of Expenses68
      • [A] : California68
      • [B] : New York69
    • § 1:2.8 : Hours Worked69
      • [A] : “Hours Worked” Defined69
      • [B] : Meal Breaks70
        • [B][1] : FLSA70
        • [B][2] : California72
        • [B][3] : New York77
      • [C] : On-Call and Waiting Time Under the FLSA78
      • [D] : “De Minimis” Activities80
      • [E] : Travel Time85
    • § 1:2.9 : Calculating Overtime Premiums: Determining the Regular Rate88
      • [A] : Premium Pay88
      • [B] : Per Diem90
      • [C] : Sick Leave Buy-Backs90
      • [D] : “Blended” Pay Rates90
      • [E] : California Regular Rate91
      • [F] : Firefighters’ Overtime Rate91
    • § 1:2.10 : Implementing “Flextime” Schedules91
    • § 1:2.11 : Workweek Designation93
    • § 1:2.12 : Employee Notice94
      • [A] : California94
      • [B] : New York95
    • § 1:2.13 : Fluctuating Workweeks97
      • [A] : The FWW Method of Calculating Overtime97
      • [B] : Preconditions on Using the FWW Method98
      • [C] : Using the FWW Method to Calculate Damages in Misclassification Cases99
    • § 1:2.14 : Commissions/Bonuses/Incentive Compensation Plans101
      • [A] : California101
      • [B] : New York105
    • § 1:2.15 : Individual Liability106
      • [A] : FLSA106
      • [B] : California107
    • § 1:2.16 : Spread-of-Hours Pay (New York)108
    • § 1:2.17 : Payment of Final Wages109
      • [A] : New York109
      • [B] : California109
    • § 1:2.18 : Vacation Issues in California110
  • § 1:3 : Wage and Hour Collective Class Action Process and Procedures111
    • § 1:3.1 : Collective Actions Under the FLSA112
      • [A] : Potential Members Must Expressly “Opt In” to the Class112
      • [B] : Applicability of Requirements of Rule 23 to FLSA Collective Actions113
      • [C] : Class Certification Under the FLSA116
        • [C][1] : Overview116
        • [C][2] : The Notice Stage: Plaintiffs Request Class Certification/Authorization to Send Notice to Putative Class Members; Courts Authorize Notice When Putative Members Are “Similarly Situated”117
        • [C][3] : Stage Two—Defendant’s Motion to Decertify122
      • [D] : FLSA Statute of Limitations123
      • [E] : Waiver of FLSA Claims123
      • [F] : Class Action Settlements125
      • [G] : Settlement May Destroy Jurisdiction130
      • [H] : Litigation Issues131
        • [H][1] : Burdens of Proof131
        • [H][2] : Interaction of State and Federal Actions—Hybrid Actions132
      • [I] : Rule 68—Offers of Judgment135
      • [J] : Recent FLSA Cases137
    • § 1:3.2 : California Class Actions138
      • [A] : Governing Authority139
      • [B] : Requirements for Establishment of California Class Actions139
      • [C] : California Wage-and-Hour Class Actions140
      • [D] : Procedural Issues in Class Action Lawsuits143
        • [D][1] : Opt-Out Requirement143
        • [D][2] : Class Certification’s Preclusive Effects143
        • [D][3] : Statute of Limitations143
        • [D][4] : Discovery144
        • [D][5] : Timing of Motion to Deny Certification146
        • [D][6] : Class Action Waiver in Arbitration Agreements147
        • [D][7] : Settlement of California Class Actions148
        • [D][8] : Release of Labor Code Claims151
    • § 1:3.3 : Representative Actions Under Business and Professions Code Section 17200152
      • [A] : Applicability to Wage-and-Hour Law152
      • [B] : Equitable Relief Versus Damages153
      • [C] : Statute of Limitations154
      • [D] : Amendments to Section 17200155
    • § 1:3.4 : California Labor Code Private Attorney General Act155
    • § 1:3.5 : Shady Grove: Federal Preemption of State Law Limits on Certification157
    • § 1:3.6 : Changing Landscape of Class Actions: New York Eateries160
  • § 1:4 : Conclusion163
Chapter 2: OFCCP Developments
  • § 2:1 : Introduction166
  • § 2:2 : OFCCP Enforcement Overview167
    • § 2:2.1 : Administration Guidance and Focus169
    • § 2:2.2 : New Active Case Enforcement Directive and Scheduling Letters170
      • [A] : New Item 8173
      • [B] : Expanded Information Requests and Closer Scrutiny of Personnel Activity173
      • [C] : Enhanced Compensation Review173
      • [D] : Focus on Veterans174
    • § 2:2.3 : Veterans Initiatives175
    • § 2:2.4 : Disability Initiatives176
    • § 2:2.5 : Increased Coordinated Enforcement Initiatives178
      • [A] : Misclassification of Employees As Independent Contractors178
      • [B] : EEOC/OFCCP Memorandum of Understanding Coordinating Enforcement for Discrimination178
  • § 2:3 : Presidential Executive Orders179
    • § 2:3.1 : Notification of Employee Rights Under Federal Labor Laws180
    • § 2:3.2 : Economy in Government Contracting182
    • § 2:3.3 : Nondisplacement of Workers Under Service Contracts183
  • § 2:4 : Effects of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009183
  • § 2:5 : Equal Pay Issues—OFCCP Compliance Standards and Voluntary Guidelines for Analyzing Compensation Systems185
  • § 2:6 : OFCCP Case Law and Legislative Developments186
    • § 2:6.1 : Expanded OFCCP Compensation Data Requests During Desk Audit Stage186
    • § 2:6.2 : OFCCP Litigation of Pattern-or-Practice Cases—Utility of Statistics Alone187
    • § 2:6.3 : Temporal Scope of Compliance Reviews During Desk Audit187
Chapter 3: Gender and Sexual Orientation Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
  • § 3:1 : Introduction191
  • § 3:2 : Discrimination Based on Gender and Related Characteristics191
    • § 3:2.1 : Gender Discrimination192
      • [A] : Generally192
      • [B] : Evidence197
      • [C] : Reverse Bias Sex Discrimination198
      • [D] : Title VII’s Reach201
    • § 3:2.2 : Sexual Orientation and Gender Stereotyping201
    • § 3:2.3 : Pregnancy Discrimination and Nursing Mother Laws206
      • [A] : Pregnancy Discrimination Act206
      • [B] : Protections for Nursing Mothers212
    • § 3:2.4 : “Sex-Plus” Discrimination215
    • § 3:2.5 : Physical and Testing Requirements216
    • § 3:2.6 : BFOQ Defense220
    • § 3:2.7 : Health Plan Coverage Issues222
      • [A] : Prescription Contraceptive Coverage222
    • § 3:2.8 : Infertility Treatments223
  • § 3:3 : Equal Pay Act224
    • § 3:3.1 : Scope of Coverage225
    • § 3:3.2 : Establishing a Prima Facie Case226
    • § 3:3.3 : Employer Defenses228
    • § 3:3.4 : Individual Liability231
    • § 3:3.5 : Statute of Limitations233
    • § 3:3.6 : EEOC Guidance238
    • § 3:3.7 : Legislation and Administrative Developments238
  • § 3:4 : Sexual Harassment240
    • § 3:4.1 : Discrimination Because of Sex240
    • § 3:4.2 : Explicit Alteration of Fundamental Conditions of Employment: Tangible Employment Action246
      • [A] : Case Law Defining “Tangible Employment Action”247
      • [B] : EEOC Enforcement Guidance on “Tangible Employment Action”249
    • § 3:4.3 : Constructive Alteration of Conditions of Employment or a Hostile Work Environment250
      • [A] : Welcomeness251
      • [B] : Cases Finding Severe or Pervasive Requirement Met253
      • [C] : Cases Finding Severe or Pervasive Requirement Not Met255
    • § 3:4.4 : Affirmative Defenses258
      • [A] : Employer’s Duty to Exercise Reasonable Care to Prevent Harassing Behavior258
      • [B] : Employer’s Duty to Exercise Reasonable Care to Correct Harassing Behavior Promptly262
        • [B][1] : Employer Response Found to Be Inadequate262
        • [B][2] : Employer Response Found to Be Appropriate265
        • [B][3] : Employer Liable for Retaliation by Other Non-Supervisor268
        • [B][4] : Acts of Non-Employees269
      • [C] : Employee Unreasonably Failed to Take Advantage of Opportunities to Avoid Harm270
        • [C][1] : Plaintiff’s Failure to Complain273
        • [C][2] : Timeliness of Plaintiff’s Complaint275
      • [D] : EEOC Enforcement Guidance on Employer Liability for Harassment by Supervisors276
    • § 3:4.5 : Evidentiary Issues in Sex Harassment Cases: Effect of Statute of Limitations on Evidence of Acts Occurring Before Limitations Period276
    • § 3:4.6 : Application of Legal Standards: Summary Judgment Versus Jury Trials281
    • § 3:4.7 : Punitive Damages282
    • § 3:4.8 : Principles of Vicarious Employer Liability and Concepts of Agency: When Is an Individual Considered a “Supervisor”?284
      • [A] : EEOC Guidance285
      • [B] : Representative Cases286
    • § 3:4.9 : Individual Supervisor Liability290
      • [A] : Federal Law290
      • [B] : State Law290
        • [B][1] : California290
        • [B][2] : New York291
    • § 3:4.10 : Other Procedural Issues292
      • [A] : “Pattern-or-Practice” Cases292
      • [B] : EEOC “Waiting Period”293
    • § 3:4.11 : Theories Used by Accused Sexual Harassers Who Have Been Disciplined or Terminated295
    • § 3:4.12 : Attorney Fees Where Plaintiff’s Lawsuit Is Frivolous, Unreasonable, or Without Foundation297
Chapter 4: Race, Religion, and National Origin Discrimination
  • § 4:1 : Race301
    • § 4:1.1 : Subordinate Bias, “Cat’s Paw,” “Rubber Stamp” Theory303
    • § 4:1.2 : “Me Too” Evidence309
    • § 4:1.3 : Summary Judgment Test in “Mixed-Motive” Cases310
    • § 4:1.4 : Section 1981 Claims312
    • § 4:1.5 : “Class-of-One” Claims in Public Employment315
    • § 4:1.6 : Adverse Employment Action316
    • § 4:1.7 : Reverse Bias in Promotional Examinations322
    • § 4:1.8 : Other Promotional Issues: Lists and Affirmative Action330
    • § 4:1.9 : Tests and Selection Procedures—EEOC Guidance Fact Sheet332
    • § 4:1.10 : “Associated with” Claims333
    • § 4:1.11 : EEOC Procedural and Compliance Issues335
    • § 4:1.12 : Insufficient Evidence of Race Discrimination/Bias340
    • § 4:1.13 : Sufficient Evidence of Race Discrimination/Bias345
    • § 4:1.14 : Title VII Class Action Issues349
    • § 4:1.15 : Title VII Standing350
  • § 4:2 : Religious Discrimination352
  • § 4:3 : National Origin Discrimination365
Chapter 5: Age Discrimination
  • § 5:1 : Introduction374
  • § 5:2 : Procedural Requirements376
    • § 5:2.1 : A “Charge” with the EEOC376
    • § 5:2.2 : Timeliness and Equitable Tolling378
    • § 5:2.3 : ADEA Safe Harbor—Retiree Benefit Plans379
  • § 5:3 : Who Is an Employer for Purposes of the ADEA?382
  • § 5:4 : Who Is an Employee for Purposes of the ADEA?384
    • § 5:4.1 : The Law Enforcement Exception385
  • § 5:5 : Plaintiff’s Burden to Prove a Prima Facie Case386
    • § 5:5.1 : Employer’s Legitimate Expectations387
    • § 5:5.2 : Stray Remarks388
    • § 5:5.3 : Similarly Situated389
  • § 5:6 : Employer’s Legitimate Nondiscriminatory Business Reason391
  • § 5:7 : Plaintiff’s Burden to Prove Employer’s Lawful Reason Is Pretext for Age Discrimination392
    • § 5:7.1 : Insufficient Evidence of Pretext392
    • § 5:7.2 : Sufficient Evidence of Pretext394
  • § 5:8 : Retaliation Against Protected Activity397
  • § 5:9 : Methods of Proof: Mixed Motives, Direct and Circumstantial, Pattern or Practice, and Disparate Treatment or Impact400
    • § 5:9.1 : Mixed Motives400
    • § 5:9.2 : Direct and Circumstantial Evidence403
    • § 5:9.3 : Pattern or Practice405
    • § 5:9.4 : Disparate-Impact Theory406
    • § 5:9.5 : Other Methods of Proof409
  • § 5:10 : Releases and Waivers411
    • § 5:10.1 : The Requirements of the OWBPA411
    • § 5:10.2 : Case Law Regarding OWBPA Releases413
      • [A] : Ratification and Tender Back Under the OWBPA413
      • [B] : Cure of the Defective Release413
      • [C] : Invalid Waiver As a Separate Cause of Action415
      • [D] : OWBPA Requirements Not Applied to Non-Age Claims416
    • § 5:10.3 : EEOC Regulations Regarding OWBPA Releases416
      • [A] : Wording of Waiver Agreements417
      • [B] : Waiver of Future Rights418
      • [C] : Consideration419
      • [D] : Consultation419
      • [E] : Time Periods419
      • [F] : Informational Requirements420
        • [F][1] : To Whom the Information Must Be Given421
        • [F][2] : Mandatory Information421
      • [G] : Waivers Settling Charges and Lawsuits423
      • [H] : EEOC’s Enforcement Powers424
        • [H][1] : Tender Back424
        • [H][2] : Covenants Not to Challenge Waiver424
        • [H][3] : Abrogation425
        • [H][4] : Burden425
  • § 5:11 : Other Issues425
    • § 5:11.1 : Arbitration of ADEA Claims425
    • § 5:11.2 : Remedies426
    • § 5:11.3 : Cash Balance Pension Plans428
    • § 5:11.4 : Harassment Based on Age430
Chapter 6: EEO Class Actions
  • § 6:1 : Introduction435
  • § 6:2 : Recent Developments435
  • § 6:3 : Litigating Class Action Certification441
    • § 6:3.1 : Dukes441
    • § 6:3.2 : Certification Elements of a Class Action445
      • [A] : Numerosity447
      • [B] : Commonality447
        • [B][1] : Need for Reasonable Connection Between the Claims of the Named Plaintiffs and the Alleged Class and Within the Class447
        • [B][2] : Under Falcon, Commonality Not Satisfied Solely by Virtue of Membership in Larger Protected Category448
        • [B][3] : Overbroad Class Actions449
        • [B][4] : Commonality Across Facilities, Departments, and Managers451
          • [B][4][a] : Rhodes v. Cracker Barrel: No Commonality If Decision-Making Is Decentralized451
          • [B][4][b] : Commonality Based on Decentralized, Subjective Decision-Making and Dukes v. Wal-Mart455
          • [B][4][c] : Decentralized, Subjective Decision-Making456
        • [B][5] : Commonality in Harassment Cases459
      • [C] : Typicality460
      • [D] : Adequacy of Representation462
        • [D][1] : Adequacy of Counsel462
        • [D][2] : Relation Between Class Representatives and Class464
    • § 6:3.3 : Maintainability of the Class Action Suit—Fulfillment of Rule 23(b) Generally466
      • [A] : Opting Out467
      • [B] : Rule 23 Notice Amendments468
    • § 6:3.4 : Fulfillment of Rule 23(b) in Employment Discrimination Class Actions469
      • [A] : Certification Under Rule 23(b)(2) in Actions That Involve Compensatory and Punitive Damages469
        • [A][1] : Allison Resists Certification of Actions Seeking Compensatory and Punitive Damages471
        • [A][2] : The Robinson Alternative—The Predominant-Goal Test473
        • [A][3] : The Per Se Rule of the Sixth Circuit475
      • [B] : Rule 23(b)(2) and Backpay: Impact of Dukes v. Wal-Mart476
      • [C] : Intentional Discrimination Class Actions Under Rule 23(b)(3)477
      • [D] : Hybrid Certification479
      • [E] : WARN Act Cases480
    • § 6:3.5 : Appellate Review of Class Certification Decisions481
      • [A] : Interlocutory Review481
      • [B] : Review After Named Plaintiff’s Claim Has Become Moot483
      • [C] : Interlocutory Appeal of Conditional FLSA Collective Actions484
    • § 6:3.6 : Other Class Action Issues484
  • § 6:4 : Disparate-Treatment and Disparate-Impact Cases486
    • § 6:4.1 : Disparate-Treatment Class Actions486
    • § 6:4.2 : Disparate-Impact Class Actions488
    • § 6:4.3 : Special Problems in Multi-Facility Cases490
    • § 6:4.4 : The Ricci v. DeStefano Legacy: A Strong Basis in Evidence Requirement and the Potential Disparate Impact Problem491
    • § 6:4.5 : The New York Firefighters’ Case498
  • § 6:5 : Punitive Damages in Disparate-Treatment Pattern-or-Practice Cases500
  • § 6:6 : Opt-In Class Actions502
  • § 6:7 : Class Action Fairness Act of 2005505
    • § 6:7.1 : The Purpose and Intent of the Law506
    • § 6:7.2 : Basis for Federal Court Jurisdiction506
    • § 6:7.3 : What Is a Covered Class Action?510
    • § 6:7.4 : Changes to Removal Rules511
    • § 6:7.5 : “Mass Action”511
    • § 6:7.6 : “Coupon” Settlements and Attorney Fees512
    • § 6:7.7 : Geographic Discrimination512
  • § 6:8 : EEOC Litigation and Rule 23’s Inapplicability512
  • § 6:9 : Statistical Evidence518
    • § 6:9.1 : Need for Appropriate, Probative Statistical Comparisons520
    • § 6:9.2 : Regression Analyses525
    • § 6:9.3 : Statistical Significance527
    • § 6:9.4 : Attacking Plaintiffs’ Statistics529
    • § 6:9.5 : Summary531
  • § 6:10 : Settlement of Class Actions532
    • § 6:10.1 : Rule 23 Amendments532
    • § 6:10.2 : Class Certification for Settlement533
      • [A] : Protecting Interests of Absent Class Members535
      • [B] : Attorney Fees536
Chapter 7: Americans with Disabilities Act
  • § 7:1 : Introduction541
  • § 7:2 : The EEOC Experience to Date542
  • § 7:3 : Basic Issues Under the ADA545
    • § 7:3.1 : EEOC Regulations Implementing the ADAAA545
      • [A] : Revisions to “actual disability” Prong546
      • [B] : Revisions to “record of” Prong548
      • [C] : Revisions to “regarded as” Prong548
    • § 7:3.2 : Who Is a “Qualified Individual”?549
    • § 7:3.3 : Who Is Disabled?550
      • [A] : Physical or Mental Impairment552
      • [B] : Temporary or Intermittent, Episodic Impairments557
      • [C] : Substantial Limitation560
      • [D] : Major Life Activities564
        • [D][1] : Scope of Major Life Activity565
        • [D][2] : Other Cases—Major Life Activity Recognized565
        • [D][3] : Other Cases—Major Life Activity Not Recognized565
      • [E] : Perceived Impairments567
      • [F] : Association with a Disabled Person568
      • [G] : Exclusions from the Definition of Disability569
        • [G][1] : Excluded Matters569
        • [G][2] : Drugs and Alcohol—Specific Provisions569
    • § 7:3.4 : Qualification571
      • [A] : Essential Functions of the Job571
      • [B] : Estoppel from Claiming Ability to Perform Essential Job Functions575
      • [C] : Direct Threat577
      • [D] : Causation578
  • § 7:4 : The Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodation579
    • § 7:4.1 : EEOC Reasonable Accommodation Enforcement Guidance580
    • § 7:4.2 : Statutory and Regulatory Examples of Reasonable Accommodation582
    • § 7:4.3 : 2005 Department of Labor Survey583
    • § 7:4.4 : When Is an Employer Obligated to Make a Reasonable Accommodation?583
    • § 7:4.5 : Identifying Reasonable Accommodations585
  • § 7:5 : Judicial Interpretation of Reasonable Accommodation588
    • § 7:5.1 : Accommodation for Applicants588
    • § 7:5.2 : Job Restructuring and Reallocation of Job Duties589
    • § 7:5.3 : Light Duty590
    • § 7:5.4 : Transfer or Reassignment to a Vacant Position591
      • [A] : Accommodation Required591
      • [B] : Accommodation Not Required Where Employee Fails to Identify Vacant Position for Which He or She Is Qualified593
      • [C] : Transfer to a New Position Is Accommodation of Last Resort596
    • § 7:5.5 : Modification of Work Schedule/Attendance Requirement596
      • [A] : Accommodation Required596
      • [B] : Accommodation Not Required599
    • § 7:5.6 : Work at Home/Work Outside the Office600
    • § 7:5.7 : Transportation to and from Work601
    • § 7:5.8 : Requests for Leave602
    • § 7:5.9 : Modifying No-Fault Attendance Policies As a Reasonable Accommodation602
    • § 7:5.10 : Duty to Provide Reasonable Accommodation for Perceived Disability602
  • § 7:6 : Disability Harassment602
  • § 7:7 : Job Application Procedures: Pre- and Post-Employment Inquiries604
    • § 7:7.1 : Pre-Employment Inquiries604
    • § 7:7.2 : Post-Employment Inquiries607
    • § 7:7.3 : Qualification Standards609
    • § 7:7.4 : Medical Examinations and Safeguarding Medical Information613
      • [A] : What Is a Medical Examination?614
      • [B] : What Constitutes a Conditional Job Offer After Which a Medical Examination May Be Required?617
    • § 7:7.5 : Other Disability-Related Inquiries and Medical Examinations of Employees618
  • § 7:8 : Employer Defenses to Requests for Reasonable Accommodation618
    • § 7:8.1 : Undue Hardship619
    • § 7:8.2 : Direct Threat to Health or Safety of Individual or Others619
    • § 7:8.3 : Limitation Period623
  • § 7:9 : The Application of the ADA to Employers’ Health Insurance Plans624
  • § 7:10 : Relief Available Under the ADA625
  • § 7:11 : Conclusion631
Chapter 8: Employee Privacy Law
  • § 8:1 : Introduction637
  • § 8:2 : Pre-Employment Inquiries638
    • § 8:2.1 : A Framework for the Interview Process638
    • § 8:2.2 : Prohibited Subjects640
      • [A] : Name/Marital Status640
      • [B] : Age/Birthdate640
      • [C] : Health and Physical Condition641
      • [D] : AIDS642
      • [E] : Criminal Records643
      • [F] : Convictions644
      • [G] : National Origin and Citizenship644
      • [H] : Religion645
      • [I] : Sex and Marital Status645
      • [J] : Past Drug Use646
      • [K] : Facially Neutral Criteria646
    • § 8:2.3 : Using the Internet to Research Applicant’s Background647
    • § 8:2.4 : Best Practices for the Interview Process648
      • [A] : Brief the Recruiters and Interviewers648
      • [B] : Adopt a Checklist648
      • [C] : Allocate Interview Responsibility648
      • [D] : Provide Examples of Permissible Questions648
      • [E] : Use Evaluation Forms648
      • [F] : Guidelines Based on ADA Provisions648
  • § 8:3 : The Employer’s Need to Know Versus the Employee’s Right to Privacy—The Bases of the Right to Privacy649
    • § 8:3.1 : Constitutional649
      • [A] : Federal649
        • [A][1] : Searches by Public Employers650
        • [A][2] : Investigations of Applicants and Employees by Public Employers652
      • [B] : New York654
      • [C] : California654
        • [C][1] : Hill v. NCAA655
        • [C][2] : Analyzing Privacy Interests in the Employment Context656
        • [C][3] : Hill’s Progeny658
    • § 8:3.2 : Statutory661
      • [A] : Federal661
        • [A][1] : Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986661
        • [A][2] : Employee Privacy and the “New Technology”664
        • [A][3] : Reasons to Monitor Employees’ Use of Electronic Media670
      • [B] : States672
        • [B][1] : New York672
        • [B][2] : California673
    • § 8:3.3 : Common-Law Privacy Protections for Private Employees676
      • [A] : California677
      • [B] : New York677
    • § 8:3.4 : Third-Party Screening678
    • § 8:3.5 : Tort Liability678
      • [A] : Claims Not Barred by California’s Workers’ Compensation Law679
    • § 8:3.6 : Application of the Right to Privacy679
      • [A] : Whether an Employee’s Expectation of Privacy Is Reasonable680
      • [B] : Analyzing the Employer’s and the Employee’s Competing Interests683
        • [B][1] : Federal Cases683
        • [B][2] : New York684
        • [B][3] : California685
    • § 8:3.7 : Practical Guidelines for Employee Searches688
  • § 8:4 : Substance Abuse689
    • § 8:4.1 : In General689
    • § 8:4.2 : Determining the Appropriate Type of Drug and Alcohol Policy690
      • [A] : Determine the Extent and Risk of Drug and Alcohol Use by Employees690
      • [B] : Determine Whether Federal or State Law Requires or Prohibits Any Particular Drug or Alcohol Policy in Your Workplace691
        • [B][1] : Legal Requirements for Federal Contractors and Grantees691
          • [B][1][a] : The Drug-Free Work Place Act691
          • [B][1][b] : Defense, Transportation, and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations692
        • [B][2] : Legal Restrictions on Drug Testing692
          • [B][2][a] : U.S. Supreme Court Cases693
          • [B][2][b] : Lessons of the Customs and Railway Cases694
          • [B][2][c] : Random Drug Testing Addressed by U.S. Supreme Court695
          • [B][2][d] : California Cases696
          • [B][2][e] : California and Ninth Circuit Decisions Regarding the Constitutionality of Drug Tests697
        • [B][3] : Civil Rights Statutes698
        • [B][4] : Potential Liability Under Common-Law Tort698
          • [B][4][a] : Defamation and Invasion of Privacy699
          • [B][4][b] : Negligent Hiring and/or Retention of Employees699
          • [B][4][c] : False Imprisonment700
          • [B][4][d] : False Arrest700
    • § 8:4.3 : Consider Adopting a Strong Drug or Alcohol Policy Before Requiring Testing700
      • [A] : Any Drug and Alcohol Policy Should Be Communicated in Writing701
      • [B] : Considering a Rehabilitative Option701
      • [C] : A Supervisor’s Role Should Be Determined and Communicated702
      • [D] : Consider Other Preventive Measures and Investigative Techniques704
      • [E] : Consider Negative Implications Before Adopting a Drug-Testing Program705
    • § 8:4.4 : Developing a Drug-Testing Policy706
    • § 8:4.5 : Implementing Drug-Testing Policies709
  • § 8:5 : Investigations and Testing on Prospective and Current Employees709
    • § 8:5.1 : Conducting Background Investigations on Prospective and Current Employees Through a Consumer Reporting Agency709
      • [A] : Initial Issues to Address Before Conducting Background Investigations712
        • [A][1] : Determining the Applicants on Whom to Perform Background Checks712
        • [A][2] : Information to Be Obtained from Background Checks713
        • [A][3] : Who Should Perform Background Checks713
        • [A][4] : Information Employers Should Obtain from Applicants to Perform Background Checks714
      • [B] : The Fair Credit Reporting Act and Its Amendments714
        • [B][1] : What Is a “Consumer Report”?715
        • [B][2] : What Is a CRA?715
        • [B][3] : Inquiries Should Be Job-Related715
        • [B][4] : Obsolete Information715
        • [B][5] : Penalties for Noncompliance716
      • [C] : Supplemental California Laws716
        • [C][1] : California’s Consumer Credit Reporting Agencies Act716
        • [C][2] : California’s Investigative Consumer Reporting Agencies Act716
      • [D] : Supplemental New York Laws717
      • [E] : Summary of Steps an Employer Should Take When Requesting Consumer Reports718
        • [E][1] : Provide Initial Notice and Obtain Written Authorization718
          • [E][1][a] : Additional Initial Disclosure Requirements for Consumer Credit Reports Under the CCRAA718
          • [E][1][b] : Additional Requirements for Investigative Consumer Reports719
        • [E][2] : Provide Certification of Compliance to the CRA720
          • [E][2][a] : Additional Certification That an Employer Should Make to the CRA When Requesting an Investigative Consumer Report721
        • [E][3] : Provide the Consumer with Information721
        • [E][4] : Provide Adverse Action Notice After Adverse Employment Action Has Been Taken721
        • [E][5] : Under the ICRAA, Investigative Information May Be Disclosed in All Cases722
      • [F] : Frequently Asked Questions722
        • [F][1] : If a Computer Database Is Used to Obtain Information, Should the Employer Comply with the FCRA?722
        • [F][2] : Can the Initial Disclosure Include an Authorizing Signature Line?723
        • [F][3] : Do Employers Really Have to Provide the Consumer with the Same Information Twice?723
        • [F][4] : What If the Employer Hires an Intermediary to Compile Information from Several Consumer Reporting Agencies?724
        • [F][5] : How Long Should an Employer Wait Between Giving the Pre-Adverse Action Disclosure and the Adverse Action Notice?724
      • [G] : Practical Applications725
      • [H] : Suggestions for Hiring and Conducting Background Checks726
    • § 8:5.2 : Compiling Background Information Without Utilizing the Services of a CRS and Conducting Internal Investigations726
      • [A] : When an Employer Uses an Outside Entity for an Internal Investigation727
      • [B] : When an Employer Does Not Use an Outside Entity to Compile Investigative Information or Conduct an Investigation728
        • [B][1] : Investigative Consumer Reports That an Employer Compiles in Connection with Its Application Process729
          • [B][1][a] : References729
          • [B][1][b] : Prior Employers729
        • [B][2] : Internal Investigations That an Employer Conducts in Response to an Allegation or Suspicion of Employee Misconduct or Wrongdoing730
          • [B][2][a] : Attorney-Client Privilege/Attorney Work Product730
    • § 8:5.3 : Polygraph Examinations732
      • [A] : In General732
      • [B] : Record Keeping734
      • [C] : Rights of the Examinee735
      • [D] : Practical Guidelines for Polygraph Testing736
    • § 8:5.4 : Honesty Testing736
      • [A] : In General736
      • [B] : Practical Advice for Employers Utilizing Honesty Tests737
    • § 8:5.5 : Tests of Skills and Abilities738
    • § 8:5.6 : Psychological and Psychiatric Testing738
    • § 8:5.7 : Fingerprints and Photographs739
    • § 8:5.8 : Genetic Testing739
Chapter 9: Guarding Trade Secrets
  • § 9:1 : Introduction745
  • § 9:2 : What Is a Trade Secret?746
    • § 9:2.1 : Uniform Trade Secrets Act and the California Definition746
      • [A] : Secrecy749
        • [A][1] : Publicly Known Through Internet Disclosure750
      • [B] : Reasonable Efforts to Preserve Secrecy752
        • [B][1] : Require That Employees (and Third Parties) Who Are Given Access to Trade Secrets Sign Confidentiality Agreements752
        • [B][2] : Alert Employees (and Third Parties) with Access to Trade Secrets Regarding Their Confidential Nature752
        • [B][3] : Limit Access to Only Those Employees (and Third Parties) Who “Need to Know” Trade Secrets to Perform Their Jobs753
        • [B][4] : Avoid Public Disclosure of Trade Secret Information Through Display, Publication, Advertising, Etc.753
      • [C] : Value Derived from Secrecy753
    • § 9:2.2 : Restatement of Torts and the New York Definition754
  • § 9:3 : Keeping Employees from Competing or Working for Competitors upon Their Departure758
    • § 9:3.1 : Background758
    • § 9:3.2 : In Most States, Covenants Not to Compete Will Be Enforced If They Are Necessary to Protect a Legitimate Interest of the Employer760
      • [A] : What Is a “Legitimate Employer Interest”?763
        • [A][1] : Trade Secrets As a “Legitimate Employer Interest”764
        • [A][2] : Customer Lists As a “Legitimate Employer Interest”765
        • [A][3] : Customer Solicitation As a “Legitimate Employer Interest”766
        • [A][4] : An Employee’s Unique Services As a “Legitimate Employer Interest”9766
      • [B] : Reasonableness Standard for Enforcement of Covenants Not to Compete768
      • [C] : Other Factors Affecting the Reasonableness of Covenants Not to Compete770
    • § 9:3.3 : Garden Leave and Notice Provisions771
    • § 9:3.4 : The Employee Choice Doctrine772
    • § 9:3.5 : Under California Law, Employee Covenants Not to Compete upon Termination of Employment Are Void773
      • [A] : The California Rule and Its Application773
        • [A][1] : The Policy Behind the California Rule774
        • [A][2] : Choice-of-Law Provisions Cannot Be Used to Avoid the California Rule775
        • [A][3] : California Courts Will Not Rewrite an Overly Broad Non-Compete Provision to Make It Valid777
      • [B] : California Courts May Enforce Certain Types of Non-Compete Clauses That Limit, But Do Not Prohibit, Competition778
        • [B][1] : Covenants by Employees Not to Use or Disclose Their Employers’ Trade Secrets Are Enforceable in California778
        • [B][2] : Prohibition Against a Limited Subset of Activities779
        • [B][3] : The Trade Secrets Exception780
        • [B][4] : Other Statutory Exceptions Allowing Restraints on Competition782
      • [C] : Enforcement of Non-Solicitation Clauses783
        • [C][1] : What Is “Solicitation”?783
        • [C][2] : Customer Solicitation783
        • [C][3] : Competitor Employee Raiding Absent a Non-Solicitation Clause786
        • [C][4] : Competitor Employee Raiding in Light of a Non-Solicitation Clause787
  • § 9:4 : Preventing Departing Employees from Using or Disclosing Trade Secrets790
    • § 9:4.1 : Background790
    • § 9:4.2 : Sources of Protection for Employers790
      • [A] : Civil Remedies for Trade Secret Misappropriation790
        • [A][1] : Basis for Liability790
        • [A][2] : Available Remedies792
        • [A][3] : Limitations Periods794
        • [A][4] : Risks Associated with Civil Discovery796
      • [B] : The Inevitable Misappropriation Doctrine May Be Used to Prevent “Threatened” Misappropriation of Trade Secrets797
        • [B][1] : New York and Most Other States Have Adopted the Inevitable Misappropriation Doctrine799
        • [B][2] : California Has Rejected the Inevitable Misappropriation Doctrine802
      • [C] : Other Potential Remedies Available to the Employer805
        • [C][1] : Common-Law Duty of Loyalty and Law of Unfair Competition805
        • [C][2] : Tortious Interference with Contractual Relations809
        • [C][3] : Common-Law Misappropriation809
        • [C][4] : Antitrust Law810
      • [D] : Effect of Trade Secret Preemption810
      • [E] : Criminal Statutes813
        • [E][1] : Federal Statutes813
        • [E][2] : California Statutes815
        • [E][3] : New York Statutes817
      • [F] : Racketeer Influenced Corrupt Organizations Act818
  • § 9:5 : Protection of Trade Secrets Abroad819
    • § 9:5.1 : Trade Secrets Under German Law819
      • [A] : The Protection of Trade Secrets Under Labor Law819
        • [A][1] : Secrecy Obligations of Employees820
          • [A][1][a] : Protection of Trade Secrets During Employment820
          • [A][1][b] : Protection of Trade Secrets After Employment821
      • [B] : The Protection of Trade Secrets Under the Act Against Unfair Competition822
      • [C] : The Protection of Trade Secrets Under the German Criminal Code823
      • [D] : Violations of Secrecy Obligations During Employment823
        • [D][1] : Measures of Labor Law824
        • [D][2] : Further Legal Actions825
      • [E] : Violations of Secrecy Obligations After the End of Employment826
      • [F] : Cross-Border Protection of Trade Secrets827
      • [G] : Recommendations827
    • § 9:5.2 : Trade Secrets Under British Law828
      • [A] : Choice of Law828
      • [B] : The Duarte Danger829
      • [C] : Samengo-Turner829
      • [D] : European Safeguards831
      • [E] : Lawful Protections and Public Policy Considerations in the United Kingdom832
        • [E][1] : Implied Duties832
          • [E][1][a] : Fiduciary Duties833
          • [E][1][b] : Duty of Fidelity833
          • [E][1][c] : Duty of Confidentiality834
        • [E][2] : Express Duties836
          • [E][2][a] : Confidentiality836
          • [E][2][b] : Intellectual Property836
          • [E][2][c] : Duty Not to Compete During Employment837
          • [E][2][d] : Post-Termination Restrictive Covenants837
        • [E][3] : Enforceability of Restrictive Covenants837
          • [E][3][a] : Public Policy837
          • [E][3][b] : Reasonableness838
          • [E][3][c] : Legitimate Interests838
            • [E][3][c][i] : Trade Connections or Goodwill838
            • [E][3][c][ii] : Trade Secrets and Confidential Information838
            • [E][3][c][iii] : The Stability of the Workforce, in Terms of Retention of Employees839
          • [E][3][d] : Scope839
            • [E][3][d][i] : Length839
            • [E][3][d][ii] : Area840
            • [E][3][d][iii] : Considerations840
            • [E][3][d][iv] : Group Companies840
            • [E][3][d][v] : Tailoring to Circumstances841
          • [E][3][e] : Severability841
        • [E][4] : Examples of Post-Termination Restrictive Covenants842
          • [E][4][a] : Post-Termination Non-Compete842
          • [E][4][b] : Non-Solicitation of Customers/Clients844
          • [E][4][c] : Non-Dealing with Customers/Clients845
          • [E][4][d] : Non-Poaching and/or Engagement of Employees846
      • [F] : Investigation and Enforcement846
        • [F][1] : Vigilance and Speed846
        • [F][2] : Investigation847
          • [F][2][a] : Disciplinary/Dismissal847
          • [F][2][b] : Gathering Evidence847
          • [F][2][c] : International Data Transfer848
          • [F][2][d] : Computer Forensics849
          • [F][2][e] : Identify the Team849
        • [F][3] : Remedies849
          • [F][3][a] : Injunctions849
          • [F][3][b] : Damages850
          • [F][3][c] : Account of Profits850
          • [F][3][d] : Evidential Orders850
          • [F][3][e] : Actions Against Third Parties851
          • [F][3][f] : Costs and Cross-Undertakings851
      • [G] : Summary851
    • § 9:5.3 : Trade Secret Protection in China852
      • [A] : Definition of Trade Secret and Civil Law Protection856
      • [B] : Administrative Enforcement and Criminal Proceedings860
      • [C] : Trade Secret Protection Under Labor Law and Labor Contract Law861
        • [C][1] : Confidentiality Agreements861
        • [C][2] : Non-Compete Agreements862
        • [C][3] : Non-Solicitation Agreements864
      • [D] : Evidence Collection and Employee Privacy Concerns865
        • [D][1] : “Evidence Preservation”866
        • [D][2] : Employee Privacy; Employee Computer Usage/Email866
      • [E] : Governing Law and Jurisdictional Issues868
      • [F] : Recommendations869
  • § 9:6 : A Primer on Strategy: Before and After an Employee Leaves872
    • § 9:6.1 : Establishing and Maintaining Secrecy872
      • [A] : Confidentiality Agreements873
      • [B] : Non-Compete, Non-Solicitation, and Non-Disclosure Provisions; Severability Clause873
      • [C] : Confidentiality Alerts/Reminders875
      • [D] : Limited Access875
      • [E] : Avoiding Public Disclosure875
    • § 9:6.2 : What to Do When an Employee Leaves876
      • [A] : Exit Interview876
      • [B] : Search of Departing Employee’s Workspace/Computer878
      • [C] : Forensic Analysis of Employee’s Computer879
      • [D] : Follow-Up Letters883
      • [E] : Restrictive Covenants883
      • [F] : Risk Monitoring884
Chapter 10: Reductions in Force
  • § 10:1 : Introduction888
  • § 10:2 : Discrimination and Common-Law Causes of Action889
    • § 10:2.1 : Potential Discrimination Claims889
      • [A] : In General889
      • [B] : Disparate Treatment Theory889
      • [C] : Disparate Impact Theory890
    • § 10:2.2 : Common-Law Claims895
    • § 10:2.3 : Evidentiary Considerations896
      • [A] : Impermissible Statements896
      • [B] : Reorganized Job Responsibilities897
      • [C] : Statistics898
      • [D] : Competence and Performance899
      • [E] : Cost Factor899
      • [F] : “Me Too” Evidence900
    • § 10:2.4 : Potential Liability and Damages901
  • § 10:3 : Alternatives to a Reduction in Force903
    • § 10:3.1 : Voluntary Separation Programs (VSPs)903
      • [A] : Typical Features of VSPs904
        • [A][1] : Severance Benefits904
        • [A][2] : Eligibility904
        • [A][3] : “Window Periods”905
      • [B] : Are Incentives Permissible?905
      • [C] : VSPs and Discrimination907
      • [D] : Voluntariness907
    • § 10:3.2 : Early Retirement Programs (ERPs)909
      • [A] : Legal Considerations910
      • [B] : Age As a Criterion of Plan Eligibility and Benefits910
      • [C] : Voluntariness910
    • § 10:3.3 : Potential ERISA Liability for Misrepresentation of or Failure to Disclose Future Enhanced Retirement Packages or Benefits911
  • § 10:4 : Planning for a Reduction in Force912
    • § 10:4.1 : Establish Corporate Justification for RIF912
    • § 10:4.2 : Practical Considerations for Implementing a Reduction in Force913
      • [A] : Workforce Analysis and Demographics914
      • [B] : Management Training915
      • [C] : Communication with Employees916
      • [D] : Selection of Employees for Retention916
        • [D][1] : Generally916
        • [D][2] : Jobs and Their Relative Value917
        • [D][3] : Evaluation and Relative Ranking of Employees917
          • [D][3][a] : Performance Evaluations Generally917
          • [D][3][b] : Evaluation Criteria919
          • [D][3][c] : Existing Versus New Evaluations920
          • [D][3][d] : Comparative Employee Ranking920
      • [E] : Oversight921
        • [E][1] : Workforce Analysis921
        • [E][2] : Evaluation of Jobs/Employees923
        • [E][3] : Thorough Review of Individual Problems923
        • [E][4] : Exit Interview923
      • [F] : Post-RIF Considerations924
    • § 10:4.3 : Obtaining Releases924
    • § 10:4.4 : Obtaining ADEA Releases927
      • [A] : General Waiver Requirements Under the OWBPA927
      • [B] : “Knowing and Voluntary” Requirement928
      • [C] : Wording of Waiver Agreement928
      • [D] : Specific Referral to Rights or Claims930
      • [E] : Waiver of Future Rights930
      • [F] : Consideration930
      • [G] : Consultation with Attorney931
      • [H] : Time Periods931
        • [H][1] : Time to Consider Agreement931
        • [H][2] : Time to Revoke Release932
      • [I] : Special Informational Requirements for Group Termination “Programs”933
        • [I][1] : Exit Incentive or Other Employment Termination Programs933
        • [I][2] : Organizational Unit Defined935
        • [I][3] : Eligibility Factors938
        • [I][4] : Presentation of Information939
          • [I][4][a] : Categorization of Employees939
          • [I][4][b] : Scope of Disclosure941
      • [J] : Other Requirements Under OWBPA941
        • [J][1] : Waivers Settling Charges or Lawsuits941
        • [J][2] : Burden of Proof942
        • [J][3] : EEOC’s Enforcement Power942
      • [K] : EEOC Regulations on ADEA Waivers942
        • [K][1] : No Ratification of Waiver by Employee’s Retention of Severance Payments943
        • [K][2] : “Tender Back”944
        • [K][3] : Restitution/Set-Off944
        • [K][4] : Covenants Not to Challenge Waiver944
        • [K][5] : Abrogation945
        • [K][6] : Cure of the Defective Release945
        • [K][7] : Invalid Waiver As a Separate Cause of Action947
        • [K][8] : Effect of Invalid Waiver on Timeliness of ADEA Suit948
      • [L] : OWBPA Requirements Not Applied to Non-Age Claims949
      • [M] : Admissibility of Unsigned Agreement in ADEA Action949
  • § 10:5 : Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act950
    • § 10:5.1 : Who Must Give Notice951
    • § 10:5.2 : Mass Layoffs and Plant Closings Under WARN952
      • [A] : Plant Closing Defined952
      • [B] : Mass Layoff Defined952
      • [C] : Reduction in Force Defined953
      • [D] : Single Site of Employment Defined954
      • [E] : Part-Time Employee Defined955
      • [F] : Employment Loss Defined956
      • [G] : Losses Must Be Aggregated960
      • [H] : Temporary or Delayed Layoff961
      • [I] : Temporary Hire Exception962
      • [J] : Strike or Lockout Exception963
    • § 10:5.3 : To Whom Notice Must Be Given and What a Valid Notice Must Include963
      • [A] : To Whom Notice Must Be Given963
      • [B] : What a Valid Notice Must Include963
    • § 10:5.4 : When Less Than Sixty Days’ Notice Can Be Given964
      • [A] : Faltering Company Exception964
      • [B] : Unforeseeable Circumstances Exception965
      • [C] : Act of Nature Exception966
    • § 10:5.5 : WARN and Bankruptcy966
    • § 10:5.6 : Waiver of WARN Claims967
    • § 10:5.7 : Penalties for Violating WARN967
      • [A] : Penalties967
      • [B] : Payments in Lieu of Notice968
    • § 10:5.8 : WARN Class Actions969
    • § 10:5.9 : Right to Jury Trial969
    • § 10:5.10 : California WARN Act970
      • [A] : Labor Code Section 1400 et seq., Applies to More Employers Than WARN Covers970
      • [B] : Labor Code Section 1400 et seq., Appears to Cover Parent Companies971
      • [C] : Absent Extraordinary Circumstances, Covered Employers Must Provide Notice of Layoffs, Relocations or Terminations, or Face Significant Damages and Stiff Penalties971
    • § 10:5.11 : New Jersey WARN Act972
      • [A] : Who Must Give Notice972
      • [B] : Definition of Employment Loss972
      • [C] : To Whom Notice Must Be Given972
      • [D] : What a Valid Notice Must Include973
      • [E] : Penalties973
      • [F] : Establishment of a Response Team974
    • § 10:5.12 : New York WARN Act974
  • § 10:6 : Conclusion979
  • Appendix 10A : Sample Notices of Plant Closure981
  • Appendix 10B : Sample Notices of Mass Layoff983
  • Appendix 10C : Sample Notice to State Dislocated Worker Unit and Local Government985
  • Appendix 10D : Sample Corporate Policy Statement987
  • Appendix 10E : Sample Reorganization Guidelines for Management989
  • Appendix 10F : Sample Schedule of Reorganization Activities991
  • Appendix 10G : Considerations for Conducting Termination Session993
  • Appendix 10H : Sample Presentation of Statistical Information995
  • Appendix 10I : Confidential Oversight Analysis997
Chapter 11: Whistleblowing and Other Retaliation Claims
  • § 11:1 : Introduction1001
  • § 11:2 : An Overview of Retaliation Under the EEO Laws1004
    • § 11:2.1 : The Retaliation Analysis1006
    • § 11:2.2 : The Prima Facie Case1008
      • [A] : Element 1: Protected Activity1008
        • [A][1] : The Opposition Clause1011
          • [A][1][a] : Examples of Protected Opposition Activity1012
          • [A][1][b] : Examples of Unprotected Opposition Activity1016
          • [A][1][c] : Reasonable and Non-Disruptive Requirement1017
            • [A][1][c][i] : Examples of Reasonable and Non-Disruptive Protests1018
            • [A][1][c][ii] : Examples of Unreasonable or Disruptive Protests1019
          • [A][1][d] : Reasonable, Good-Faith Belief Requirement1020
        • [A][2] : The Participation Clause1022
          • [A][2][a] : Participation in Litigation Process1023
            • [A][2][a][i] : Examples of Protected Participation Activity1023
            • [A][2][a][ii] : Examples of Non-Protected Participation Activity1024
            • [A][2][a][iii] : Miscellaneous “Participation Clause” Decisions1025
          • [A][2][b] : Lying During an Investigation1026
      • [B] : Element 2: Adverse Employment Action1027
        • [B][1] : Standard for Evaluating Whether an Employer’s Action Is Retaliatory1029
          • [B][1][a] : Burlington Northern & Santa Fe Railway Co. v. White1029
          • [B][1][b] : Cases Interpreting Burlington1032
        • [B][2] : Retaliation Based on Use of Judicial Process1038
        • [B][3] : Third-Party Retaliation1042
          • [B][3][a] : Retaliation Against “Closely Related” Individuals and Associational Retaliation1042
          • [B][3][b] : Retaliation by Different Entities1045
      • [C] : Element 3: Proof of Causal Connection1046
        • [C][1] : Direct Evidence of Retaliation; the Mixed-Motive Analysis1047
        • [C][2] : Circumstantial Evidence of Retaliation1049
          • [C][2][a] : Proving Causation with Circumstantial Evidence of Retaliation1050
          • [C][2][b] : Temporal Proximity1051
            • [C][2][b][i] : Cases Holding Inference of Causation Exists1052
            • [C][2][b][ii] : Cases Holding Inference of Causation Does Not Exist1053
        • [C][3] : Retaliatory Action Imputable to Employer1055
          • [C][3][a] : “Cat’s Paw” Theory of Liability1055
          • [C][3][b] : Retaliatory Harassment1060
            • [C][3][b][i] : Retaliatory Acts Will Be Imputed to Employer Where Employer Orchestrated Harassment1060
            • [C][3][b][ii] : Retaliatory Acts Will Be Imputed to Employer Where Employer Orchestrated Harassment, Knew About Harassment, or Failed to Stop It1061
        • [C][4] : Prior Criticism of Performance1065
    • § 11:2.3 : Rebutting the Prima Facie Case—Legitimate Business Reasons and the Employer’s Lack of Retaliatory Intent1067
    • § 11:2.4 : Pretext1070
    • § 11:2.5 : U.S. Supreme Court Authority1071
  • § 11:3 : Common-Law Claims and the Beginning of Retaliation Law1074
    • § 11:3.1 : Wrongful Termination in Violation of Public Policy1075
      • [A] : Internal Whistleblowing1077
        • [A][1] : Internal Reports Implicating Public Interest1077
        • [A][2] : Internal Reports of Misconduct That Do Not Inure to Public Benefit1078
        • [A][3] : Other Limits Imposed by the Court1078
      • [B] : External Whistleblowing1079
      • [C] : General Releases Overcome Public Policy Exception1080
    • § 11:3.2 : Breach of Implied Contract1080
      • [A] : New York1080
      • [B] : California1081
      • [C] : Weiner Exception: Employer Handbooks, Manuals, Codes of Conduct1083
      • [D] : Implied Contract and Whistleblowing Policies1085
    • § 11:3.3 : Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies1088
  • § 11:4 : The Whistleblower Protection Act1089
  • § 11:5 : First Amendment Retaliation Claims1091
  • § 11:6 : Title IX Retaliation1103
  • § 11:7 : Sarbanes-Oxley and Whistleblower Law1104
  • § 11:8 : American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 20091105
  • § 11:9 : Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 20101106
    • § 11:9.1 : Whistleblower Incentives and Protections1107
    • § 11:9.2 : New Consumer Financial Whistleblower Protections1107
  • Appendix 11A : EEOC Checklist of Relevant Questions for Investigating Complaints of Retaliation1109
  • Appendix 11B : Federal Whistleblower Statutes1111
  • Appendix 11C : State Whistleblower Statutes1125
Chapter 12: Employee Blogging and Social Media
  • § 12:1 : Introduction1204
  • § 12:2 : Concerns with Employee Blogging and Social Networking1205
    • § 12:2.1 : Generally1205
    • § 12:2.2 : Cyber-Bullying1206
  • § 12:3 : Sources of Protection for Bloggers1209
    • § 12:3.1 : National Labor Relations Act1209
      • [A] : Scope of Protected “Concerted Activity”1209
      • [B] : Scope of Protected Social Media Communications1210
      • [C] : Recent NLRB Rulings1210
    • § 12:3.2 : Whistleblower and Retaliation Laws1218
    • § 12:3.3 : First Amendment Retaliation1218
    • § 12:3.4 : Discrimination Laws1219
    • § 12:3.5 : State Privacy Protection and Off-Duty Conduct Laws1220
      • [A] : New York Labor Law1220
        • [A][1] : The Definition of “Recreational Activities”1221
        • [A][2] : Limits on the Scope of “Recreation”1222
      • [B] : California Labor Law1222
        • [B][1] : The Scope of “Lawful Conduct” Under Section 96(k)1223
        • [B][2] : The Scope of Privacy Rights Under California Law1225
  • § 12:4 : Employer Liability in the Context of Blogging and Social Networking1227
    • § 12:4.1 : Unauthorized Access to Employees’ Blogs and Social Media Posts1227
    • § 12:4.2 : Social Media and EEO Allegations1228
    • § 12:4.3 : Social Media and Liability for Hiring Decisions1229
    • § 12:4.4 : Federal Trade Commission Issues1231
  • § 12:5 : Is Online Information Public or Private?1232
  • § 12:6 : Facebook and Other Social Media in Litigation1236
  • § 12:7 : Who Does Social Media Content Belong To?1237
  • § 12:8 : Practice Pointers1239
Chapter 13: Family, Medical, and Military Leave: Recent Developments Under the FMLA and USERRA
  • § 13:1 : Introduction1243
  • § 13:2 : FMLA and Interpreting Regulations1245
    • § 13:2.1 : Basic Requirements1245
      • [A] : “Covered Employer”1245
        • [A][1] : Applicable Regulations1245
        • [A][2] : Selected Cases1246
      • [B] : “Successor in Interest”1247
        • [B][1] : Applicable Regulations1247
        • [B][2] : Selected Cases1248
      • [C] : “Eligible Employee”1249
        • [C][1] : Applicable Regulations1249
        • [C][2] : Selected Cases1250
      • [D] : Reasons for Leave1252
        • [D][1] : Applicable Regulations1252
        • [D][2] : Selected Cases1254
      • [E] : Amount of Leave Entitlement1255
        • [E][1] : Applicable Regulations1255
        • [E][2] : Selected Cases1256
      • [F] : Serious Health Condition1257
        • [F][1] : Applicable Regulations1257
        • [F][2] : Selected Cases1258
    • § 13:2.2 : Employee’s Obligation to Provide Notice of Need for Leave1259
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations1259
      • [B] : Selected Cases1260
    • § 13:2.3 : Employer’s Obligation to Designate Leave and to Provide Notice of Rights1263
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations1263
      • [B] : Selected Cases1265
    • § 13:2.4 : Healthcare Provider’s Certification1266
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations1266
      • [B] : Selected Cases1269
    • § 13:2.5 : Substitution of Paid Leave1271
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations1271
      • [B] : Selected Cases1272
    • § 13:2.6 : Continuation of Health Insurance1273
    • § 13:2.7 : Intermittent and Reduced Leave Schedules Under the FMLA1274
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations1274
      • [B] : Selected Cases1275
    • § 13:2.8 : Right to Reinstatement1275
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations1275
      • [B] : Selected Cases1277
    • § 13:2.9 : Prohibition of Interference, Discrimination, or Retaliation1279
      • [A] : Applicable Regulations1279
      • [B] : Selected Cases: Discrimination and Retaliation1280
      • [C] : Selected Cases: Interference1285
    • § 13:2.10 : Eleventh Amendment Sovereign Immunity1288
    • § 13:2.11 : Statute of Limitations1290
      • [A] : Applicable Statute1290
      • [B] : Selected Cases1290
    • § 13:2.12 : Personal Liability1291
    • § 13:2.13 : Relief Available Under the FMLA1292
      • [A] : Applicable Regulation1292
      • [B] : Selected Cases1293
    • § 13:2.14 : Waiver of Rights Under the FMLA1295
      • [A] : Applicable Regulation1295
      • [B] : Selected Cases1295
    • § 13:2.15 : Miscellaneous Issues1297
      • [A] : Arbitration of FMLA Claims1297
      • [B] : FMLA Preemption1297
      • [C] : Bankruptcy Estoppel1297
      • [D] : Exacerbation Claims Under the FMLA1298
  • § 13:3 : Military Leave1299
    • § 13:3.1 : Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 19941299
      • [A] : Important Concepts Under USERRA1300
      • [B] : Reemployment Rights1301
        • [B][1] : Employee’s Responsibility to Provide Documentation of Service1302
        • [B][2] : Returning Employees’ Employment Rights1302
        • [B][3] : Disabled Employees’ Rights Under USERRA1303
        • [B][4] : Selected Cases1303
      • [C] : Changed Circumstances1305
      • [D] : Compensation and Benefits1306
        • [D][1] : Important Concepts1306
        • [D][2] : Selected Cases1307
      • [E] : Prohibition on Discrimination and Acts of Reprisal1308
        • [E][1] : Important Concepts1308
        • [E][2] : Selected Cases1308
      • [F] : Release of USERRA Claims1310
      • [G] : Arbitration of USERRA Claims1311
      • [H] : Eleventh Amendment Sovereign Immunity and State Law Preemption—Selected Cases1311
Chapter 14: Arbitration
  • § 14:1 : Introduction1314
  • § 14:2 : Class Action Arbitration and Waivers1315
    • § 14:2.1 : Whether Arbitration of Class Claims Is Permissible1315
    • § 14:2.2 : The Enforceability of Class Action Waivers1320
    • § 14:2.3 : Whether Federal Statutory and State Law Employment Claims Are Arbitrable1325
      • [A] : Title VII1325
      • [B] : Age Discrimination in Employment Act and the Waiver Restrictions of the Older Workers Benefit Protection Act1327
      • [C] : Fair Labor Standards Act1328
      • [D] : Sarbanes-Oxley1329
      • [E] : USERRA Claims1331
      • [F] : State Law Claims1332
  • § 14:3 : Whether an Arbitration Agreement Will Be Given Full Effect If It Does Not Provide All Available Statutory Remedies1334
    • § 14:3.1 : Background1334
    • § 14:3.2 : Punitive Damages1334
    • § 14:3.3 : Attorney Fees1337
    • § 14:3.4 : Equitable Relief1338
  • § 14:4 : Enforceability of Arbitration Agreements1338
    • § 14:4.1 : Whether Arbitration Agreements in Employment Documents, Contracts, Partnership Agreements, and Employee Handbooks Are Enforceable1338
    • § 14:4.2 : Whether the Agreement to Arbitrate Must Be Knowing and Voluntary1341
    • § 14:4.3 : Whether an Agreement to Arbitrate Is an Unconscionable Contract of Adhesion1343
      • [A] : Procedural Unconscionability1345
      • [B] : Substantive Unconscionability1347
    • § 14:4.4 : Whether the Employer Must Pay All Arbitration Costs1349
    • § 14:4.5 : Whether Arbitration Agreements Are Enforceable by Third Parties1351
  • § 14:5 : EEOC Litigation on Behalf of Employee Subject to an Agreement to Arbitrate1353
  • § 14:6 : Questions of Arbitrability: Who Decides?1355
  • § 14:7 : The Scope of Judicial Review of Arbitration Awards1361
    • § 14:7.1 : Limited Grounds for Vacating an Arbitration Award1361
    • § 14:7.2 : “Manifest Disregard of the Law”1362
    • § 14:7.3 : Other Grounds for Judicial Review1364
  • § 14:8 : Whether the Right to Compel Arbitration Can Be Waived1368
  • § 14:9 : Arbitration and Approval of Class Action Settlements1369
  • § 14:10 : Conclusion1375
  Table of Cases
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